Next Issue
Volume 8, September
Previous Issue
Volume 8, July
 
 

Biomedicines, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2020) – 59 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): In Alzheimer’s disease, defects of the neuronal endolysosomal system impair the lysosomal degradation of toxic amyloids and result in their secretion either along with exosomes or not. In defense, neighboring cells then endocytose these amyloids, which leads to a new cycle of endosomal congestion and re-secretion. We propose that this self-perpetuating process, called transmissible endosomal intoxication (TEI), facilitates the propagation of amyloid species throughout the brain. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
miR-142-3p Reduces the Size, Migration, and Contractility of Endometrial and Endometriotic Stromal Cells by Targeting Integrin- and Rho GTPase-Related Pathways That Regulate Cytoskeletal Function
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080291 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2767
Abstract
Downregulated microRNA-142-3p signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, an invasive disease where the lining of the uterus grows at ectopic locations, by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Using bioinformatics and in vitro assays, this study identifies cytoskeletal regulation and integrin signaling as two [...] Read more.
Downregulated microRNA-142-3p signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, an invasive disease where the lining of the uterus grows at ectopic locations, by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Using bioinformatics and in vitro assays, this study identifies cytoskeletal regulation and integrin signaling as two relevant categories of miR-142-3p targets. qPCR revealed that miR-142-3p upregulation in St-T1b cells downregulates Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), cofilin 2 (CFL2), Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASL), and integrin α-V (ITGAV). qPCR and Western-blotting showed miR-142-3p effect on WASL and ITGAV was significant also in primary endometriotic stroma cells. Luciferase reporter assays in ST-T1b cells then confirmed direct regulation of ITGAV and WASL. On the functional side, miR-142-3p upregulation significantly reduced ST-T1b cell size, the size of vinculin plaques, migration through fibronectin-coated transwell filters, and the ability of ST-T1b and primary endometriotic stroma cells to contract collagen I gels. These results suggest that miR-142-3p has a strong mechanoregulatory effect on endometrial stroma cells and its external administration reduces the invasive endometrial phenotype. Within the limits of an in vitro investigation, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of endometriosis and provides a perspective for the development of miR-142-3p based drugs for inhibiting invasive growth of endometriotic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Endometriosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Heat Shock Protein 27 Immune Complex Enhances Exosomal Cholesterol Efflux
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080290 - 17 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Previously, we demonstrated that Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27) reduces the inflammatory stages of experimental atherogenesis, is released by macrophage (MΦ) exosomes and lowers cholesterol levels in atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, we discovered that natural autoantibodies directed against HSP27 enhance its signaling effects, as [...] Read more.
Previously, we demonstrated that Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27) reduces the inflammatory stages of experimental atherogenesis, is released by macrophage (MΦ) exosomes and lowers cholesterol levels in atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, we discovered that natural autoantibodies directed against HSP27 enhance its signaling effects, as HSP27 immune complexes (IC) interact at the cell membrane to modulate signaling. We now seek to evaluate the potential role of the HSP27 IC on MΦ exosomal release and cholesterol export. First, in human blood samples, we show that healthy control subjects have 86% more exosomes compared to patients with coronary artery disease (p < 0.0001). Treating human THP-1 MΦ with rHSP27 plus a validated anti-HPS27 IgG antibody increased the abundance of exosomes in the culture media (+98%; p < 0.0001) as well as expression of Flotillin-2, a marker reflective of exosomal release. Exosome cholesterol efflux was independent of Apo-A1. THP-1 MΦ loaded with NBD-labeled cholesterol and treated with the HSP27 IC showed a 22% increase in extracellular vesicles labeled with NBD and a 95% increase in mean fluorescent intensity. In conclusion, exosomal abundance and secretion of cholesterol content increases in response to HSP27 IC treatment, which may represent an important therapeutic option for diseases characterized by cholesterol accumulation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
R-α-Lipoic Acid and 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Have Distinct Hypolipidemic Mechanisms in Hepatic Cells
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080289 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
The constitutive activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) leads to the overproduction of apoB-containing triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in HepG2 cells. R-α-lipoic acid (LA) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) have hypolipidemic function but their mechanisms of action are not well understood. [...] Read more.
The constitutive activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) leads to the overproduction of apoB-containing triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in HepG2 cells. R-α-lipoic acid (LA) and 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) have hypolipidemic function but their mechanisms of action are not well understood. Here, we reported that LA and PBA regulate hepatocellular lipid metabolism via distinct mechanisms. The use of SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, revealed cAMP’s involvement in the upregulation of CPT1A expression by LA but not by PBA. LA decreased the secretion of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in the culture media of hepatic cells and increased the abundance of LDL receptor (LDLR) in cellular extracts in part through transcriptional upregulation. Although PBA induced LDLR gene expression, it did not translate into more LDLR proteins. PBA regulated cellular lipid homeostasis through the induction of CPT1A and INSIG2 expression via an epigenetic mechanism involving the acetylation of histone H3, histone H4, and CBP-p300 at the CPT1A and INSIG2 promoters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Gene Regulatory Network Analysis of Perivascular Adipose Tissue of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Identifies Master Regulators of Key Pathogenetic Pathways
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080288 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
The lack of medical therapy to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) stems from our inadequate understanding of the mechanisms underlying AAA pathogenesis. To date, the only available treatment option relies on surgical intervention, which aims to prevent AAA rupture. Identifying specific regulators of [...] Read more.
The lack of medical therapy to treat abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) stems from our inadequate understanding of the mechanisms underlying AAA pathogenesis. To date, the only available treatment option relies on surgical intervention, which aims to prevent AAA rupture. Identifying specific regulators of pivotal pathogenetic mechanisms would allow the development of novel treatments. With this work, we sought to identify regulatory factors associated with co-expressed genes characterizing the diseased perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) of AAA patients, which is crucially involved in AAA pathogenesis. We applied a reverse engineering approach to identify cis-regulatory elements of diseased PVAT genes, the associated transcription factors, and upstream regulators. Finally, by analyzing the topological properties of the reconstructed regulatory disease network, we prioritized putative targets for AAA interference treatment options. Overall, we identified NFKB1, SPIB, and TBP as the most relevant transcription factors, as well as MAPK1 and GSKB3 protein kinases and RXRA nuclear receptor as key upstream regulators. We showed that these factors could regulate different co-expressed gene subsets in AAA PVAT, specifically associated with both innate and antigen-driven immune response pathways. Inhibition of these factors may represent a novel option for the development of efficient immunomodulatory strategies to treat AAA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aortic Aneurysms: Vascular Remodeling and Repair)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Relationship between Diet, Microbiota, and Healthy Aging
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080287 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
Due to medical advances and lifestyle changes, population life expectancy has increased. For this reason, it is important to achieve healthy aging by reducing the risk factors causing damage and pathologies associated with age. Through nutrition, one of the pillars of health, we [...] Read more.
Due to medical advances and lifestyle changes, population life expectancy has increased. For this reason, it is important to achieve healthy aging by reducing the risk factors causing damage and pathologies associated with age. Through nutrition, one of the pillars of health, we are able to modify these factors through modulation of the intestinal microbiota. The Mediterranean and Oriental diets are proof of this, as well as the components present in them, such as fiber and polyphenols. These generate beneficial effects on the body thanks, in part, to their interaction with intestinal bacteria. Likewise, the low consumption of products with high fat content favors the state of the microbiota, contributing to the maintenance of good health. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Dietary Flavonoids in p53—Mediated Immune Dysfunctions Linking to Cancer Prevention
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080286 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1906
Abstract
The p53 protein plays a central role in mediating immune functioning and determines the fate of the cells. Its role as a tumor suppressor, and in transcriptional regulation and cytokine activity under stress conditions, is well defined. The wild type (WT) p53 functions [...] Read more.
The p53 protein plays a central role in mediating immune functioning and determines the fate of the cells. Its role as a tumor suppressor, and in transcriptional regulation and cytokine activity under stress conditions, is well defined. The wild type (WT) p53 functions as a guardian for the genome, while the mutant p53 has oncogenic roles. One of the ways that p53 combats carcinogenesis is by reducing inflammation. WT p53 functions as an anti-inflammatory molecule via cross-talk activity with multiple immunological pathways, such as the major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI) associated pathway, toll-like receptors (TLRs), and immune checkpoints. Due to the multifarious roles of p53 in cancer, it is a potent target for cancer immunotherapy. Plant flavonoids have been gaining recognition over the last two decades to use as a potential therapeutic regimen in ameliorating diseases. Recent studies have shown the ability of flavonoids to suppress chronic inflammation, specifically by modulating p53 responses. Further, the anti-oxidant Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway could play a crucial role in mitigating oxidative stress, leading to a reduction of chronic inflammation linked to the prevention of cancer. This review aims to discuss the pharmacological properties of plant flavonoids in response to various oxidative stresses and immune dysfunctions and analyzes the cross-talk between flavonoid-rich dietary intake for potential disease prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Non-pharmacological Treatment of Refractory Angina and Microvascular Angina
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080285 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
Refractory angina (RA) is defined as debilitating anginal symptoms despite the optimal guideline-directed combination of medical, percutaneous, and surgical therapies. Often referred to as “no option”, these patients represent a significant unmet clinical need for healthcare institutions. Due to the ageing of the [...] Read more.
Refractory angina (RA) is defined as debilitating anginal symptoms despite the optimal guideline-directed combination of medical, percutaneous, and surgical therapies. Often referred to as “no option”, these patients represent a significant unmet clinical need for healthcare institutions. Due to the ageing of the population, and increased survival from coronary artery disease, the number of patients with RA is expected to rise exponentially. Despite the developments of novel technologies for the treatment of RA, none of them found wide clinical application (to date). Microvascular dysfunction, alone or in combination with epicardial coronary disease, is thought to contribute significantly to refractory angina. However, most of the techniques developed to improve RA symptoms have not been tested specifically on patients with microvascular dysfunction. This review discusses the recent developments in the treatment of RA, and gives some perspectives on the future of these techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular and Translational Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Neuroprotection: Targeting Multiple Pathways by Naturally Occurring Phytochemicals
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080284 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3123
Abstract
With the increase in the expectancy of the life span of humans, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have imposed a considerable burden on the family, society, and nation. In defiance of the breakthroughs in the knowledge of the pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms of various NDs, [...] Read more.
With the increase in the expectancy of the life span of humans, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have imposed a considerable burden on the family, society, and nation. In defiance of the breakthroughs in the knowledge of the pathogenesis and underlying mechanisms of various NDs, very little success has been achieved in developing effective therapies. This review draws a bead on the availability of the nutraceuticals to date for various NDs (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, vascular cognitive impairment, Prion disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia, Spinal muscular atrophy, Frontotemporal dementia, and Pick’s disease) focusing on their various mechanisms of action in various in vivo and in vitro models of NDs. This review is distinctive in its compilation to critically review preclinical and clinical studies of the maximum phytochemicals in amelioration and prevention of almost all kinds of neurodegenerative diseases and address their possible mechanism of action. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library searches were used for preclinical studies, while ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed were searched for clinical updates. The results from preclinical studies demonstrate the efficacious effects of the phytochemicals in various NDs while clinical reports showing mixed results with promise for phytochemical use as an adjunct to the conventional treatment in various NDs. These studies together suggest that phytochemicals can significantly act upon different mechanisms of disease such as oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotic pathways, and gene regulation. However, further clinical studies are needed that should include the appropriate biomarkers of NDs and the effect of phytochemicals on them as well as targeting the appropriate population. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Use of Oral Anticoagulation and Diabetes Do Not Inhibit the Angiogenic Potential of Hypoxia Preconditioned Blood-Derived Secretomes
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080283 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Patients suffering from tissue ischemia, who would greatly benefit from angiogenesis-promoting therapies such as hypoxia preconditioned blood-derived secretomes commonly receive oral anticoagulation (OA) and/or have diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we investigated the effect of OA administration on the in vitro angiogenic [...] Read more.
Patients suffering from tissue ischemia, who would greatly benefit from angiogenesis-promoting therapies such as hypoxia preconditioned blood-derived secretomes commonly receive oral anticoagulation (OA) and/or have diabetes mellitus (DM). In this study, we investigated the effect of OA administration on the in vitro angiogenic potential of hypoxia preconditioned plasma (HPP) and serum (HPS), prepared from nondiabetic/diabetic subjects who did not receive OA (n = 5) or were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, n = 8), ASA + clopidogrel (n = 10), or nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (n = 7) for longer than six months. The effect of DM was differentially assessed by comparing HPP/HPS obtained from nondiabetic (n = 8) and diabetic (n = 16) subjects who had not received OA in the past six months. The concentration of key proangiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF) and antiangiogenic (thrombospondin-1 or TSP-1 and platelet factor-4 or PF-4) protein factors in HPP/HPS was analyzed via ELISA, while their ability to induce microvessel formations was examined in endothelial cell cultures. We found that OA use significantly reduced VEGF levels in HPP, but not HPS, compared to non-OA controls. While HPP and HPS TSP-1 levels remained largely unchanged as a result of OA usage, HPS PF-4 levels were significantly reduced in samples obtained from OA-treated subjects. Neither OA administration nor DM appeared to significantly reduce the ability of HPP or HPS to induce microvessel formations in vitro. These findings indicate that OA administration does not limit the angiogenic potential of hypoxia preconditioned blood-derived secretomes, and therefore, it does not prohibit the application of these therapies for supporting tissue vascularization and wound healing in healthy or diabetic subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypoxia-Inducible Factors: Regulation and Therapeutic Potential)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP) Can Inhibit Intracrine Androgen Synthesis in Prostate Cancer Cells
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080282 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Our group and others have previously shown that genistein combined polysaccharide (GCP), an aglycone isoflavone-rich extract with high bioavailability and low toxicity, can inhibit prostate cancer (CaP) cell growth and survival as well as androgen receptor (AR) activity. We now elucidate the mechanism [...] Read more.
Our group and others have previously shown that genistein combined polysaccharide (GCP), an aglycone isoflavone-rich extract with high bioavailability and low toxicity, can inhibit prostate cancer (CaP) cell growth and survival as well as androgen receptor (AR) activity. We now elucidate the mechanism by which this may occur using LNCaP and PC-346C CaP cell lines; GCP can inhibit intracrine androgen synthesis in CaP cells. UPLC-MS/MS and qPCR analyses demonstrated that GCP can mediate a ~3-fold decrease in testosterone levels (p < 0.001) and cause decreased expression of intracrine androgen synthesis pathway enzymes (~2.5-fold decrease of 3βHSD (p < 0.001), 17βHSD (p < 0.001), CYP17A (p < 0.01), SRB1 (p < 0.0001), and StAR (p < 0.01)), respectively. Reverse-phase HPLC fractionation and bioassay identified three active GCP fractions. Subsequent NMR and LC-MS analysis of the fraction with the highest level of activity, fraction 40, identified genistein as the primary active component of GCP responsible for its anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-AR activity. GCP, fraction 40, and genistein all mediated at least a ~2-fold change in these biological activities relative to vehicle control (p < 0.001). Genistein caused similar decreases in the expression of 17βHSD and CYP17A (2.5-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.5-fold decrease (p < 0.01), respectively) compared to GCP, however it did not cause altered expression of the other intracrine androgen synthesis pathway enzymes; 3βHSD, SRB1, and StAR. Our combined data indicate that GCP and/or genistein may have clinical utility and that further pre-clinical studies are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Prostate Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Targeting Mutant KRAS in Pancreatic Cancer: Futile or Promising?
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080281 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2222
Abstract
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal cancers with a dismal prognosis for the patient. This is due to limited diagnostic options for the early detection of the disease as well as its rather aggressive nature. Despite major advances in [...] Read more.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal cancers with a dismal prognosis for the patient. This is due to limited diagnostic options for the early detection of the disease as well as its rather aggressive nature. Despite major advances in oncologic research in general, the treatment options in the clinic for PDAC have only undergone minor changes in the last decades. One major treatment advance would be the successful targeting of the oncogenic driver KRASmut. In the past, the indirect targeting of KRAS has been exploited, e. g., via upstream inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases or via downstream MEK or PI3K inhibition. However, the experience gained from clinical trials and from the clinic itself in the treatment of KRASmut cancer entities has dampened the initial euphoria. Lately, with the development of KRASG12C-specific inhibitors, not only the direct but also the indirect targeting of KRASmut has gained momentum again. Though preclinical studies and preliminary early clinical studies of monotherapies have shown promising results, they have been overshadowed by the swift development of resistances resulting in inconsistent responses in patient cohorts. Currently, several different combination therapies for KRASmut cancer are being explored. If they hold the promise they have made in preclinical studies, they might also be suitable treatment options for patients suffering from PDAC. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Insights into Biomechanical and Proteomic Characteristics of Small Diameter Vascular Grafts Utilizing the Human Umbilical Artery
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080280 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
The gold standard vascular substitutes, used in cardiovascular surgery, are the Dacron or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-derived grafts. However, major adverse reactions accompany their use. For this purpose, decellularized human umbilical arteries (hUAs) may be proven as a significant source for the development of [...] Read more.
The gold standard vascular substitutes, used in cardiovascular surgery, are the Dacron or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-derived grafts. However, major adverse reactions accompany their use. For this purpose, decellularized human umbilical arteries (hUAs) may be proven as a significant source for the development of small diameter conduits. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a decellularization protocol in hUAs. To study the effect of the decellularization to the hUAs, histological analysis was performed. Then, native and decellularized hUAs were biochemically and biomechanically evaluated. Finally, broad proteomic analysis was applied. Histological analysis revealed the successful decellularization of the hUAs. Furthermore, a great amount of DNA was removed from the decellularized hUAs. Biomechanical analysis revealed statistically significant differences in longitudinal direction only in maximum stress (p < 0.013) and strain (p < 0.001). On the contrary, all parameters tested for circumferential direction exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05). Proteomic analysis showed the preservation of the extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal proteins in both groups. Proteomic data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD020187. The above results indicated that hUAs were efficiently decellularized. The tissue function properties of these conduits were well retained, making them ideal candidates for the development of small diameter vascular grafts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Tissue Regeneration)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Marijuana and Opioid Use during Pregnancy: Using Zebrafish to Gain Understanding of Congenital Anomalies Caused by Drug Exposure during Development
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080279 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Marijuana and opioid addictions have increased alarmingly in recent decades, especially in the United States, posing threats to society. When the drug user is a pregnant mother, there is a serious risk to the developing baby. Congenital anomalies are associated with prenatal exposure [...] Read more.
Marijuana and opioid addictions have increased alarmingly in recent decades, especially in the United States, posing threats to society. When the drug user is a pregnant mother, there is a serious risk to the developing baby. Congenital anomalies are associated with prenatal exposure to marijuana and opioids. Here, we summarize the current data on the prevalence of marijuana and opioid use among the people of the United States, particularly pregnant mothers. We also summarize the current zebrafish studies used to model and understand the effects of these drug exposures during development and to understand the behavioral changes after exposure. Zebrafish experiments recapitulate the drug effects seen in human addicts and the birth defects seen in human babies prenatally exposed to marijuana and opioids. Zebrafish show great potential as an easy and inexpensive model for screening compounds for their ability to mitigate the drug effects, which could lead to new therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish Models for Development and Disease 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
How Long Does a Neutrophil Live?—The Effect of 24 h Whole Blood Storage on Neutrophil Functions in Pigs
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080278 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Neutrophils are important effector cells of the innate immune system, traditionally regarded to have a short life span. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the whole blood storage on neutrophil functions, e.g., viability, antimicrobial effect, neutrophil extracellular trap [...] Read more.
Neutrophils are important effector cells of the innate immune system, traditionally regarded to have a short life span. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the whole blood storage on neutrophil functions, e.g., viability, antimicrobial effect, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and phagocytosis. Therefore, fresh porcine whole blood was compared to whole blood stored for 24 h in the dark at room temperature. Different cell parameters in whole blood and in isolated neutrophils were analyzed. The following parameters were analyzed: cell count, band and segmented neutrophil count, viability, cholesterol content, release of free DNA as a marker for cell death, phagocytic activity in whole blood and in isolated neutrophils, the transmigration rate of neutrophils to IL8 stimulus, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the formation of NETs. It was observed that the number of isolated neutrophils decreased over time, indicating cell death occurs during 24 h of blood storage. However, the surviving neutrophils isolated from stored blood reacted comparably or even showed enhanced antimicrobial activity in the case of phagocytosis of Streptococcus (S.) suis, ROS production, and transmigration. The slightly altered cholesterol level of the harvested neutrophils in stored blood when compared to fresh blood partially explains some of the detected differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gene and Cell Therapy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Arginine and Endothelial Function
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080277 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 3851
Abstract
Arginine (L-arginine), is an amino acid involved in a number of biological processes, including the biosynthesis of proteins, host immune response, urea cycle, and nitric oxide production. In this systematic review, we focus on the functional role of arginine in the regulation of [...] Read more.
Arginine (L-arginine), is an amino acid involved in a number of biological processes, including the biosynthesis of proteins, host immune response, urea cycle, and nitric oxide production. In this systematic review, we focus on the functional role of arginine in the regulation of endothelial function and vascular tone. Both clinical and preclinical studies are examined, analyzing the effects of arginine supplementation in hypertension, ischemic heart disease, aging, peripheral artery disease, and diabetes mellitus. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin® for Complicated or Chronic Wounds—A Pilot Study
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080276 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1373
Abstract
Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin® (PRF) is an autologous platelet concentrate used for the local treatment of chronic or complicated wounds. Still, its application for this indication is not evidence-based. Therefore, we performed this monocentric retrospective pilot study investigating the clinical outcome of a [...] Read more.
Vivostat Platelet-Rich Fibrin® (PRF) is an autologous platelet concentrate used for the local treatment of chronic or complicated wounds. Still, its application for this indication is not evidence-based. Therefore, we performed this monocentric retrospective pilot study investigating the clinical outcome of a local treatment of chronic or complicated wounds in 35 patients (23 male, 12 female, mean age 68.7 years) treated with Vivostat PRF®. This study population is the largest among published studies analyzing the clinical efficacy of Vivostat PRF® on chronic wounds so far. Using the perpendicular method we divided the wounds into three sizes (<10, 10–30, and >30 cm2). The clinical efficacy of the Vivostat PRF treatment was the primary endpoint and was divided into three groups of increasing degrees of wound improvement: (1) no improvement of the wound (wound area was not reduced > 10% under Vivostat PRF® treatment), (2) improvement of the wound (reduced area > 10% under Vivostat PRF® treatment) and (3) complete epithelialization (wounds that were completely re-epithelialized after Vivostat PRF® treatment). We included patients’ diagnosis and concomitant diseases (peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD)), chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)), diabetic foot syndrome (DFS)) in our data analysis in order to investigate their potential impact on the wound healing capacity of Vivostat PRF®. Our results show that in the entire study population, 13 out of 35 (37.1%) patients experienced wound improvement and 14 out of 35 (40%) patients showed complete epithelialization of their wound under Vivostat PRF® treatment. In summary, 77.1% of the treated patients benefited from the Vivostat PRF® therapy. These positive wound healing effects were all observed within the first three to six Vivostat PRF® applications. Subgroup analyses showed that Vivostat PRF® appeared to be more efficient in patients without CVI in comparison to patients with CVI (p = 0.02). Moreover, Vivostat PRF® treatment seems to be particularly efficient in PAOD-related wounds with a reduced crural arterial blood supply (p = 0.01). Additionally, we performed an experimental human in vivo study on ten male students where we artificially generated bilateral gluteal wounds and analyzed the influence of the Vivostat PRF® treatment on the expression of two genes (human beta Defensin-2, ((hBD-2) and human beta-Defensin-3 (hBD-3)) in keratinocytes of resected wound specimens that are induced during wound healing. Interestingly, this analysis revealed that only seven of out ten individuals showed a relevant hBD-2 and hBD-3 gene induction after Vivostat PRF® treatment. This led to the novel “key-lock-hypothesis”. With the goal of an individualized precision medicine approach with optimized wound treatment strategies in the future, this is an important observation that demands further experimental and clinical studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Mechanisms in Wound Healing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Impair Intestinal Barrier Function during Experimental Colitis
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080275 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
Aberrant neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and the loss of barrier integrity in inflamed intestinal tissues have long been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, whether NETs alter intestinal epithelium permeability during colitis remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that NETs promote the [...] Read more.
Aberrant neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and the loss of barrier integrity in inflamed intestinal tissues have long been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, whether NETs alter intestinal epithelium permeability during colitis remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated that NETs promote the breakdown in intestinal barrier function for the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation in mouse models of colitis. NETs were abundant in the colon of mice with colitis experimentally induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Analysis of the intestinal barrier integrity revealed that NETs impaired gut permeability, enabling the initiation of luminal bacterial translocation and inflammation. Furthermore, NETs induced the apoptosis of epithelial cells and disrupted the integrity of tight junctions and adherens junctions. Intravenous administration of DNase I, an enzyme that dissolves the web-like DNA filaments of NETs, during colitis restored the mucosal barrier integrity which reduced the dissemination of luminal bacteria and attenuated intestinal inflammation in both DSS and TNBS models. We conclude that NETs serve a detrimental factor in the gut epithelial barrier function leading to the pathogenesis of mucosal inflammation during acute colitis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Phospholipid Arachidonic Acid Remodeling During Phagocytosis in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080274 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Macrophages contain large amounts of arachidonic acid (AA), which distributes differentially across membrane phospholipids. This is largely due to the action of coenzyme A-independent transacylase (CoA-IT), which transfers the AA primarily from diacyl choline-containing phospholipids to ethanolamine-containing phospholipids. In this work we have [...] Read more.
Macrophages contain large amounts of arachidonic acid (AA), which distributes differentially across membrane phospholipids. This is largely due to the action of coenzyme A-independent transacylase (CoA-IT), which transfers the AA primarily from diacyl choline-containing phospholipids to ethanolamine-containing phospholipids. In this work we have comparatively analyzed glycerophospholipid changes leading to AA mobilization in mouse peritoneal macrophages responding to either zymosan or serum-opsonized zymosan (OpZ). These two phagocytic stimuli promote the cytosolic phospholipase A2-dependent mobilization of AA by activating distinct surface receptors. Application of mass spectrometry-based lipid profiling to identify changes in AA-containing phospholipids during macrophage exposure to both stimuli revealed significant decreases in the levels of all major choline phospholipid molecular species and a major phosphatidylinositol species. Importantly, while no changes in ethanolamine phospholipid species were detected on stimulation with zymosan, significant decreases in these species were observed when OpZ was used. Analyses of CoA-IT-mediated AA remodeling revealed that the process occurred faster in the zymosan-stimulated cells compared with OpZ-stimulated cells. Pharmacological inhibition of CoA-IT strongly blunted AA release in response to zymosan but had only a moderate effect on the OpZ-mediated response. These results suggest a hitherto undescribed receptor-dependent role for CoA-independent AA remodeling reactions in modulating the eicosanoid biosynthetic response of macrophages. Our data help define novel targets within the AA remodeling pathway with potential use to control lipid mediator formation Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular and Translational Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Doxazosin, a Classic Alpha 1-Adrenoceptor Antagonist, Overcomes Osimertinib Resistance in Cancer Cells via the Upregulation of Autophagy as Drug Repurposing
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080273 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Osimertinib, which is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an important anticancer drug because of its high efficacy and excellent safety profile. However, resistance against osimertinib is inevitable; therefore, therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance are needed. Doxazosin, a [...] Read more.
Osimertinib, which is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is an important anticancer drug because of its high efficacy and excellent safety profile. However, resistance against osimertinib is inevitable; therefore, therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance are needed. Doxazosin, a classic quinazoline-based alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist is used to treat hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia with a known safety profile. The anticancer effects of doxazosin have been examined in various types of malignancies from the viewpoint of drug repositioning or repurposing. However, it currently remains unclear whether doxazosin sensitizes cancer cells to osimertinib. Herein, we demonstrated that doxazosin induced autophagy and enhanced the anticancer effects of osimertinib on the cancer cells and cancer stem cells of non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and glioblastoma at a concentration at which the growth of non-tumor cells was not affected. The osimertinib-sensitizing effects of doxazosin were suppressed by 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, which suggested that the effects of doxazosin were mediated by autophagy. The present study provides evidence for the efficacy of doxazosin as a combination therapy with osimertinib to overcome resistance against osimertinib. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Therapeutics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Transmissible Endosomal Intoxication: A Balance between Exosomes and Lysosomes at the Basis of Intercellular Amyloid Propagation
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080272 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
In Alzheimer′s disease (AD), endolysosomal dysfunctions are amongst the earliest cellular features to appear. Each organelle of the endolysosomal system, from the multivesicular body (MVB) to the lysosome, contributes to the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage products including β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. [...] Read more.
In Alzheimer′s disease (AD), endolysosomal dysfunctions are amongst the earliest cellular features to appear. Each organelle of the endolysosomal system, from the multivesicular body (MVB) to the lysosome, contributes to the homeostasis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage products including β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Hence, this review will attempt to disentangle how changes in the endolysosomal system cumulate to the generation of toxic amyloid species and hamper their degradation. We highlight that the formation of MVBs and the generation of amyloid species are closely linked and describe how the molecular machineries acting at MVBs determine the generation and sorting of APP cleavage products towards their degradation or release in association with exosomes. In particular, we will focus on AD-related distortions of the endolysomal system that divert it from its degradative function to favour the release of exosomes and associated amyloid species. We propose here that such an imbalance transposed at the brain scale poses a novel concept of transmissible endosomal intoxication (TEI). This TEI would initiate a self-perpetuating transmission of endosomal dysfunction between cells that would support the propagation of amyloid species in neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Method Standardization for Conducting Innate Color Preference Studies in Different Zebrafish Strains
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080271 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1773
Abstract
The zebrafish has a tetrachromatic vision that is able to distinguish ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelengths. Recently, zebrafish color preferences have gained much attention because of the easy setup of the instrument and its usefulness to screen behavior-linked stimuli. However, several published papers [...] Read more.
The zebrafish has a tetrachromatic vision that is able to distinguish ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelengths. Recently, zebrafish color preferences have gained much attention because of the easy setup of the instrument and its usefulness to screen behavior-linked stimuli. However, several published papers dealing with zebrafish color preferences have contradicting results that underscore the importance of method standardization in this field. Different laboratories may report different results because of variations in light source, color intensity, and other parameters such as age, gender, container size, and strain of fish. In this study, we aim to standardize the color preference test in zebrafish by measuring light source position, light intensity, gender, age, animal size to space ratio, and animal strain. Our results showed that color preferences for zebrafish are affected by light position, age, strain, and social interaction of the fish, but not affected by fish gender. We validated that ethanol can significantly induce color preference alteration in zebrafish which may be related to anxiety and depression. We also explored the potential use of the optimized method to examine color preference ranking and index differences in various zebrafish strains and species, such as the tiger barb and glass catfish. In conclusion, zebrafish color preference screening is a powerful tool for high-throughput neuropharmacological applications and the standardized protocol established in this study provides a useful reference for the zebrafish research community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish Models for Development and Disease 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Mitochondrial Metabolism in PDAC: From Better Knowledge to New Targeting Strategies
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080270 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to meet bioenergetics and biosynthetic demands. The first observation of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells was made a century ago (“Warburg effect” or aerobic glycolysis), leading to the classical view that cancer metabolism relies on a glycolytic phenotype. [...] Read more.
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to meet bioenergetics and biosynthetic demands. The first observation of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells was made a century ago (“Warburg effect” or aerobic glycolysis), leading to the classical view that cancer metabolism relies on a glycolytic phenotype. There is now accumulating evidence that most cancers also rely on mitochondria to satisfy their metabolic needs. Indeed, the current view of cancer metabolism places mitochondria as key actors in all facets of cancer progression. Importantly, mitochondrial metabolism has become a very promising target in cancer therapy, including for refractory cancers such as Pancreatic Ductal AdenoCarcinoma (PDAC). In particular, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is an important target in cancer therapy. Other therapeutic strategies include the targeting of glutamine and fatty acids metabolism, as well as the inhibition of the TriCarboxylic Acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. A better knowledge of how pancreatic cancer cells regulate mitochondrial metabolism will allow the identification of metabolic vulnerabilities and thus novel and more efficient therapeutic options for the benefit of each patient. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
EDTA Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Update
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080269 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
We have previously described the role played by toxic-metal burdens in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We herein report an updated evaluation of toxic-metal burdens in human subjects affected or not affected by ND or other chronic diseases. Each subject underwent a [...] Read more.
We have previously described the role played by toxic-metal burdens in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We herein report an updated evaluation of toxic-metal burdens in human subjects affected or not affected by ND or other chronic diseases. Each subject underwent a chelation test with the chelating agent calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNA2EDTA or EDTA) to identify the presence of 20 toxic metals in urine samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our results show the constant presence of toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium, cesium, and aluminum, in all examined subjects but the absence of beryllium and tellurium. Gadolinium was detected in patients undergoing diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging. The presence of toxic metals was always significantly more elevated in ND patients than in healthy controls. Treatment with EDTA chelation therapy removes toxic-metal burdens and improves patient symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effectiveness of Multi-Session FMT Treatment in Active Ulcerative Colitis Patients: A Pilot Study
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080268 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
The modification of the microbiome through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a very promising therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our pilot study aimed to assess the effectiveness of multi-session FMT treatment in active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Ten patients [...] Read more.
The modification of the microbiome through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming a very promising therapeutic option for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our pilot study aimed to assess the effectiveness of multi-session FMT treatment in active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Ten patients with UC were treated with multi-session FMT (200 mL) from healthy donors, via colonoscopy/gastroscopy. Patients were evaluated as follows: at baseline, at week 7, and after 6 months, routine blood tests (including C reactive protein (CRP) and calprotectin) were performed. 16S rRNA gene (V3V4) sequencing was used for metagenomic analysis. The severity of UC was classified based on the Truelove–Witts index. The assessment of microbial diversity showed significant differences between recipients and healthy donors. FMT contributed to long-term, significant clinical and biochemical improvement. Metagenomic analysis revealed an increase in the amount of Lactobacillaceaea, Micrococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, and TM7 phylumsp.oral clone EW055 during FMT, whereas Staphylococcaceae and Bacillaceae declined significantly. A positive increase in the proportion of the genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Rothia, Streptococcus, and Veillonella and a decrease in Bacillus, Bacteroides, and Staphylococcus were observed based on the correlation between calprotectin and Bacillus and Staphylococcus; ferritin and Lactobacillus, Veillonella, and Bifidobacterium abundance was indicated. A positive change in the abundance of Firmicutes was observed during FMT and after 6 months. The application of multi-session FMT led to the restoration of recipients’ microbiota and resulted in the remission of patients with active UC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) and Pancreatic Cancer: From the Role of EVs to the Interference with EV-Mediated Reciprocal Communication
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080267 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2317
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is malignant and the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are—at most—moderately effective, indicating the need for new and different kinds of therapies to manage this disease. It has been proposed that the biologic properties of [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer is malignant and the seventh leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. However, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are—at most—moderately effective, indicating the need for new and different kinds of therapies to manage this disease. It has been proposed that the biologic properties of pancreatic cancer cells are finely tuned by the dynamic microenvironment, which includes extracellular matrix, cancer-associated cells, and diverse immune cells. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an essential role in communication between heterogeneous subpopulations of cells by transmitting multiplex biomolecules. EV-mediated cell–cell communication ultimately contributes to several aspects of pancreatic cancer, such as growth, angiogenesis, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. In this review, we discuss the role of extracellular vesicles and their cargo molecules in pancreatic cancer. We also present the feasibility of the inhibition of extracellular biosynthesis and their itinerary (release and uptake) for a new attractive therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Phenol-Enriched Virgin Olive Oil Promotes Macrophage-Specific Reverse Cholesterol Transport In Vivo
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080266 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
The intake of olive oil (OO) enriched with phenolic compounds (PCs) promotes ex vivo HDL-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux in humans. We aimed to determine the effects of PC-enriched virgin OO on reverse cholesterol transport (RevCT) from macrophages to feces in vivo. Female C57BL/6 [...] Read more.
The intake of olive oil (OO) enriched with phenolic compounds (PCs) promotes ex vivo HDL-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux in humans. We aimed to determine the effects of PC-enriched virgin OO on reverse cholesterol transport (RevCT) from macrophages to feces in vivo. Female C57BL/6 mice were given intragastric doses of refined OO (ROO) and a functional unrefined virgin OO enriched with its own PC (FVOO) for 14 days. Our experiments included two independent groups of mice that received intragastric doses of the phenolic extract (PE) used to prepare the FVOO and the vehicle solution (saline), as control, for 14 days. FVOO intake led to a significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol and its ability to induce macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro when compared with ROO group. This was concomitant with the enhanced macrophage-derived [3H]cholesterol transport to feces in vivo. PE intake per se also increased HDL cholesterol levels and significantly promoted in vivo macrophage-to-feces RevCT rate when compared with saline group. PE upregulated the expression of the main macrophage transporter involved in macrophage cholesterol efflux, the ATP binding cassettea1. Our data provide direct evidence of the crucial role of OO PCs in the induction of macrophage-specific RevCT in vivo. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
High Carbohydrate 19-9 Antigen Serum Levels in Patients with Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer and Primary Occult Cancer
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080265 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), despite having a favourable prognosis, present an increased risk of occult malignancies. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the usefulness of the mucinous marker carbohydrate 19-9 antigen (CA 19-9) in the diagnosis of occult cancers. [...] Read more.
Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), despite having a favourable prognosis, present an increased risk of occult malignancies. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the usefulness of the mucinous marker carbohydrate 19-9 antigen (CA 19-9) in the diagnosis of occult cancers. (1) Patients and Methods: This is a case control study in which 480 patients with NMSC and 480 matched control subjects with dermatitis were enrolled; 208 patients with NMSC showed upper-normal CA 19-9 values, and 272 showed under-normal CA 19-9 values. (2) Results: The 208 patients positive for CA 19-9 included 87 with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 121 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The 272 patients negative for CA 19-9 included 107 with BCC and 165 with SCC. For the SCC patients, CA 19-9 serum levels were significant in 121 of the patients (positive), 66 of which were affected by cancer; CA 19-9 was within the normal range in 165 patients, of which 30 were diagnosed with cancer. In the SCC patients, the CA 19-9 sensitivity was 68%, the specificity was 70%, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 54% (95%) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 81%. In the BCC patients, the CA 19-9 sensitivity was 70%, the specificity was 66%, the PPV was 48% and the NPV was 83%. In the dermatitis patients (controls), we observed 121 patients that were CA 19-9 positive, with 15 malignancies, and 359 CA 19-9-negative patients, with three malignancies. (3) Conclusions: To confirm the association between CA 19-9 and an elevated risk of malignancies in NMSC, prospective cohort studies should be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Biology and Therapeutics)
Review
PTEN, a Barrier for Proliferation and Metastasis of Gastric Cancer Cells: From Molecular Pathways to Targeting and Regulation
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080264 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
Cancer is one of the life-threatening disorders that, in spite of excellent advances in medicine and technology, there is no effective cure for. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are extensively applied in cancer therapy, but their efficacy in eradication of cancer cells, suppressing metastasis, [...] Read more.
Cancer is one of the life-threatening disorders that, in spite of excellent advances in medicine and technology, there is no effective cure for. Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are extensively applied in cancer therapy, but their efficacy in eradication of cancer cells, suppressing metastasis, and improving overall survival of patients is low. This is due to uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells and their high migratory ability. Finding molecular pathways involved in malignant behavior of cancer cells can pave the road to effective cancer therapy. In the present review, we focus on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) signaling as a tumor-suppressor molecular pathway in gastric cancer (GC). PTEN inhibits the PI3K/Akt pathway from interfering with the migration and growth of GC cells. Its activation leads to better survival of patients with GC. Different upstream mediators of PTEN in GC have been identified that can regulate PTEN in suppressing growth and invasion of GC cells, such as microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs. It seems that antitumor agents enhance the expression of PTEN in overcoming GC. This review focuses on aforementioned topics to provide a new insight into involvement of PTEN and its downstream and upstream mediators in GC. This will direct further studies for evaluation of novel signaling networks and their targeting for suppressing GC progression. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Nutritional Supplementation Concurrent with Nutrition Education Accelerates the Wound Healing Process in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080263 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3425
Abstract
Trials on nutritional supplements for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) have only evaluated the effects of supplementation with specific nutrients. Additionally, nutrition education has not been a systematic part of these studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Trials on nutritional supplements for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) have only evaluated the effects of supplementation with specific nutrients. Additionally, nutrition education has not been a systematic part of these studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutrient-dense formula combined with nutrition education on wound healing in DFU patients. Twenty-nine patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group (n = 15) receiving two servings of supplements daily plus nutrition education or control group (n = 14) that received the standard of care but no additional nutritional or educational intervention. Both groups were followed for a maximum of 12 weeks. Wound healing, as measured by planimetry, was examined at baseline and every four weeks until complete wound closure or up to 12 weeks. There were no significant differences between groups for BMI, age, duration of diabetes, wound age estimation, or wound area at baseline. The treatment group experienced a faster wound healing rate (6.43 mm2/week more reduction in the wound area) than the control group. The mean reduction in the wound area during the first four weeks of the study was almost 13-fold greater in the treatment group compared to the control group (18.0 mm2/week vs. 1.4 mm2/week, respectively). Our findings showed that nutrition supplementation plus nutrition education significantly accelerated wound healing in DFU patients compared to those who just received a standard-of-care regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Therapeutic Nutrient Molecules)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Organoarsenic Compounds with In Vitro Activity against the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080260 - 02 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
The rapid development of parasite drug resistance as well as the lack of medications targeting both the asexual and the sexual blood stages of the malaria parasite necessitate the search for novel antimalarial compounds. Eleven organoarsenic compounds were synthesized and tested for their [...] Read more.
The rapid development of parasite drug resistance as well as the lack of medications targeting both the asexual and the sexual blood stages of the malaria parasite necessitate the search for novel antimalarial compounds. Eleven organoarsenic compounds were synthesized and tested for their effect on the asexual blood stages and sexual transmission stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum using in vitro assays. The inhibitory potential of the compounds on blood stage viability was tested on the chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive 3D7 and the CQ-resistant Dd2 strain using the Malstat assay. The most effective compounds were subsequently investigated for their effect on impairing gametocyte development and gametogenesis, using the gametocyte-producing NF54 strain in respective cell-based assays. Their potential toxicity was investigated on leukemia cell line Nalm-6 and non-infected erythrocytes. Five out of the 11 compounds showed antiplasmodial activities against 3D7, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging between 1.52 and 8.64 µM. Three of the compounds also acted against Dd2, with the most active compound As-8 exhibiting an IC50 of 0.35 µM. The five compounds also showed significant inhibitory effects on the parasite sexual stages at both IC50 and IC90 concentrations with As-8 displaying the best gametocytocidal activity. No hemolytic and cytotoxic effect was observed for any of the compounds. The organoarsenic compound As-8 may represent a good lead for the design of novel organoarsenic drugs with combined antimalarial and transmission blocking activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parasitic Infection and Immunity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop