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Climate 2019, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020026

Outdoor Air Temperature Measurement: A Semi-Empirical Model to Characterize Shelter Performance

1
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 6285, 56000 Vannes, France
2
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRSTV, FR 2488, 44321 Nantes, France
3
École Centrale Nantes, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LHEEA, UMR 6598, 44321 Nantes, France
4
Soleneos, 49750 Val du Layon, France
5
Cerema Ouest, 44200 Nantes, France
6
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 6183, 44321 Nantes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract

Shelters used to protect air temperature sensors from solar radiation induce a measurement error. This work presents a semi-empirical model based on meteorological variables to evaluate this error. The model equation is based on the analytical solution of a simplified energy balance performed on a naturally ventilated shelter. Two main physical error causes are identified from this equation: one is due to the shelter response time and the other is due to its solar radiation sensitivity. A shelter intercomparison measurement campaign performed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is used to perform a non-linear regression of the model coefficients. The regression coefficient values obtained for each shelter are found to be consistent with their expected physical behavior. They are then used to simply classify shelters according to their response time and radiation sensitivity characteristics. Finally, the ability of the model to estimate the temperature error within a given shelter is assessed and compared to the one of two existing models (proposed by Cheng and by Nakamura). For low-response-time shelters, our results reduce the root mean square error by about 15% (0.07 K) on average when compared with other compensation schemes. View Full-Text
Keywords: response time; shelter intercomparison; measurement error; air temperature correction; empirical modeling response time; shelter intercomparison; measurement error; air temperature correction; empirical modeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bernard, J.; Kéravec, P.; Morille, B.; Bocher, E.; Musy, M.; Calmet, I. Outdoor Air Temperature Measurement: A Semi-Empirical Model to Characterize Shelter Performance. Climate 2019, 7, 26.

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