Special Issue "Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology"

A special issue of Dentistry Journal (ISSN 2304-6767). This special issue belongs to the section "Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Andrea Scribante

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry – Section of Dentistry - Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences – University of Pavia – Italy
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Interests: orthodontics; adhesive dentistry; dental materials
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mona A. Montasser

Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
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Interests: orthodontics; esthetic dentistry; biomechanics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The primary function of human dentition is efficient chewing. Healthy teeth enable correct food consumption. The first step in the stairway leading to oral health is dental hygiene and oral disease prevention. Several preventive strategies for dental and periodontal diseases are available. These include, oral hygiene motivation, plaque removal, diet modification and the use of fluorides and tooth sealants.

Oral hygiene is very crucial for all disciplines of dentistry; good oral hygiene is important for prosthodontic patients, surgical patients, pediatric patients, restorative patients, and orthodontic patients. Additionally, aesthetic aspect is closely related to dental hygienist work, and this is confirmed from the increasing request for whitening treatments.

Oral Epidemiology allows the analysis of the causes and effects of oral disease conditions by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiology research could help clinicians in the understanding of disease causation, investigation and surveillance. Moreover, screening, forensic, occupational, and biomonitoring aspects are regarded.

Moreover, the introduction of new technologies and techniques open new fields of research in the field of dental hygiene, both in vitro and in vivo.

On the basis of these considerations, Dentistry is preparing Special Issue focused on “Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology”. We invite investigators and researchers to contribute with original research articles, clinical studies, case reports, reviews, and meta-analyses that would help to understand the background of oral hygiene related diseases, their interactions with other disciplines, and the development of new strategies to improve clinical success.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following research areas:

  • Periodontal disease
  • Plaque composition
  • Plaque removal
  • Prevention
  • Teaching
  • Diet supplementation
  • Brushing techniques
  • Laser-assisted treatments
  • Fluoride
  • Sealants
  • Oral hygiene control in prosthodontic patients
  • Oral hygiene control in surgical patients
  • Oral hygiene control in pediatric patients
  • Oral hygiene control in restorative patients
  • Oral hygiene control in orthodontic patients
  • Whitening systems

Prof. Dr. Andrea Scribante
Prof. Dr. Mona A. Montasser
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Dentistry Journal is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dentistry
  • oral hygiene
  • epidemiology
  • prophylaxis and treatment

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Early Life Professional and Layperson Support Reduce Poor Oral Hygiene Habits in Toddlers—A Prospective Birth Cohort Study
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040056
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 8 October 2018
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Abstract
Oral health behaviours of children are formulated from a very young age. Formation of those behaviours among very young children is dependent on their mothers/caregivers who may themselves require support from the health profession or laypersons. The study aimed to investigate if early
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Oral health behaviours of children are formulated from a very young age. Formation of those behaviours among very young children is dependent on their mothers/caregivers who may themselves require support from the health profession or laypersons. The study aimed to investigate if early life visits for check-up and dental advice and perceived support improved oral health behaviours as practiced by mothers of toddlers aged 24–30 months old. Data from a population-base birth cohort study in South Australia was used. The study recruited and followed mothers of newborn children from birth to age 24–30 months. Parental questionnaires collected information about socioeconomic factors, dental visiting patterns, and oral health behaviours as practiced by the mothers for their child. Self-reported putting a child to bed with a bottle and brushing a child’s teeth were the outcome variables. The two main exposures of this study were (1) early visiting for a dental advice, and (2) layperson support that a mother received in the first two years of having the child. Data were analysed progressively from bivariate to multivariable regression models. A total of 1183 mother/child dyads had complete data. The retained sample was representative of the population. Approximately 36% of mothers put their child to bed with a bottle and 26% of mothers did not brush their child’s teeth the night before. Around 29% of children had a visit for dental check-up and 80% of mothers reported having lay support. There were gradients in the outcome variables by socioeconomic factors and the main exposures. Multivariable regression models reported that having no dental visit for advice and having no lay support were associated with 1.30 and 1.21 imes higher rates of putting a child to bed with a bottle, respectively. Having no dental visit for advice was associated with a 1.37-times higher rate of not brushing a child’s teeth, controlling for other factors. This population-based birth cohort study confirmed importance of early life dental visit for check-up and support for mothers of young children in establishing oral health behaviours of young children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Administration on Dental Sensitivity during In-Office and At-Home Interventions
Dent. J. 2018, 6(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6040052
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
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Abstract
Background. Tooth bleaching is the most frequently employed whitening procedure in clinics. The major side effect of tooth bleaching is dental sensitivity during and after the treatment. Here, we evaluated whether the administration of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), during in-office and at-home procedures
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Background. Tooth bleaching is the most frequently employed whitening procedure in clinics. The major side effect of tooth bleaching is dental sensitivity during and after the treatment. Here, we evaluated whether the administration of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), during in-office and at-home procedures may impact on dental sensitivity. Methods. Eighty patients, responding to the study requirements were enrolled according to the following criteria. Group 1 (n = 40), received in-office, 10% ACP prior to 30% professional hydrogen peroxide application. The whitening procedure continued at home using 10% carbamide peroxide with 15% ACP for 15 days. Group 2 (n = 40) received only 30% hydrogen peroxide application and continued the whitening procedures at home, using 10% carbamide hydroxide, without ACP- Casein phosphopeptides (CPP), for 15 days. Dental sensitivity was recorded with a visual analogue scale (VAS) at baseline, immediately after, and at 15 days after treatment in the two groups. Results. We observed that patients receiving ACP in the bleaching mixture experienced decreased dental sensitivity (* p ≤ 0.05), as detected by VAS scale analysis immediately following the procedures. Patients receiving ACP-CPP during at-home procedures showed a statistically significant (*** p ≤ 0.0001) reduction of dental sensitivity. Conclusions. We demonstrated that ACP-CPP administration, while exerting the same whitening effects as in control subjects receiving potassium fluoride (PF), had an impact on the reduction of dental sensitivity, improving patient compliance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle Enamel Roughness Changes after Removal of Orthodontic Adhesive
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030039
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate enamel roughness, quality of the enamel surfaces and time duration comparing different orthodontic adhesive removal protocols. Premolars were used to test three adhesive removal methods (n = 20): five-blade carbide bur, 30-blade carbide bur,
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The aim of this study was to evaluate enamel roughness, quality of the enamel surfaces and time duration comparing different orthodontic adhesive removal protocols. Premolars were used to test three adhesive removal methods (n = 20): five-blade carbide bur, 30-blade carbide bur, and ultrasonic diamond bur. Bracket was bonded using TransbondTM XT adhesive. Roughness with different parameters was measured before bracket bonding and after adhesive remnants removal. Micromorphological analysis of enamel surface (n = 5) was performed by SEM images and categorized in enamel damage index—“perfect”; “satisfying”; “imperfect”; and “unacceptable”. Time was measured in seconds. All removal methods caused increased roughness in relation to Ra, Rq, and Rz parameters (X axis) comparing to healthy enamel surface. Enamel surface resulted from removal using five-blade burs was scored as satisfactory. Carbide bur groups decreased the roughness values of Ra, Rq, and Rz parameters on the Y axis and enamel surface was considered unacceptable. The 30-blade group increased symmetry (Rsk) and flattening (Rku) parameters of roughness and surface was scored as unsatisfactory. Diamond bur removed adhesive in 54.8 s, faster than five-blade carbide bur. The five-blade bur group resulted in less enamel roughness than the 30-blade and diamond groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle Survey on Nursing Home Caregivers’ Basic Knowledge of Oral Health Management: Dental Terminology
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030028
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
With the increasing numbers of the elderly requiring care in Japan, the management of their oral health care will require cooperation between medical and dental professionals, and we need to transfer dental knowledge from dental professionals to caregivers. With the help of a
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With the increasing numbers of the elderly requiring care in Japan, the management of their oral health care will require cooperation between medical and dental professionals, and we need to transfer dental knowledge from dental professionals to caregivers. With the help of a questionnaire, we examined 181 caregivers’ depth of understanding regarding 20 typical dental terms with a view to improving the educational instruction provided to them. It was found that except for “clasp”, popular dental terms have largely been accepted. The differences in their degrees of understanding could be owing to the lack of systematic education for caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle An In Vitro Study on the Effect of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Fluoride Solutions on Color Improvement of White Spot Lesions
Dent. J. 2018, 6(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6030024
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
The ability of remineralizing agents to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSL) is an important aspect that should be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.05% amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride
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The ability of remineralizing agents to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSL) is an important aspect that should be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.05% amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions, as well as artificial saliva on the color improvement of white spot lesions (WSLs). In this in vitro study, 50 human premolar teeth were randomly classified into five groups. At baseline, all the samples were assessed by using a colorimeter (E0). Then, white spot lesions were induced on the surface of the teeth by means of a pH-cycling model, and the colorimeter was used again (E1). Afterwards, samples of the 1st and 2nd groups were kept in 0.05% ACP and 0.5% ACP solutions for 1 min/day, respectively. The 3rd group specimens were placed in 0.05% fluoride solution for 1 min/day. The other two groups were kept in artificial saliva and distilled in water separately. All the samples were assessed by the colorimeter for a third time (E2). We found no significant difference between the groups in ∆E1. There was also no significant difference among 0.05% ACP solution, 0.5% ACP solution, 0.05% fluoride solution, and artificial saliva considering ∆E2. However, a significant difference was noted between the above-mentioned solutions and distilled water in ∆E2. With respect to ∆E3, there were considerable differences between ACP solution and artificial saliva. The same results were obtained for the difference between fluoride solution and artificial saliva. However, no significant difference was found among 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions in terms of ∆E3. In Conclusion, ACP is as effective as fluoride in the color improvement of WSLs and the recommended treatment for this purpose is daily use of 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP or 0.05% fluoride solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle Effect of NonSurgical Periodontal Therapy on Plasma Levels of IL-17 in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with Well Controlled Type-II Diabetes Mellitus—A Clinical Study
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020019
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
For years the pathogenesis of periodontitis was under an immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm. Th1 cells are considered to afford protection against the intracellular pathogens. These cells produce the interferons (IFN) that are involved in macrophage activation, which, in turn, plays an important role in
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For years the pathogenesis of periodontitis was under an immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm. Th1 cells are considered to afford protection against the intracellular pathogens. These cells produce the interferons (IFN) that are involved in macrophage activation, which, in turn, plays an important role in phagocytosis, complement fixation, and opsonization. Th2 cells are thought to have evolved as a form of protection against parasitic helminthes. Th17 subset of CD4Not Necessary+ T cells was identified in the year 2005, which added greater complexity to Th function and are pro inflammatory in nature. Interleukins (ILs) have the ability to alter immunological changes and they also possess the ability to regulate lymphocyte differentiation and haemopoietic stem cells, cell proliferation, and motility, which are classified as pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. There are numerous studies that reported IL-17 levels associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) development. Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a risk factor for the development of periodontal diseases because the incidence, progression, and severity of periodontal diseases are more common with Type II DM than without DM. This study was aimed at evaluating whether non-surgical periodontal therapy had any effect on plasma concentrations of Interleukin-17 in systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients and in chronic periodontitis patients with well controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus. Patients were divided into the two groups including the chronic periodontitis group (20 subjects) and the chronic periodontitis with well-controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus group (20 subjects). The Gingival Index and Plaque Index as well as the clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were taken from all the patients of two groups after evaluating fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, and the Glycated Hemoglobin Level (HbA1c). Then 5 mL blood samples were collected from each patient and plasma was separated and the IL-17 level is evaluated using the ELISA method. Then, as part of phase I periodontal therapy, scaling and root planning was performed. Patients were recalled after one month and clinical and biochemical parameters were reevaluated. Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in a reduction of plasma levels of IL-17 in chronic periodontitis patients with and without well controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle Laboratory Investigation Comparing Plaque Removal Efficacy of Two Novel-Design Toothbrushes with Different Brushing Techniques
Dent. J. 2018, 6(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj6020008
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
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Abstract
Manufacturers of manual toothbrushes have improved novel brush head designs aimed at achieving good plaque removal even with inadequate brushing technique. This study tested the plaque removal efficacy of two novel designs compared with a flat trimmed toothbrush with different brushing techniques. Two
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Manufacturers of manual toothbrushes have improved novel brush head designs aimed at achieving good plaque removal even with inadequate brushing technique. This study tested the plaque removal efficacy of two novel designs compared with a flat trimmed toothbrush with different brushing techniques. Two novel-design toothbrushes (Colgate® 360° Surround and Oral-B® Pro-Health™ Clinical Pro-Flex) were tested. The control toothbrush was Butler® GUM 311. Artificial plaque was applied on artificial teeth. Brushing with the modified Bass and horizontal scrub technique was then performed independently. After brushing, the remaining plaque index and Proximal Marginal Index (PMI) were evaluated. With the same brushing technique, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean of the whole mouth plaque scores or PMI among the three different toothbrush designs with neither brushing techniques (p > 0.05). When a comparison was made between the mean PMI of the two brushing techniques in each toothbrush design, Colgate® showed no statistically significant difference with either brushing technique (p > 0.05), but Butler® and Oral-B® showed statistically significantly less PMI with modified Bass technique than with horizontal scrub technique (p < 0.05). No difference in the whole mouth plaque removal efficacy was found among the three different toothbrush designs with either brushing technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology)
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