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Open AccessArticle

Phenol-Enriched Virgin Olive Oil Promotes Macrophage-Specific Reverse Cholesterol Transport In Vivo

1
Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques IIB Sant Pau, 08041 Barcelona, Spain
2
CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Surgery Department-Functional Nutrition, Oxidation, and CVD Research Group (NFOC-Salut), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences-Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain
4
Fundació EURECAT—Centre Tecnològic de Nutrició i Salut, 43204 Reus, Spain
5
Food Technology Department, Universitat de Lleida-Agrotecnio Center, 25198 Lleida, Spain
6
Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research and National Institute for Health and Welfare, Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, 00290 Helsinki, Finland
7
IMIM Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Grup de Risc Cardiovascular i Nutrició, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
8
CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CIBEROBN, Grup de Risc Cardiovascular i Nutrició, 28029 Madrid, Spain
9
Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08041 Barcelona, Spain
10
Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino-ICVV (CSIC-Universidad de La Rioja-Gobierno de La Rioja), Finca “La Grajera”, 26007 Logroño, La Rioja, Spain
11
Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus HUSJR, NFOC-Salut, 43204 Reus, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equal contribution of last senior authors.
Biomedicines 2020, 8(8), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8080266
Received: 16 July 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 29 July 2020 / Published: 3 August 2020
The intake of olive oil (OO) enriched with phenolic compounds (PCs) promotes ex vivo HDL-mediated macrophage cholesterol efflux in humans. We aimed to determine the effects of PC-enriched virgin OO on reverse cholesterol transport (RevCT) from macrophages to feces in vivo. Female C57BL/6 mice were given intragastric doses of refined OO (ROO) and a functional unrefined virgin OO enriched with its own PC (FVOO) for 14 days. Our experiments included two independent groups of mice that received intragastric doses of the phenolic extract (PE) used to prepare the FVOO and the vehicle solution (saline), as control, for 14 days. FVOO intake led to a significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol and its ability to induce macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro when compared with ROO group. This was concomitant with the enhanced macrophage-derived [3H]cholesterol transport to feces in vivo. PE intake per se also increased HDL cholesterol levels and significantly promoted in vivo macrophage-to-feces RevCT rate when compared with saline group. PE upregulated the expression of the main macrophage transporter involved in macrophage cholesterol efflux, the ATP binding cassettea1. Our data provide direct evidence of the crucial role of OO PCs in the induction of macrophage-specific RevCT in vivo. View Full-Text
Keywords: HDL; reverse cholesterol transport; virgin olive oil; phenolic compounds; mice VOHF project HDL; reverse cholesterol transport; virgin olive oil; phenolic compounds; mice VOHF project
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Cedó, L.; Fernández-Castillejo, S.; Rubió, L.; Metso, J.; Santos, D.; Muñoz-Aguayo, D.; Rivas-Urbina, A.; Tondo, M.; Méndez-Lara, K.A.; Farràs, M.; Jauhiainen, M.; Motilva, M.-J.; Fitó, M.; Blanco-Vaca, F.; Solà, R.; Escolà-Gil, J.C. Phenol-Enriched Virgin Olive Oil Promotes Macrophage-Specific Reverse Cholesterol Transport In Vivo. Biomedicines 2020, 8, 266.

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