Next Article in Journal
What Can Policy-Makers Do to Increase the Effectiveness of Building Renovation Subsidies?
Next Article in Special Issue
Characterization of Meteorological Droughts Occurrences in Côte d’Ivoire: Case of the Sassandra Watershed
Previous Article in Journal
Outdoor Air Temperature Measurement: A Semi-Empirical Model to Characterize Shelter Performance
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influence of Bias Correction Methods on Simulated Köppen−Geiger Climate Zones in Europe
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Constraints to Vegetation Growth Reduced by Region-Specific Changes in Seasonal Climate

1
California State University Monterey Bay/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
2
NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
3
Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka 560012, India
4
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, ZheJiang University, HangZhou 310007, China
5
Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
6
CropSnap LLC, Sunnyvale, CA 94087, USA
7
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
8
NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, USA
9
Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Climate 2019, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020027
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Variability and Change in the 21th Century)
  |  
PDF [6797 KB, uploaded 18 February 2019]
  |  

Abstract

We qualitatively and quantitatively assessed the factors related to vegetation growth using Earth system models and corroborated the results with historical climate observations. The Earth system models showed a systematic greening by the late 21st century, including increases of up to 100% in Gross Primary Production (GPP) and 60% in Leaf Area Index (LAI). A subset of models revealed that the radiative effects of CO2 largely control changes in climate, but that the CO2 fertilization effect dominates the greening. The ensemble of Earth system model experiments revealed that the feedback of surface temperature contributed to 17% of GPP increase in temperature-limited regions, and radiation increase accounted for a 7% increase of GPP in radiation-limited areas. These effects are corroborated by historical observations. For example, observations confirm that cloud cover has decreased over most land areas in the last three decades, consistent with a CO2-induced reduction in transpiration. Our results suggest that vegetation may thrive in the starkly different climate expected over the coming decades, but only if plants harvest the sort of hypothesized physiological benefits of higher CO2 depicted by current Earth system models. View Full-Text
Keywords: terrestrial ecosystems; GPP; LAI; CMIP5; CO2 fertilization effect; feedback terrestrial ecosystems; GPP; LAI; CMIP5; CO2 fertilization effect; feedback
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hashimoto, H.; Nemani, R.R.; Bala, G.; Cao, L.; Michaelis, A.R.; Ganguly, S.; Wang, W.; Milesi, C.; Eastman, R.; Lee, T.; Myneni, R. Constraints to Vegetation Growth Reduced by Region-Specific Changes in Seasonal Climate. Climate 2019, 7, 27.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Climate EISSN 2225-1154 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top