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Inorganics, Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Gol-thiosemicarbazone compounds have powerful cytotoxicity and selectivity against Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. Its high power is because the gold center helps the thiosemicarbazone molecules to generate toxic ROS to attack the parasites and cause their death by oxidative stress. View this paper
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11 pages, 1189 KiB  
Article
Functional Characteristics of Antioxidant Long-Life Ultra-Fine Bubble Hydrogen Water
by Chikashi Kamimura, Riichiro Ohba, Masaru Yamaguchi, Masato Hosoda and Ikuo Kashiwakura
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050141 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 489
Abstract
Free radicals, including reactive oxygen species resulting from oxidative stress, are one of the major causes of biological disorders and are known to be closely related to the onset of lifestyle-related diseases such as aging, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, and their complications. Hydroxyl radicals, [...] Read more.
Free radicals, including reactive oxygen species resulting from oxidative stress, are one of the major causes of biological disorders and are known to be closely related to the onset of lifestyle-related diseases such as aging, atherosclerosis, and diabetes, and their complications. Hydroxyl radicals, the most reactive and cytotoxic of reactive oxygen species, are selectively reduced by hydrogen. We have developed a method to produce more stable hydrogen water by dispersing hydrogen in water using ultra-fine bubbles (UFBs) with a bubble diameter of less than 1 μm. The present study reported on the functional characteristics of antioxidant long-life UFB hydrogen water. UFB hydrogen water with excellent storage stability is expected to have a variety of potential medical applications, including radiation damage reduction. Full article
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13 pages, 3882 KiB  
Article
Silver(I) and Copper(I) Complexes of Dicarboxylic Acid Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Studies
by Katharina Hankel née Reinhold, Fabian Burzlaff, Björn B. Beele and Fabian Mohr
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050140 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 552
Abstract
A family of silver(I) and copper(I) complexes containing carboxylate ligands were prepared from the corresponding carboxylic acids and Ag2O. The compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. In the solid state, the silver(I) salts are coordination polymers based [...] Read more.
A family of silver(I) and copper(I) complexes containing carboxylate ligands were prepared from the corresponding carboxylic acids and Ag2O. The compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction. In the solid state, the silver(I) salts are coordination polymers based on dinuclear silver species with bridging carboxylate ligands. The reaction of these silver salts with Ph3P gives four-coordinate, tetrahedral bis(phosphine) complexes. Analogous copper(I) bis(phosphine) compounds were prepared by the reduction of copper(II) carboxylates with Ph3P. Decomposition temperatures and thermal decomposition products were studied by TGA/DSC measurements. The metal compounds decomposed cleanly to their respective metals (silver or copper) at temperatures ranging from 206 to 338 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coordination Chemistry)
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19 pages, 6540 KiB  
Article
Supramolecular Assemblies in Mn(II) and Zn(II) Metal–Organic Compounds Involving Phenanthroline and Benzoate: Experimental and Theoretical Studies
by Mridul Boro, Subham Banik, Rosa M. Gomila, Antonio Frontera, Miquel Barcelo-Oliver and Manjit K. Bhattacharyya
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050139 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Two new Mn(II) and Zn(II) metal–organic compounds of 1,10-phenanthroline and methyl benzoates viz. [Mn(phen)2Cl2]2-ClBzH (1) and [Zn(4-MeBz)2(2-AmPy)2] (2) (where 4-MeBz = 4-methylbenzoate, 2-AmPy = 2-aminopyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, 2-ClBzH = [...] Read more.
Two new Mn(II) and Zn(II) metal–organic compounds of 1,10-phenanthroline and methyl benzoates viz. [Mn(phen)2Cl2]2-ClBzH (1) and [Zn(4-MeBz)2(2-AmPy)2] (2) (where 4-MeBz = 4-methylbenzoate, 2-AmPy = 2-aminopyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, 2-ClBzH = 2-chlorobenzoic acid) were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, TGA, spectroscopic (FTIR, electronic) and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The crystal structure analysis of the compounds revealed the presence of various non-covalent interactions, which provides stability to the crystal structures. The crystal structure analysis of compound 1 revealed the formation of a supramolecular dimer of 2-ClBzH enclathrate within the hexameric host cavity formed by the neighboring monomeric units. Compound 2 is a mononuclear compound of Zn(II) where flexible binding topologies of 4-CH3Bz are observed with the metal center. Moreover, various non-covalent interactions, such as lp(O)-π, lp(Cl)-π, C–H∙∙∙Cl, π-stacking interactions as well as N–H∙∙∙O, C–H∙∙∙O and C–H∙∙∙π hydrogen bonding interactions, are found to be involved in plateauing the molecular self-association of the compounds. The remarkable enclathration of the H-bonded 2-ClBzH dimer into a supramolecular cavity formed by two [Mn(phen)2Cl2] complexes were further studied theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the non-covalent interaction (NCI) plot index and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) computational tools. Synergistic effects were also analyzed using molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Organometallic Chemistry 2024)
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17 pages, 3676 KiB  
Article
Coordination Compounds of Nickel(II) with 3,5–Dibromo–Salicylaldehyde: Structure and Interaction with Biomolecules
by Georgios I. Psarras, Ariadni Zianna, Antonios G. Hatzidimitriou and George Psomas
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050138 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Three neutral nickel(II) complexes of 3,5–dibromo–salicylaldehyde (3,5–diBr–saloH) were synthesized in the presence or absence of 1,10–phenanthroline (phen) or its derivative 2,9–dimethyl–1,10–phenanthroline (neoc) as co–ligands, namely [Ni(3,5–diBr–salo)2(neoc)] (complex 1), [Ni(3,5–diBr–salo)2(phen)] (complex 2) and [Ni(3,5–diBr–salo)2(H2O) [...] Read more.
Three neutral nickel(II) complexes of 3,5–dibromo–salicylaldehyde (3,5–diBr–saloH) were synthesized in the presence or absence of 1,10–phenanthroline (phen) or its derivative 2,9–dimethyl–1,10–phenanthroline (neoc) as co–ligands, namely [Ni(3,5–diBr–salo)2(neoc)] (complex 1), [Ni(3,5–diBr–salo)2(phen)] (complex 2) and [Ni(3,5–diBr–salo)2(H2O)2] (complex 3), and were characterized by various techniques. The crystal structure of [Ni(3,5–diBr–salo)2(neoc)] was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. According to employed studying techniques, the complexes interact tightly with calf-thymus DNA by an intercalative fashion. Furthermore, compounds 1–3 bind tightly and reversibly to human and bovine serum albumin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Based Compounds: Relevance for the Biomedical Field)
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12 pages, 8795 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Ferric Chloride in Yeast Growth Media, by Sugars and Aluminum
by Kęstutis Mažeika, Vytautas Melvydas and Dovilė Čepukoit
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050137 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Iron compounds can be used in antimicrobial applications by exploiting the toxicity of divalent iron to living organisms due to the Fenton reaction. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of ferrous sulfate FeSO4·7H2O and ferric chloride FeCl3 [...] Read more.
Iron compounds can be used in antimicrobial applications by exploiting the toxicity of divalent iron to living organisms due to the Fenton reaction. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of ferrous sulfate FeSO4·7H2O and ferric chloride FeCl3·6H2O were observed on Metschnikowia clade and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. The relatively high amount of reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+ in the growth medium determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of ferric chloride. In order to test the reducing ability of sugars in the growth media of yeasts, the reaction of ferric chloride FeCl3·6H2O with sugars was investigated. In mixtures of FeCl3·6H2O and fructose, approximately two thirds of Fe3+ can be reduced to Fe2+. When the mixture of FeCl3·6H2O and fructose is placed on the surface of aluminum foil, an iron film is formed on the surface of the aluminum due to the reduction by both fructose and aluminum. The relative amount of Fe3+ which was reduced to Fe0 reached 68%. Full article
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12 pages, 2980 KiB  
Article
Highly Biocompatible Hemoglobin-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles for an Enhanced Catalytic Reduction of 4-Nitrophenol
by Yanshuai Cui, Shukai Li, Ning Yu, Xiaodong Yu, Xianbing Ji and Longgang Wang
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050136 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
4-nitrophenol (4-NP) is a frequently encountered toxic phenolic organic pollutant in water. It is important to develop a simple method to treat 4-NP. Small and monodispersed gold nanoparticles often have good catalytic performance of 4-NP. Hemoglobin (Hb) is a kind of common and [...] Read more.
4-nitrophenol (4-NP) is a frequently encountered toxic phenolic organic pollutant in water. It is important to develop a simple method to treat 4-NP. Small and monodispersed gold nanoparticles often have good catalytic performance of 4-NP. Hemoglobin (Hb) is a kind of common and important protein in organisms. Herein, highly biocompatible bovine hemoglobin-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Aun-Hb NPs) were synthesized using hemoglobin as a biological template. Then, the size, zeta potential, and composition of Aun-Hb NPs were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Aun-Hb NPs with small gold nanoparticles of about 1.4–2.4 nm had good catalytic capabilities in reducing 4-NP to form 4-aminophenol. Au20-Hb NPs demonstrated superior catalytic efficiency in the reduction of 4-NP when compared to other nanoparticles. Moreover, as-synthesized Au20-Hb NPs exhibited excellent biocompatibility through the MTT experiment. The method of preparation of gold nanoparticles offers one way to prepare metal nanoparticles for good potential catalytic applications of gold nanoparticles. Full article
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13 pages, 2929 KiB  
Article
Elucidating the Structural Features of Bis(arylimino)acenaphthene (Aryl-BIAN) Bismuth Complexes: A Combined Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction and Hirshfeld Analysis Approach
by Beatriz P. Machado, Maria Celador-Garcia, Vitor Rosa and Clara S. B. Gomes
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050135 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 745
Abstract
Dimeric bismuth(III) complexes bearing bis(aryl-imino)acenaphthene (Aryl-BIAN) donor ligands of the general formulae [(Dipp-BIAN)BiCl3]2 2, [(o-iPr-BIAN)BiCl3]2 3, and [(p-iPr-BIAN)BiCl3]2 4, where [...] Read more.
Dimeric bismuth(III) complexes bearing bis(aryl-imino)acenaphthene (Aryl-BIAN) donor ligands of the general formulae [(Dipp-BIAN)BiCl3]2 2, [(o-iPr-BIAN)BiCl3]2 3, and [(p-iPr-BIAN)BiCl3]2 4, where Dipp = diisopropyl, o-iPr = ortho-isopropyl and p-iPr = para-isopropyl, were prepared by reaction of the corresponding neutral BIAN ligand with BiCl3, under inert atmosphere conditions. X-ray studies were performed, and their molecular structures were determined. The individual contributions of intermolecular interactions to crystal packing have been quantified by means of Hirsfeld surface analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Coordination Chemistry)
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16 pages, 12496 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Surface Properties of TiO2-Based Coatings via Stevia-Assisted Spark Suppression: Insights from Density Functional Theory Calculations
by Mosab Kaseem, Ananda Repycha Safira and Arash Fattah-alhosseini
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050134 - 3 May 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 891
Abstract
This study investigates the enhancement of surface properties in TiO2-based coatings on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy through micro-arc oxidation (MAO), employing stevia sugar as a novel additive. By incorporating stevia sugar into acetate–glycerophosphate–tetraethoxysilane solutions used in MAO treatment, the porous morphology of [...] Read more.
This study investigates the enhancement of surface properties in TiO2-based coatings on the Ti-6Al-4V alloy through micro-arc oxidation (MAO), employing stevia sugar as a novel additive. By incorporating stevia sugar into acetate–glycerophosphate–tetraethoxysilane solutions used in MAO treatment, the porous morphology of TiO2-based oxide layers is regulated. The incorporation of stevia moderates plasma discharge intensity, facilitating the formation of a uniform silicon-rich structure characterized by reduced porosity and pore size. This effect is attributed to the interaction between stevia and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), which modifies the TEOS hydrolysis process, thereby enhancing structural uniformity and stability while concurrently reducing plasma discharge intensity. Additionally, theoretical calculations offer a valuable understanding of the reactivity and interactions of stevia, TEOS, and their complex during the MAO process, laying the groundwork for further research and optimization in this promising field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inorganic Materials)
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17 pages, 3146 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Action of Gold(I) Compounds: A Theoretical and Experimental Approach
by Javiera Órdenes-Rojas, Paola Risco, José Ortega-Campos, Germán Barriga-González, Ana Liempi, Ulrike Kemmerling, Dinorah Gambino, Lucía Otero, Claudio Olea Azar and Esteban Rodríguez-Arce
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050133 - 3 May 2024
Viewed by 763
Abstract
In the search for a more effective chemotherapy for the treatment of Chagas’ disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, the use of gold compounds may be a promising approach. In this work, four gold(I) compounds [AuCl(HL)], (HL = bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones) were [...] Read more.
In the search for a more effective chemotherapy for the treatment of Chagas’ disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, the use of gold compounds may be a promising approach. In this work, four gold(I) compounds [AuCl(HL)], (HL = bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones) were studied. The compounds were theoretically characterized, showing identical chemical structures with the metal ion located in a linear coordination environment and the thiosemicarbazones acting as monodentate ligands. Cyclic voltammetry and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies demonstrated that the complexes could generate the nitro anion radical (NO2) by reduction of the nitro moiety. The compounds were evaluated in vitro on the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi and human cells of endothelial morphology. The gold compounds studied showed activity in the micromolar range against T. cruzi. The most active compounds (IC50 of around 10 μM) showed an enhancement of the antiparasitic activity compared with their respective bioactive ligands and moderate selectivity. To get insight into the anti-chagasic mechanism of action, the intracellular free radical production capacity of the gold compounds was assessed by ESR and fluorescence measurements. DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pirroline-N-oxide) spin adducts related to the bioreduction of the complexes and redox cycling processes were characterized. The potential oxidative stress mechanism against T. cruzi was confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noble Metals in Medicinal Inorganic Chemistry)
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13 pages, 4015 KiB  
Article
Fluorosolvatochromism of Platinum Supramolecular Coordination Complexes: Stepwise Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Organometallic Tetranuclear Pt(II) Squares
by Antonia Garypidou, Konstantinos Ypsilantis and Achilleas Garoufis
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050132 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 614
Abstract
The stepwise synthesis and characterization of three new mixed-ligand organometallic tetranuclear platinum squares were achieved. All of the complexes were constituted by the conjunction of two (2,2′-bpy)Pt-terph-Pt(2,2′-bpy) (terph = p-terphenyl) fragments linked by a variety of N^N ligands (4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bpy), 1,4-di(pyridin-4-yl)benzene (dpbz), [...] Read more.
The stepwise synthesis and characterization of three new mixed-ligand organometallic tetranuclear platinum squares were achieved. All of the complexes were constituted by the conjunction of two (2,2′-bpy)Pt-terph-Pt(2,2′-bpy) (terph = p-terphenyl) fragments linked by a variety of N^N ligands (4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bpy), 1,4-di(pyridin-4-yl)benzene (dpbz), and 4,4′-di(pyridin-4-yl)-1,1′-biphenyl (dpbph)), which occupied the fourth coordination site of each metal center, giving rise to square-shaped molecules of the general formula [Pt2(2,2′-bpy)2(terph)(N^N)]2. Consequently, the tetranuclear complexes, {[Pt(2,2′-bpy)]4(μ-terph)2(μ-4,4′-bpy)2}{PF6}4 (7), {[Pt(2,2′-bpy)]4(μ-terph)2(μ-dpbz)2}{PF6}4 (8), and {[Pt(2,2′-bpy)]4(μ-terph)2(μ-dpbph)2}{PF6}4 (9) were constructed. The photophysical properties of these complexes were studied both in the solid state and in various solvents, revealing fluorosolvatochromism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organometallic Chemistry)
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16 pages, 3280 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Photophysical Studies of Heteroleptic Silver Complexes Bearing 2,9-Bis(styryl)-1,10-phenanthroline Ligands and Bis[(2-diphenylphosphino)phenyl] Ether
by Dimitrios Glykos, Athanassios C. Tsipis, John C. Plakatouras and Gerasimos Malandrinos
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050131 - 2 May 2024
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Three new heteroleptic Ag(I) complexes, labeled as [AgL(POP)]BF4 (13), were successfully synthesized and comprehensively characterized. Here, L represents 2,9-bis((E)-4-methoxystyryl)-1,10-phenanthroline (L1), 2,9-bis((E)-4-methylthiostyryl) -1,10-phenanthroline (L2), and 2,9-bis((E)-4-diethylaminostyryl)-1,10-phenanthroline (L3), while POP stands for Bis[(2-diphenylphosphino)phenyl] ether. [...] Read more.
Three new heteroleptic Ag(I) complexes, labeled as [AgL(POP)]BF4 (13), were successfully synthesized and comprehensively characterized. Here, L represents 2,9-bis((E)-4-methoxystyryl)-1,10-phenanthroline (L1), 2,9-bis((E)-4-methylthiostyryl) -1,10-phenanthroline (L2), and 2,9-bis((E)-4-diethylaminostyryl)-1,10-phenanthroline (L3), while POP stands for Bis[(2-diphenylphosphino)phenyl] ether. The stability of these compounds in solution was confirmed through multinuclear 1D (1H, 13C, 31P) and 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, HMBC, HSQC) spectroscopies. Additionally, their molecular structure was elucidated via X-ray crystallography. The photophysical properties of the complexes were assessed both in the solid state and in solution (dichloromethane). Compounds 13 demonstrated moderate emissions in solution, with quantum yields ranging from 11–23%. Interestingly, their solid-state luminescent behavior differed. Large bathochromic shifts (42–75 nm) of the emission maxima and a decrease in quantum yields (2.5–9.5%) were evident, possibly due to the presence of excimers. Compound 3 stands out as a rare example of an Ag(I) red-color emitter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Application of Luminescent Materials)
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5 pages, 201 KiB  
Editorial
Metal Complexes with N-donor Ligands
by László Kótai
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050130 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 873
Abstract
Complexes of transition and non-transition metals with a wide variety of N-donor ligands (like ammonia, amines, urea derivatives, Schiff bases, or N-heterocycles) comprise a highly important class of compounds in chemistry, biochemistry, material science, and the chemical industry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Complexes with N-donor Ligands)
20 pages, 6295 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Magnetization of Thermally Expandable Particles on the Thermal and Debonding Properties of Bonding Joints
by Juana Abenojar, Sara López de Armentia, Juan-Carlos del Real and Miguel-Angel Martínez
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050129 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 876
Abstract
This study addresses the challenge of recycling adhesive bonds, as their disassembly is irreversible and damages the substrates. It explores the use of thermally expandable particles (TEPs), which, when heated, expand and weaken the bond. The magnetization of TEPs allows us to control [...] Read more.
This study addresses the challenge of recycling adhesive bonds, as their disassembly is irreversible and damages the substrates. It explores the use of thermally expandable particles (TEPs), which, when heated, expand and weaken the bond. The magnetization of TEPs allows us to control their distribution using a magnetic field. The work aims to obtain magnetized TEPs, study their influence on resin curing, mechanical performance, and durability, test their mobility in graded bonds, and analyze the temperature-induced debonding process. TEPs are characterized using various techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the impact of 25 wt.% TEPs on epoxy resin curing is examined using the Kamal model. Adhesion and disassembly assessments were conducted through tensile shear tests using single-lap-joint specimens, while the bond durability was determined via wedge testing. It was found that magnetization reduces the debonding time, though it decreases shear strength while increasing bond durability. The crack formation energy is higher with magnetic TEPs, and total crack length is lower in long-term wedge tests. Once debonded, the substrates are sanded and reused as raw material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials and Their Applications)
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16 pages, 3119 KiB  
Review
Review on Preparation of Perovskite Solar Cells by Pulsed Laser Deposition
by Xinyu Lu, Xingjian Fan, Hao Zhang, Qingyu Xu and Mohsin Ijaz
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050128 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a simple and extremely versatile technique to grow thin films and nanomaterials from a wide variety of materials. Compared to traditional fabrication methods, PLD is a clean physical vapour deposition approach that avoids complicated chemical reactions and by-products, [...] Read more.
Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a simple and extremely versatile technique to grow thin films and nanomaterials from a wide variety of materials. Compared to traditional fabrication methods, PLD is a clean physical vapour deposition approach that avoids complicated chemical reactions and by-products, achieving a precise stochiometric transfer of the target material onto the substrate and providing control over the film thickness. Halide perovskite materials have attracted extensive attention due to their excellent photoelectric and photovoltaic properties. In this paper, we present an overview of the fundamental and practical aspects of PLD. The properties and preparation methods of the halide perovskite materials are briefly discussed. Finally, we will elaborate on recent research on the preparation of perovskite solar cells by PLD, summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the PLD preparation, and prospect the all-vacuum PLD-grown solar cells in a full solar cell structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Semiconductor Materials for Energy Conversion)
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16 pages, 14155 KiB  
Article
Construction of Zn0.5Cd0.5S/Bi4O5Br2 Heterojunction for Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Tetracycline Hydrochloride
by Lan Luo, Juan Shen and Bo Jin
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050127 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
The development of efficient catalysts with visible light response for the removal of pollutants in an aqueous environment has been a hotspot in the field of photocatalysis research. A Zn0.5Cd0.5S (ZCS) nanoparticle/Bi4O5Br2 ultra-thin nanosheet [...] Read more.
The development of efficient catalysts with visible light response for the removal of pollutants in an aqueous environment has been a hotspot in the field of photocatalysis research. A Zn0.5Cd0.5S (ZCS) nanoparticle/Bi4O5Br2 ultra-thin nanosheet heterojunction was constructed by ultrasound-assisted solvothermal method. The morphology, structure, and optoelectronic properties of the composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. Under simulated visible light illumination, the photocatalytic performance was evaluated through degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride. Results show that the degradation effect by the optimum ZCS/Bi4O5Br2 catalyst is superior to pure materials with the kinetic constant that is 1.7 and 9.6 times higher than those of Bi4O5Br2 and ZCS, and also has better stability and reusability. Trapping experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance tests find that free radicals in the photocatalytic system are superoxide radicals and holes. This work provides a referable idea for the development of more efficient and recyclable photocatalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inorganic Materials)
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11 pages, 2022 KiB  
Article
Molten Bismuth–Bismuth/Zinc Oxide Composites for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage
by Cristina Maria Vladut, Daniel Lincu, Daniela Berger, Cristian Matei and Raul-Augustin Mitran
Inorganics 2024, 12(5), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics12050126 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Thermal energy storage is at the leading edge of various applications, including waste heat recovery, solar storage and zero-energy buildings. Phase change materials (PCMs) can be utilized to store heat through reversible solid–liquid phase transitions. PCMs provide high energy storage capacity at a [...] Read more.
Thermal energy storage is at the leading edge of various applications, including waste heat recovery, solar storage and zero-energy buildings. Phase change materials (PCMs) can be utilized to store heat through reversible solid–liquid phase transitions. PCMs provide high energy storage capacity at a constant temperature. The volume change during the phase transition, on the other hand, causes inconsistency in crystallization and leakage, increasing the system’s complexity and shortening the lifetime of these materials. These shortcomings can be diminished by impregnation in a porous matrix or encapsulation with an inert shell, resulting in shape-stabilized PCMs that maintain their macroscopic shape during phase change. The synthesis and properties of Bi/ZnO nanocomposites were investigated in order to obtain shape-stabilized phase change materials. All samples consisted of metallic Bi and oxide, doped with 1–3% at. zinc. Heat storage capacities between 31 and 49 Jg−1 were obtained, depending on the mass fraction of the metal. All samples had good thermal reliability, retaining their heat storage properties after 50 consecutive heating–cooling cycles. An average oxide layer thickness of 75–100 nm is sufficient to prevent the molten metal leakage at temperatures above its melting point, resulting in shape-stabilized PCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Functional Ceramics)
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