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Climate, Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2019)

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Open AccessArticle Controls on Land Surface Temperature in Deserts of Southern California Derived from MODIS Satellite Time Series Analysis, 2000 to 2018
Climate 2019, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020032
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
The land surface temperature (LST) in arid regions is a primary controller of many ecological processes. Consequently, we have developed a framework for detection of LST change on a regional scale using data sets covering all deserts of southern California from the Moderate-Resolution [...] Read more.
The land surface temperature (LST) in arid regions is a primary controller of many ecological processes. Consequently, we have developed a framework for detection of LST change on a regional scale using data sets covering all deserts of southern California from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The Breaks for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) methodology was applied to MODIS 1-km monthly LST data from the years 2000 to 2018 to estimate significant time series shifts (breakpoints) and gradual trends. Area-wide results showed five times more positive LST breakpoints (abrupt temperature warming events) than negative (surface cooling) breakpoints. Cross-correlations with high rainfall periods around Mojave dry lake playas, and comparison with timing of wildfire burns for breakpoint patterns, showed that abrupt shifts in LST had the strongest response to these controllers. We detected negative LST (abrupt cooling) breakpoints as consistently associated with the construction of new solar energy facilities. Over the majority of the study area, BFAST results showed warming LST trends between the years 2000 and 2018. The western-most margins of the study area showed consistent widespread warming trends, whereas the eastern portions of the Mojave and Lower Colorado Deserts showed a mix of positive and neutral LST trends. Long-term cooling LST trends were detected only in some of the largest dry lake formations in the Antelope Valley, Death Valley, and Bristol, Cadiz, and Danby playas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space Monitoring of Climate Change)
Open AccessArticle A Proposed Exogenous Cause of the Global Temperature Hiatus
Climate 2019, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020031
Received: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 3 February 2019
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Abstract
Since 1850, the rise in global mean surface temperatures (GMSTs) from increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) has exhibited three ~30-year hiatus (surface cooling) episodes. The current hiatus is often thought to be generated by similar cooling episodes in Pacific or Atlantic [...] Read more.
Since 1850, the rise in global mean surface temperatures (GMSTs) from increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) has exhibited three ~30-year hiatus (surface cooling) episodes. The current hiatus is often thought to be generated by similar cooling episodes in Pacific or Atlantic ocean basins. However, GMSTs as well as reconstructed Atlantic and Pacific ocean basin surface temperatures show the presence of similar multidecadal components generated from a three-dimensional analysis of differential gravitational (tidal) forcing from the sun and moon. This paper hypothesizes that these episodes are all caused by external tidal forcing that generates alternating ~30-year zonal and meridional circulation regimes, which respectively increase and decrease GMSTs through tidal effects on sequestration (deep ocean heat storage) and energy redistribution. Hiatus episodes consequently coincide with meridional regimes. The current meridional regime affecting GMSTs is predicted to continue to the mid-2030s but have limited tendency to decrease GMSTs from sequestration because of continuing increases in radiative forcing from increasing atmospheric GHGs. The tidal formulation also generates bidecadal oscillations, which may generate shorter ~12-year hiatus periods in global and ocean basin temperatures. The formulation appears to assimilate findings from disciplines as disparate as geophysics and biology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between East Asian Cold Surges and Synoptic Patterns: A New Coupling Framework
Climate 2019, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020030
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Strong cold surge events (CSEs) are some of the most distinct winter weather events in East Asia, impacting natural ecosystems and over 100 million individuals. The impact of such extreme CSEs as driven by synoptic systems is direct and immediate. Changes in large-scale [...] Read more.
Strong cold surge events (CSEs) are some of the most distinct winter weather events in East Asia, impacting natural ecosystems and over 100 million individuals. The impact of such extreme CSEs as driven by synoptic systems is direct and immediate. Changes in large-scale synoptic patterns as potentially affected by changes in the Arctic are further expected to influence CSE occurrences in East Asia. Defying a straightforward analysis, semi-permanent atmospheric systems such as the Siberian High (SH), influencing large-scale synoptic patterns, make the atmospheric circulation highly variable and assessment of CSE onset difficult. Rather varied region-specific metrics are currently adopted for predicting CSE occurrence locally but the fundamental understanding of the onset of CSEs continues to be a major challenge. Based on an analysis of monthly synoptic patterns for three unusual CSEs in East Asia and further extended for eight strong to extreme CSEs, we propose a new coupling framework for an improved understanding and interpretation of the atmosphere dynamics driving CSE onset. The coupling framework involves linkages between the Siberian High, Aleutian Low, and Jet Stream. We also present the first meteorological scale for categorizing the intensity of such unusual CSEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate and Climate Niche Models)
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Open AccessArticle Mainstreaming Climate Change into the EIA Process in Nigeria: Perspectives from Projects in the Niger Delta Region
Climate 2019, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020029
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Climate change incorporation in environmental assessment is a growing research area, particularly following the Paris agreement. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is considered in many quarters to be an important tool in factoring climate-related components in the planning and design of a project. However, [...] Read more.
Climate change incorporation in environmental assessment is a growing research area, particularly following the Paris agreement. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is considered in many quarters to be an important tool in factoring climate-related components in the planning and design of a project. However, many recent researches have shown that EIA has, so far, struggled in the attempt to incorporate climate change into its procedures. This study is an attempt to evaluate the level of consideration of climate change in the EIA process in Nigeria, with particular focus on the Niger Delta region. The result of this quantitative research shows that there is a poor political will to address climate change, as reflected in the absence of climate change requirements in the EIA guidelines of Nigeria. Although, there is a growing trend in the pattern of consideration of climate change in the EIA procedures, the overall level of consideration is still a far cry from the requirements if EIA is to be considered to be an important tool in addressing challenges of climate change in Nigeria. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Can Policy-Makers Do to Increase the Effectiveness of Building Renovation Subsidies?
Climate 2019, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020028
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 20 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Heating is responsible for a substantial share of global energy consumption and still relies strongly on fossil fuels. In order to reduce energy consumption for heating, subsidies for building renovations are a common policy measure in Europe. Policy makers often combine them with [...] Read more.
Heating is responsible for a substantial share of global energy consumption and still relies strongly on fossil fuels. In order to reduce energy consumption for heating, subsidies for building renovations are a common policy measure in Europe. Policy makers often combine them with information and advice measures. Policy mixes of this kind have been acknowledged widely in the literature, but their effectiveness needs further empirical examination. Based on a survey of the recipients of renovation subsidies and on four focus groups, we examine the (cost) effectiveness of subsidies, as follows: The effectiveness of renovation subsidies was measured by the extent to which receiving subsidies contributed either to the decision to renovate at all, or to the decision to enhance the quality or scope of the renovation. Fifty percent of the recipients surveyed reported that the subsidies contributed to a more energy-efficient renovation than was initially intended. The other fifty percent must be considered as free riders. Multivariate analyses further show that homeowners who used advice services and attributed outstandingly positive characteristics to the policy implementer were more likely to spend subsidies to improve energy efficiency. The findings demonstrate the importance of applying a combination of financial and persuasive policy measures. Additionally, they illustrate the importance of non-financial and non-technical factors, such as the communication competencies of the implementer, when designing policy measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Navigating Climate Action in a Post-2015 Transforming Era)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Constraints to Vegetation Growth Reduced by Region-Specific Changes in Seasonal Climate
Climate 2019, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020027
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
We qualitatively and quantitatively assessed the factors related to vegetation growth using Earth system models and corroborated the results with historical climate observations. The Earth system models showed a systematic greening by the late 21st century, including increases of up to 100% in [...] Read more.
We qualitatively and quantitatively assessed the factors related to vegetation growth using Earth system models and corroborated the results with historical climate observations. The Earth system models showed a systematic greening by the late 21st century, including increases of up to 100% in Gross Primary Production (GPP) and 60% in Leaf Area Index (LAI). A subset of models revealed that the radiative effects of CO2 largely control changes in climate, but that the CO2 fertilization effect dominates the greening. The ensemble of Earth system model experiments revealed that the feedback of surface temperature contributed to 17% of GPP increase in temperature-limited regions, and radiation increase accounted for a 7% increase of GPP in radiation-limited areas. These effects are corroborated by historical observations. For example, observations confirm that cloud cover has decreased over most land areas in the last three decades, consistent with a CO2-induced reduction in transpiration. Our results suggest that vegetation may thrive in the starkly different climate expected over the coming decades, but only if plants harvest the sort of hypothesized physiological benefits of higher CO2 depicted by current Earth system models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variability and Change in the 21th Century)
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Open AccessArticle Outdoor Air Temperature Measurement: A Semi-Empirical Model to Characterize Shelter Performance
Climate 2019, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020026
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Shelters used to protect air temperature sensors from solar radiation induce a measurement error. This work presents a semi-empirical model based on meteorological variables to evaluate this error. The model equation is based on the analytical solution of a simplified energy balance performed [...] Read more.
Shelters used to protect air temperature sensors from solar radiation induce a measurement error. This work presents a semi-empirical model based on meteorological variables to evaluate this error. The model equation is based on the analytical solution of a simplified energy balance performed on a naturally ventilated shelter. Two main physical error causes are identified from this equation: one is due to the shelter response time and the other is due to its solar radiation sensitivity. A shelter intercomparison measurement campaign performed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is used to perform a non-linear regression of the model coefficients. The regression coefficient values obtained for each shelter are found to be consistent with their expected physical behavior. They are then used to simply classify shelters according to their response time and radiation sensitivity characteristics. Finally, the ability of the model to estimate the temperature error within a given shelter is assessed and compared to the one of two existing models (proposed by Cheng and by Nakamura). For low-response-time shelters, our results reduce the root mean square error by about 15% (0.07 K) on average when compared with other compensation schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Modeling Investigation of Northern Hemisphere Extratropical Cyclone Activity in Spring: The Linkage between Extreme Weather and Arctic Sea Ice Forcing
Climate 2019, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020025
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
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Abstract
Arctic sea ice exhibits rapid reductions and large fluctuations during recent decades in conjunction with a warming climate. Arctic sea ice shows a prominent seasonal cycle with the maximum extent in spring and the minimum extent in fall. In this study a suite [...] Read more.
Arctic sea ice exhibits rapid reductions and large fluctuations during recent decades in conjunction with a warming climate. Arctic sea ice shows a prominent seasonal cycle with the maximum extent in spring and the minimum extent in fall. In this study a suite of modeling experiments, which were solely forced with observed time-varying sea-ice concentration for spring 1979 to 2008 was conducted using NCAR’s Community Atmosphere Model to identify sea ice impacts on extratropical storms and associated surface climate parameters when they at the peak of their seasonal variability. Storms are the linkage between the large-scale circulation changes, forced by Arctic sea ice and local extreme weather events through strong winds, high precipitation, and high/low air temperature. In this study, a storm identification and tracking algorithm indicates that reduced sea-ice cover enhances Arctic storm activity. As a consequence, surface climate parameters such as surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation increases in spring over the Arctic. The changes in the Arctic have a direct and indirect effect on the extratropical storm activity over the mid-latitudes. In contrast to the Arctic, storm activity weakens over Eurasia in the years with less sea ice. Further analysis of the surface climate indicates a warmer and dryer Eurasia for years with reduced sea ice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Distribution of the Mexican Daisy, Erigeron karvinskianus, in New Zealand under Climate Change
Climate 2019, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020024
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 27 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
The invasive species Erigeron karvinskianus or Mexican daisy is considered a significant weed that impacts native forest restoration efforts in New Zealand. Mapping the potential distribution of this species under current and future predicted climatic conditions provides managers with relevant information for developing [...] Read more.
The invasive species Erigeron karvinskianus or Mexican daisy is considered a significant weed that impacts native forest restoration efforts in New Zealand. Mapping the potential distribution of this species under current and future predicted climatic conditions provides managers with relevant information for developing appropriate management strategies. Using occurrences available from global and local databases, spatial distribution characteristics were analyzed using geostatistical tools in ArcMap to characterize current distribution. Species distribution modeling (SDM) using Maxent was conducted to determine the potential spatial distribution of E. karvinskianus worldwide and in New Zealand with projections into future climate conditions. Potential habitat suitability under future climatic conditions were simulated using greenhouse gas emission trajectories under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) models RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 for years 2050 and 2070. Occurrence data were processed to minimize redundancy and spatial autocorrelation; non-correlated environmental variables were determined to minimize bias and ensure robust models. Kernel density, hotspot and cluster analysis of outliers show that populated areas of Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch have significantly greater concentrations of E. karvinskianus. Species distribution modeling results find an increase in the expansion of range with higher RCP values, and plots of centroids show a southward movement of predicted range for the species. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Variation in Resource Allocation Strategies among 11 Indian Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars Growing in High Ozone Environment
Climate 2019, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020023
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
Eleven local cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were chosen to study the effect of ambient ozone (O3) concentration in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India at two high-ozone experimental sites by using 300 ppm of Ethylenediurea (EDU) as a [...] Read more.
Eleven local cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were chosen to study the effect of ambient ozone (O3) concentration in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India at two high-ozone experimental sites by using 300 ppm of Ethylenediurea (EDU) as a chemical protectant against O3. The O3 level was more than double the critical threshold reported for wheat grain production (AOT40 8.66 ppm h). EDU-grown plants had higher grain yield, biomass, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, less lipid peroxidation, changes in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, changes in content of oxidized and reduced glutathione compared to non-EDU plants, thus indicating the severity of O3 induced productivity loss. Based on the yield at two different growing sites, the cultivars could be addressed in four response groups: (a) generally well-adapted cultivars (above-average yield); (b) poorly-adapted (below-average yield); (c) adapted to low-yield environment (below-average yield); and (d) sensitive cultivars (adapted to high-yield environment). EDU responses were dependent on the cultivar, the developmental phase (vegetative, flowering and harvest) and the experimental site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle Peculiarities of Long-Term Changes in Air Temperatures Near the Ground Surface in the Central Baltic Coastal Area
Climate 2019, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020022
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
The peculiarities of the long-term change of the annual and monthly average air temperatures until 2017 in five cities of the coastal area of the Central Baltic region—Stockholm, Tallinn, Riga, Helsinki, and Saint Petersburg—were studied. The anomalies of the annual and monthly average [...] Read more.
The peculiarities of the long-term change of the annual and monthly average air temperatures until 2017 in five cities of the coastal area of the Central Baltic region—Stockholm, Tallinn, Riga, Helsinki, and Saint Petersburg—were studied. The anomalies of the annual and monthly average air temperatures in relation to the average characteristics 1961–1990 were analyzed. The trends in the air temperature changes during 1980–2017, which come to 0.5 °C per ten years, have been found in the cities of the Central Baltic coastal area. The average air temperature in the Central Baltic cities has grown faster than the global and northern hemisphere. For the longer period of 1850–2017, the average annual rise of air temperature was within the range of 0.1 °C per ten years. The rise in temperature in different months is different, and the rise of the of the average temperature in the summer period has not occurred (at a significance level of 0.05). With the analysis of the frequency distributions of the average annual air temperatures and Welch’s t-test, it is demonstrated that the air temperature (at a significance level of 0.05) has risen in all the months only in Saint Petersburg during 1901–2017 in comparison to the 19th century. There has been no reliable rise of the air temperature during the century in February and from June to September in Riga, from June to October in Helsinki, from June to September in Stockholm, and in August and September in Tallinn. It was found that the average air temperature trends have a certain annual course. The air temperature has risen most in March and April, reaching 0.09 °C (Stockholm, Tallinn) up to 0.23 °C (Saint Petersburg) per ten years. From June to September, the rise of air temperature is considerably lower, remaining below 0.04 °C per ten years. The changes in air temperature are small during the summer and mid-winter; the air temperature has significantly risen in autumn and spring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Physical–Mathematical Approach to Climate Change Effects through Stochastic Resonance
Climate 2019, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020021
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the effects induced by climate changes in the framework of the stochastic resonance approach. First, a wavelet cross-correlation analysis on Earth temperature data concerning the last 5,500,000 years is performed; this analysis confirms a correlation [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to study the effects induced by climate changes in the framework of the stochastic resonance approach. First, a wavelet cross-correlation analysis on Earth temperature data concerning the last 5,500,000 years is performed; this analysis confirms a correlation between the planet’s temperature and the 100,000, 41,000, and 23,000-year periods of the Milankovitch orbital cycles. Then, the stochastic resonance model is invoked. Specific attention is given to the study of the impact of the registered global temperature increase within the stochastic model. Further, a numerical simulation has been performed, based on: (1) A double-well potential, (2) an external periodic modulation, corresponding to the orbit eccentricity cycle, and (3) an increased value of the global Earth temperature. The effect of temperature increase represents one of the novelties introduced in the present study and is determined by downshifting the interaction potential used within the stochastic resonance model. The numeric simulation results show that, for simulated increasing values of the global temperature, the double-well system triggers changes, while at higher temperatures (as in the case of the absence of a global temperature increase although with a different threshold) the system goes into a chaotic regime. The wavelet analysis allows characterization of the stochastic resonance condition through the evaluation of the signal-to-noise ratio. On the basis of the obtained findings, we hypothesize that the global temperature increase can suppress, on a large time scale corresponding to glacial cycles, the external periodic modulation effects and, hence, the glacial cycles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Green Spaces on Outdoors Thermal Comfort—Structured Experiment in a Mediterranean Climate
Climate 2019, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020020
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 26 January 2019
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Abstract
As a growing part of the global population lives in cities, green spaces are an essential asset for improving quality of life. This study aims to address the role of green spaces in providing favorable thermal comfort conditions for the use of outdoor [...] Read more.
As a growing part of the global population lives in cities, green spaces are an essential asset for improving quality of life. This study aims to address the role of green spaces in providing favorable thermal comfort conditions for the use of outdoor spaces. The research methodology consisted of a structured experiment where a defined set of individuals from different age groups was exposed to differentiated microclimate conditions. Four nearby locations were considered, ranging from a stone-paved surface without shade to high tree canopy coverage over grass. This experiment took place in three different days in summer and early autumn conditions, with a total of 432 questionnaires. Results show a wide range of thermal sensations found during this experiment, while more favorable thermal sensations were found in shaded locations. To investigate the role of prevailing meteorological and personal conditions on thermal sensations, multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied. Results show the influence of air temperature, global radiation, wind speed, and interviewees’ gender. As meteorological variables were influenced by the diverse contexts found within a close distance inside the studied green space, results from this structured experiment suggest the need for micrometeorological diversity in the local context as a means to promote greater adaptive opportunities for green spaces users. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Climate Change and Extreme Weather Drive the Declines of Saline Lakes: A Showcase of the Great Salt Lake
Climate 2019, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020019
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 23 January 2019
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Abstract
A viewpoint of a temporal trend with an extremely changing point analysis is proposed to analyze and characterize the so-called current declines of the world’s saline lakes. A temporal trend of a hydrological or climate variable is statistically tested by regressing it against [...] Read more.
A viewpoint of a temporal trend with an extremely changing point analysis is proposed to analyze and characterize the so-called current declines of the world’s saline lakes. A temporal trend of a hydrological or climate variable is statistically tested by regressing it against time; if the regression is statistically significant, an ascending or declining trend exists. The extremely changing points can be found out by using the mean of a variable, adding or subtracting two times of its standard deviation (SD) for extremely high values and extremely low values, respectively. Applying the temporal trend method to the Great Salt Lake’s (GSL) relationship between its surface levels and precipitation/temperature in the last century, we conclude that climate changes, especially local warming and extreme weather including both precipitation and temperature, drive the dynamics (increases and declines) of the GSL surface levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Bias Correction Methods on Simulated Köppen−Geiger Climate Zones in Europe
Climate 2019, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020018
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Our goal was to investigate the influence of bias correction methods on climate simulations over the European domain. We calculated the Köppen−Geiger climate classification using five individual regional climate models (RCM) of the ENSEMBLES project in the European domain during the period 1961−1990. [...] Read more.
Our goal was to investigate the influence of bias correction methods on climate simulations over the European domain. We calculated the Köppen−Geiger climate classification using five individual regional climate models (RCM) of the ENSEMBLES project in the European domain during the period 1961−1990. The simulated precipitation and temperature data were corrected using the European daily high-resolution gridded dataset (E-OBS) observed data by five methods: (i) the empirical quantile mapping of precipitation and temperature, (ii) the quantile mapping of precipitation and temperature based on gamma and Generalized Pareto Distribution of precipitation, (iii) local intensity scaling, (iv) the power transformation of precipitation and (v) the variance scaling of temperature bias corrections. The individual bias correction methods had a significant effect on the climate classification, but the degree of this effect varied among the RCMs. Our results on the performance of bias correction differ from previous results described in the literature where these corrections were implemented over river catchments. We conclude that the effect of bias correction may depend on the region of model domain. These results suggest that distribution free bias correction approaches are the most suitable for large domain sizes such as the pan-European domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variability and Change in the 21th Century)
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