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Universe, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2024) – 40 articles

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12 pages, 1390 KiB  
Article
Effects of Impurities and Deformations on Electronic Effective Mass in Quantum Revival Time within the Infinite Square Well
by Cleverson Filgueiras, Luiz H. C. Borges and Moises Rojas
Universe 2024, 10(6), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060269 - 20 Jun 2024
Viewed by 233
Abstract
Quantum revival phenomena, wherein the wave function of a quantum system periodically returns to its initial state after evolving in time, are investigated in this study. Focusing on electrons confined within a quantum box with an impurity, both weak- and strong-coupling regimes are [...] Read more.
Quantum revival phenomena, wherein the wave function of a quantum system periodically returns to its initial state after evolving in time, are investigated in this study. Focusing on electrons confined within a quantum box with an impurity, both weak- and strong-coupling regimes are explored, revealing intricate relationships between impurity parameters and temporal dynamics. This investigation considers the influence of impurity position, impurity strength, and external factors such as aluminum concentration, temperature and hydrostatic pressure on classical periods and revival times. Through analytical derivations and graphical analyses, this study elucidates the sensitivity of quantum revivals to these parameters, providing valuable insights into the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. While no specific physical applications are discussed, the findings offer implications for quantum heat engines and other quantum-based technologies, emphasizing the importance of understanding quantum revivals in confined quantum systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Gravity)
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22 pages, 785 KiB  
Article
Constraints on the Minimally Extended Varying Speed of Light Model Using Pantheon+ Dataset
by Seokcheon Lee
Universe 2024, 10(6), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060268 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
In the context of the minimally extended varying speed of light (meVSL) model, both the absolute magnitude and the luminosity distance of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) deviate from those predicted by general relativity (GR). Using data from the Pantheon+ survey, we assess [...] Read more.
In the context of the minimally extended varying speed of light (meVSL) model, both the absolute magnitude and the luminosity distance of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) deviate from those predicted by general relativity (GR). Using data from the Pantheon+ survey, we assess the plausibility of various dark energy models within the framework of meVSL. Both the constant equation of state (EoS) of the dark energy model (ωCDM) and the Chevallier–Polarski–Linder (CPL) parameterization model (ω=ω0+ωa(1a)) indicate potential variations in the cosmic speed of light at the 1σ confidence level. For Ωm0=0.30,0.31, and 0.32 with (ω0,ωa)=(1,0), the 1σ range of c˙0/c0(1013yr1) is (−8.76, −0.89), (−11.8, 3.93), and (−14.8, −6.98), respectively. Meanwhile, the 1σ range of c˙0/c0(1012yr1) for CPL dark energy models with 1.05ω00.95 and 0.28Ωm00.32 is (−6.31, −2.98). The value of c at z=3 can exceed that of the present by 0.2∼3% for ωCDM models and 5∼13% for CPL models. Additionally, for viable models except for the CPL model with Ωm0=0.28, we find 25.6G˙0/G0(1012yr1)0.36. For this particular model, we obtain an increasing rate of the gravitational constant within the range 1.65G˙0/G0(1012yr1)3.79. We obtain some models that do not require dark matter energy density through statistical interpretation. However, this is merely an effect of the degeneracy between model parameters and energy density and does not imply that dark matter is unnecessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cosmology)
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18 pages, 528 KiB  
Article
On the Five-Dimensional Non-Extremal Reissner–Nordström Black Hole: Retractions and Scalar Quasibound States
by Mohammed Abu-Saleem, Horacio Santana Vieira and Luiz Henrique Campos Borges
Universe 2024, 10(6), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060267 - 19 Jun 2024
Viewed by 206
Abstract
In this paper, we examine the role played by topology, and some specific boundary conditions as well, on the physics of a higher-dimensional black hole. We analyze the line element of a five-dimensional non-extremal Reissner–Nordström black hole to obtain a new family of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we examine the role played by topology, and some specific boundary conditions as well, on the physics of a higher-dimensional black hole. We analyze the line element of a five-dimensional non-extremal Reissner–Nordström black hole to obtain a new family of subspaces that are types of strong retractions and deformations, and then we extend these results to higher dimensions in order to deduce the relationship between various types of transformations. We also study the scalar field perturbations in the background under consideration and obtain an analytical expression for the quasibound state frequencies by using the Vieira–Bezerra–Kokkotas approach, which uses the polynomial conditions of the general Heun functions, and then we discuss the stability of the system and present the radial eigenfunctions. Our main goal is to discuss the physical meaning of these mathematical applications in such higher-dimensional effective metric. Full article
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21 pages, 2528 KiB  
Article
On Dark Matter and Dark Energy in CCC+TL Cosmology
by Rajendra P. Gupta
Universe 2024, 10(6), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060266 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Relaxing the temporal constancy constraint on coupling constants in an expanding universe results in Friedmann equations containing terms that may be interpreted as dark energy and dark matter. When tired light (TL) was considered to complement the redshift due to the expanding universe, [...] Read more.
Relaxing the temporal constancy constraint on coupling constants in an expanding universe results in Friedmann equations containing terms that may be interpreted as dark energy and dark matter. When tired light (TL) was considered to complement the redshift due to the expanding universe, the resulting covarying coupling constants (CCC+TL) model not only fit the Type Ia supernovae data as precisely as the ΛCDM model, but also resolved concerns about the angular size of cosmic dawn galaxies observed by the James Webb Space Telescope. The model was recently shown to be compliant with the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the galaxy distribution and the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This paper demonstrates that dark energy and dark matter of the standard ΛCDM model are not arbitrary but can be derived from the CCC approach based on Dirac’s 1937 hypothesis. The energy densities associated with dark matter and dark energy turn out to be about the same in the ΛCDM and the CCC+TL models. However, the critical density in the new model can only account for the baryonic matter in the universe, raising concerns about how to account for observations requiring dark matter. We therefore analyze some key parameters of structure formation and show how they are affected in the absence of dark matter in the CCC+TL scenario. It requires reconsidering alternatives to dark matter to explain observations on gravitationally bound structures. The model’s consistency with the CMB power spectrum, BBN element abundances, and other critical observations is yet to be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Energy and Dark Matter)
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1 pages, 117 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Kim et al. Estimates of the Surface Magnetic Field Strength of Radio Pulsars. Universe 2023, 9, 334
by Universe Editorial Office
Universe 2024, 10(6), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060265 - 18 Jun 2024
Viewed by 147
Abstract
The Universe Editorial Office would like to make the following correction regarding the Academic Editor listed for this published paper [...] Full article
13 pages, 478 KiB  
Article
Model-Independent Odderon Results Based on New TOTEM Data on Elastic Proton–Proton Collisions at 8 TeV
by Tamás Csörgő, Tamás Novák, Roman Pasechnik, András Ster and István Szanyi
Universe 2024, 10(6), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060264 - 17 Jun 2024
Viewed by 260
Abstract
Evaluating the H(x,s|pp) scaling function of elastic proton–proton (pp) collisions from recent TOTEM data at s=8 TeV and comparing it with the same function of elastic proton–antiproton ( [...] Read more.
Evaluating the H(x,s|pp) scaling function of elastic proton–proton (pp) collisions from recent TOTEM data at s=8 TeV and comparing it with the same function of elastic proton–antiproton (pp¯) data of the D0 collaboration at s=1.96 TeV, we find, from this comparison alone, an at least 3.79 σ signal of odderon exchange. If we combine this model-independently obtained result with that of a similar analysis but using TOTEM elastic pp scattering data at s=7 TeV, which resulted in an at least 6.26 σ signal, the combined significance of odderon exchange increases to at least 7.08 σ. Further combinations of various datasets in the TeV energy range are detailed in the manuscript. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiparticle Dynamics)
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14 pages, 257 KiB  
Article
Relations between Newtonian and Relativistic Cosmology
by Jaume de Haro
Universe 2024, 10(6), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060263 - 16 Jun 2024
Viewed by 283
Abstract
We start with the cosmic Friedmann equations, where we adopt a novel perspective rooted in a Lagrangian formulation, grounded in Newtonian mechanics and the first law of thermodynamics. Our investigation operates under the assumption that the universe is populated by either a perfect [...] Read more.
We start with the cosmic Friedmann equations, where we adopt a novel perspective rooted in a Lagrangian formulation, grounded in Newtonian mechanics and the first law of thermodynamics. Our investigation operates under the assumption that the universe is populated by either a perfect fluid or a scalar field. By elucidating the intricate interplay between the Lagrangian formulation and the cosmic Friedmann equations, we uncover the fundamental principles governing the universe’s dynamics within the framework of these elemental constituents. In our concluding endeavor, we embark on the task of harmonizing the classical equations—namely, the conservation, Euler, and Poisson equations—with the principles of General Relativity. This undertaking seeks to extend these foundational equations to encompass the gravitational effects delineated by General Relativity, thus providing a comprehensive framework for understanding the behavior of matter and spacetime in the cosmic context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe: Theory and Observation)
18 pages, 5090 KiB  
Article
Altitude Heterogeneity of Magnetic Fields and Doppler Velocities in the Area of Seismic Source of a Strong Solar Flare from Data in Helium, Sodium, and Nickel Lines
by Ivan I. Yakovkin, Natalia I. Lozitska and Vsevolod G. Lozitsky
Universe 2024, 10(6), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060262 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Measurements of magnetic fields near seismic sources during solar flares are vital for understanding the dynamics of solar activity. We used spectropolarimetric observations of the X17.2/4B solar flare on 28 October 2003, over a wavelength interval of 43 Å, including the D3, D2, [...] Read more.
Measurements of magnetic fields near seismic sources during solar flares are vital for understanding the dynamics of solar activity. We used spectropolarimetric observations of the X17.2/4B solar flare on 28 October 2003, over a wavelength interval of 43 Å, including the D3, D2, D1, and Ni I 5892.88 Å lines, to analyze the Stokes I ± V profiles. Effective magnetic fields within 0.5–1.5 kG were measured in the D1, D2, and D3 lines at different flare locations, with the photospheric Ni I 5892.88 Å line showing a weaker field of below 0.5 kG. The D3 line showed rapid plasma descents of up to 11 km/s, in contrast to the slower velocities within 2.3 km/s observed in other lines. The differing amplitudes in the I + V and IV profiles indicated potential non-Zeeman polarization effects. Secondary Stokes V peaks were also detected up to 8 Å from the D3 emission core. Significant altitudinal inhomogeneity in the magnetic field strengths was detected, possibly indicating the local magnetic collapse, facilitating the Lorentz-force driven mechanism of the seismic source excitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar and Stellar Activity: Exploring the Cosmic Nexus)
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15 pages, 378 KiB  
Article
On the Effects of Non-Metricity in an Averaged Universe
by Anish Agashe and Sai Madhav Modumudi
Universe 2024, 10(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060261 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 327
Abstract
In the covariant averaging scheme of macroscopic gravity, the process of averaging breaks the metricity of geometry. We reinterpret the back-reaction within macroscopic gravity in terms of the non-metricity of averaged geometry. This interpretation extends the effect of back-reaction beyond mere dynamics to [...] Read more.
In the covariant averaging scheme of macroscopic gravity, the process of averaging breaks the metricity of geometry. We reinterpret the back-reaction within macroscopic gravity in terms of the non-metricity of averaged geometry. This interpretation extends the effect of back-reaction beyond mere dynamics to the kinematics of geodesic bundles. With a 1 + 3 decomposition of the spacetime, we analyse how geometric flows are modified by deriving the Raychaudhuri and Sachs equations. We also present the modified forms of Gauss and Codazzi equations. Finally, we derive an expression for the angular diameter distance in the Friedmann Lemaître Robertson Walker universe and show that non-metricity modifies it only through the Hubble parameter. Thus, we caution against overestimating the influence of back-reaction on the distances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Modified Theories of Gravity and Cosmological Applications)
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41 pages, 5168 KiB  
Review
A Short History of the First 50 Years: From the GRB Prompt Emission and Afterglow Discoveries to the Multimessenger Era
by Filippo Frontera
Universe 2024, 10(6), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060260 - 12 Jun 2024
Viewed by 321
Abstract
More than fifty years have elapsed from the first discovery of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with American Vela satellites, and more than twenty-five years from the discovery with the BeppoSAX satellite of the first X-ray afterglow of a GRB. Thanks to the afterglow discovery [...] Read more.
More than fifty years have elapsed from the first discovery of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with American Vela satellites, and more than twenty-five years from the discovery with the BeppoSAX satellite of the first X-ray afterglow of a GRB. Thanks to the afterglow discovery and to the possibility given to the optical and radio astronomers to discover the GRB optical counterparts, the long-time mystery about the origin of these events has been solved. Now we know that GRBs are huge explosions, mainly ultra relativistic jets, in galaxies at cosmological distances. Starting from the first GRB detection with the Vela satellites, I will review the story of these discoveries, those obtained with BeppoSAX, the contribution to GRBs by other satellites and ground experiments, among them being Venera, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, HETE-2, Swift, Fermi, AGILE, MAGIC, H.E.S.S., which were, and some of them are still, very important for the study of GRB properties. Then, I will review the main results obtained thus far and the still open problems and prospects of GRB astronomy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GRBs Phenomenology, Models and Applications: A Beginner Guide)
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14 pages, 15013 KiB  
Review
Theoretical Perspectives on Viscous Nature of Strongly Interacting Systems
by Kinkar Saha
Universe 2024, 10(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060259 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Matter prevailing during the early stages of the Universe or under extreme conditions in high-energy heavy-ion experiments supposedly possesses a rich phase structure. During the evolution of such a system, the complicated pictures of transitions among various phases are studied as part of [...] Read more.
Matter prevailing during the early stages of the Universe or under extreme conditions in high-energy heavy-ion experiments supposedly possesses a rich phase structure. During the evolution of such a system, the complicated pictures of transitions among various phases are studied as part of hydrodynamics. This system, on most occasions, is considered to be non-viscous. However, various theoretical studies reveal the importance of incorporating viscous effects into the analysis. Here, the paper discusses the behavioral patterns of transport coefficients with varying temperatures and chemical potentials to obtain a qualitative, if not quantitative, picture of the same. Discussions are also shared regarding their impacts on such an exotic system for different energies, as explored in the experimental domain. This theoretical analysis, made using the structure of the Polyakov–Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model with a 2+1-flavor quark–antiquark system reveals important aspects of the inclusion of viscous effects in the hydrodynamic studies of QGP. Full article
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13 pages, 945 KiB  
Article
Nonsingular, Lump-like, Scalar Compact Objects in (2 + 1)-Dimensional Einstein Gravity
by Roberto V. Maluf, Gerardo Mora-Pérez, Gonzalo J. Olmo and Diego Rubiera-Garcia
Universe 2024, 10(6), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060258 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 363
Abstract
We study the space-time geometry generated by coupling a free scalar field with a noncanonical kinetic term to general relativity in (2+1) dimensions. After identifying a family of scalar Lagrangians that yield exact analytical solutions in static and circularly [...] Read more.
We study the space-time geometry generated by coupling a free scalar field with a noncanonical kinetic term to general relativity in (2+1) dimensions. After identifying a family of scalar Lagrangians that yield exact analytical solutions in static and circularly symmetric scenarios, we classify the various types of solutions and focus on a branch that yields asymptotically flat geometries. We show that the solutions within such a branch can be divided in two types, namely naked singularities and nonsingular objects without a center. In the latter, the energy density is localized around a maximum and vanishes only at infinity and at an inner boundary. This boundary has vanishing curvatures and cannot be reached by any time-like or null geodesic in finite affine time. This allows us to consistently interpret such solutions as nonsingular, lump-like, static compact scalar objects whose eventual extension to the (3+1)-dimensional context could provide structures of astrophysical interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Open Questions in Black Hole Physics)
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21 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
Gravitational Wormholes
by Mengqi Lu, Jiayue Yang and Robert B. Mann
Universe 2024, 10(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060257 - 10 Jun 2024
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Spacetime wormholes are evidently an essential component of the construction of a time machine. Within the context of general relativity, such objects require, for their formation, exotic matter—matter that violates at least one of the standard energy conditions. Here, we explore the possibility [...] Read more.
Spacetime wormholes are evidently an essential component of the construction of a time machine. Within the context of general relativity, such objects require, for their formation, exotic matter—matter that violates at least one of the standard energy conditions. Here, we explore the possibility that higher-curvature gravity theories might permit the construction of a wormhole without any matter at all. In particular, we consider the simplest form of a generalized quasi topological theory in four spacetime dimensions, known as Einsteinian Cubic Gravity. This theory has a number of promising features that make it an interesting phenomenological competitor to general relativity, including having non-hairy generalizations of the Schwarzschild black hole and linearized equations of second order around maximally symmetric backgrounds. By matching series solutions near the horizon and at large distances, we find evidence that strong asymptotically AdS wormhole solutions can be constructed, with strong curvature effects ensuring that the wormhole throat can exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Physics of Time Travel)
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19 pages, 6411 KiB  
Review
The Hearth of the World: The Sun before Astrophysics
by Gábor Kutrovátz
Universe 2024, 10(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060256 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 310
Abstract
This paper presents a historical overview of conceptions about the Sun in Western astronomical and cosmological traditions before the advent of spectroscopy and astrophysics. Rather than studying general cultural ideas, we focus on the concepts developed by astronomers or by natural philosophers impacting [...] Read more.
This paper presents a historical overview of conceptions about the Sun in Western astronomical and cosmological traditions before the advent of spectroscopy and astrophysics. Rather than studying general cultural ideas, we focus on the concepts developed by astronomers or by natural philosophers impacting astronomy. The ideas we investigate, from the works of Plato and Aristotle to William Herschel and his contemporaries, do not line up into a continuous and integrated narrative, since the nature of the Sun was not a genuine scientific topic before the nineteenth century. However, the question recurringly arose as embedded in cosmological and physical contexts. By outlining this heterogeneous story that spreads from transcendence to materiality, from metaphysics to physics, from divinity to solar inhabitants, we receive insight into some major themes and trends both in the general development of astronomical and cosmological thought and in the prehistory of modern solar science. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar and Stellar Activity: Exploring the Cosmic Nexus)
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12 pages, 1285 KiB  
Communication
The Pulsar Timing Array Signal from Infrared Regions of Scalar-Induced Gravitational Waves
by Qin Fei
Universe 2024, 10(6), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060255 - 7 Jun 2024
Viewed by 385
Abstract
The common-spectrum process, characterized by the Hellings–Downs angular correlation and observed by pulsar timing array collaborations, such as NANOGrav, PPTA, EPTA, and CPTA, can be explained by the scalar-induced gravitational waves (SIGWs). The energy density of SIGWs exhibits universal behavior in the infrared [...] Read more.
The common-spectrum process, characterized by the Hellings–Downs angular correlation and observed by pulsar timing array collaborations, such as NANOGrav, PPTA, EPTA, and CPTA, can be explained by the scalar-induced gravitational waves (SIGWs). The energy density of SIGWs exhibits universal behavior in the infrared regions. Utilizing a broken power law parameterization for the primordial curvature power spectrum, we clarify the PTA signal through the infrared characteristics of the SIGWs, using Bayesian analysis to provide posterior distributions. Bayesian factors emphasize the statistical preference for the SIGW model over explanations involving supermassive black hole binaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cosmology)
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39 pages, 1533 KiB  
Review
The Correlation Luminosity-Velocity Dispersion of Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei
by Mauro D’Onofrio, Paola Marziani, Cesare Chiosi and Castalia Alenka Negrete
Universe 2024, 10(6), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060254 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
In this work we discuss the correlation between luminosity L and velocity dispersion σ observed in different astrophysical contexts, in particular that of early-type galaxies (ETGs; Faber–Jackson (FJ) law) and that of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our data for the ETGs confirm the [...] Read more.
In this work we discuss the correlation between luminosity L and velocity dispersion σ observed in different astrophysical contexts, in particular that of early-type galaxies (ETGs; Faber–Jackson (FJ) law) and that of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our data for the ETGs confirm the bending of the FJ at high masses and the existence of similar curvatures in the projections of the Fundamental Plane (FP) approximately at the mass scale of ∼1010M. We provide an explanation for such curvatures and for the presence of the Zone of Exclusion (ZoE) in these diagrams. The new prospected theory for the FJ law introduces a new framework to understand galaxy evolution in line with the hierarchical structure of the Universe. The classic analysis carried out for a class of type 1 AGN accreting gas at very high rates, confirms that a FJ law of the form L=L0σ4 is roughly consistent with the observations, with a slope quite similar to that of ETGs. We discuss the physics behind the FJ law for the AGN in different contexts and also examine the biases affecting both the luminosity and the velocity dispersion, paying particular attention to the effects induced by the spherical symmetry of the emitting sources on the accuracy of the luminosity estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Universe: Feature Papers 2024—"Galaxies and Clusters")
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10 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Cosmic Strings from Thermal Inflation
by Robert Brandenberger and Aline Favero
Universe 2024, 10(6), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060253 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 379
Abstract
Thermal inflation was proposed as a mechanism to dilute the density of cosmological moduli. Thermal inflation is driven by a complex scalar field possessing a large vacuum expectation value and a very flat potential, called a “flaton”. Such a model admits cosmic string [...] Read more.
Thermal inflation was proposed as a mechanism to dilute the density of cosmological moduli. Thermal inflation is driven by a complex scalar field possessing a large vacuum expectation value and a very flat potential, called a “flaton”. Such a model admits cosmic string solutions, and a network of such strings will inevitably form in the symmetry breaking phase transition at the end of the period of thermal inflation. We discuss the differences of these strings compared to the strings which form in the Abelian Higgs model. Specifically, we find that the upper bound on the symmetry breaking scale is parametrically lower than in the case of Abelian Higgs strings, and that the lower cutoff on the string loop distribution is determined by cusp annihilation rather than by gravitational radiation (for the value of the transition temperature proposed in the original work on thermal inflation). Full article
12 pages, 1322 KiB  
Article
Improved Statistical Analysis for the Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Matrix Element of 136Xe
by Mihai Horoi
Universe 2024, 10(6), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060252 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear matrix element (M0ν) for 136Xe was recently analyzed using a statistical approach (Phys. Rev. C 107, 045501 (2023)). In the analysis, three initial shell model effective Hamiltonians were randomly altered, and their [...] Read more.
Neutrinoless double beta decay nuclear matrix element (M0ν) for 136Xe was recently analyzed using a statistical approach (Phys. Rev. C 107, 045501 (2023)). In the analysis, three initial shell model effective Hamiltonians were randomly altered, and their results for 23 measured observables were used to infer credibility for the M0ν nuclear matrix element (NME) based on a Bayesian Model Averaging approach. In that analysis, a reasonable Gamow-Teller quenching factor of 0.7 was assumed for each starting effective Hamiltonian. Given that the result of the statistical analysis was sensible to this choice, we are here improving that analysis by assuming that the Gamow-Teller quenching factor is also randomly chosen within reasonabe limits for all three starting Hamiltonians. The outcomes are slightly higher expectation values and uncertainties for the M0ν NME. Full article
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13 pages, 511 KiB  
Communication
Constraints on the Primordial Curvature Power Spectrum and Reheating Temperature from the NANOGrav 15-Year Dataset
by Qin Fei
Universe 2024, 10(6), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060251 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 237
Abstract
The stochastic signal observed by collaborations such as NANOGrav, PPTA, EPTA +InPTA, and CPTA may originate from gravitational waves induced by primordial curvature perturbations during inflation. This study investigates small-scale properties of inflation and reheating, assuming a log-normal form for the power spectrum [...] Read more.
The stochastic signal observed by collaborations such as NANOGrav, PPTA, EPTA +InPTA, and CPTA may originate from gravitational waves induced by primordial curvature perturbations during inflation. This study investigates small-scale properties of inflation and reheating, assuming a log-normal form for the power spectrum of the primordial curvature and a reheating phase equation of state w=1/9. Inflation and reheating scenarios are thoroughly examined using Bayesian methods applied to the NANOGrav 15-year dataset. The analysis establishes constraints on the reheating temperature, suggesting Trh0.1Gev, consistent with Big Bang nucleosynthesis constraints. Additionally, the NANOGrav 15-year dataset requires the amplitude (A∼0.1) and width (Δ0.001) of the primordial curvature power spectrum to be within specific ranges. A notable turning point in the energy density of scalar-induced gravitational waves occurs due to a change in the equation of state w. This turning point signifies a transition from the reheating epoch to radiation domination. Further observations of scalar-induced gravitational waves could provide insights into the precise timing of this transition, enhancing our understanding of early Universe dynamics. Full article
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18 pages, 448 KiB  
Article
Rotation Matrix of a Charged Symmetrical Body: One-Parameter Family of Solutions in Elementary Functions
by Alexei A. Deriglazov
Universe 2024, 10(6), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060250 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Euler–Poisson equations of a charged symmetrical body in external constant and homogeneous electric and magnetic fields are deduced starting from the variational problem, where the body is considered as a system of charged point particles subject to holonomic constraints. The final equations are [...] Read more.
Euler–Poisson equations of a charged symmetrical body in external constant and homogeneous electric and magnetic fields are deduced starting from the variational problem, where the body is considered as a system of charged point particles subject to holonomic constraints. The final equations are written for the center-of-mass coordinate, rotation matrix and angular velocity. A general solution to the equations of motion is obtained for the case of a charged ball. For the case of a symmetrical charged body (solenoid), the task of obtaining the general solution is reduced to the problem of a one-dimensional cubic pseudo-oscillator. In addition, we present a one-parametric family of solutions to the problem in elementary functions. Full article
8 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
On the Role of the Tail Term in Electromagnetic Radiation Reaction
by Zdeněk Stuchlík, Martin Kološ, Arman Tursunov and Dmitri Gal’tsov
Universe 2024, 10(6), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060249 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 207
Abstract
In a recent study devoted to the influence of electromagnetic radiation reaction on the motion of radiating charged particles in magnetized black hole spacetimes the authors claim that the tail term cannot be neglected in the complete DeWitt–Brehme equation, putting into doubt the [...] Read more.
In a recent study devoted to the influence of electromagnetic radiation reaction on the motion of radiating charged particles in magnetized black hole spacetimes the authors claim that the tail term cannot be neglected in the complete DeWitt–Brehme equation, putting into doubt the previous papers where such an approximation was used. Here, we demonstrate by using simple dimensional arguments that such a statement is misleading in many astrophysically relevant situations. In the case of relativistic electrons moving around a stellar-mass black hole, the tail term is ignorable if a magnetic field of at least a few Gauss is present.On the other hand, in different situations, the tail term can be relevant, as demonstrated in the case of orbital widening, where it can even amplify the effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Open Questions in Black Hole Physics)
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29 pages, 1891 KiB  
Review
Decoding the Nature of Coherent Radio Emission in Pulsars I: Observational Constraints
by Dipanjan Mitra, Rahul Basu and George I. Melikizde
Universe 2024, 10(6), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060248 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Radio observations from normal pulsars indicate that the coherent radio emission is excited by curvature radiation from charge bunches. In this review, we provide a systematic description of the various observational constraints on the radio emission mechanism. We have discussed the presence of [...] Read more.
Radio observations from normal pulsars indicate that the coherent radio emission is excited by curvature radiation from charge bunches. In this review, we provide a systematic description of the various observational constraints on the radio emission mechanism. We have discussed the presence of highly polarized time samples where the polarization position angle follow two orthogonal well-defined tracks across the profile that closely match the rotating vector model in an identical manner. The observations also show the presence of circular polarization, with both the right and left handed circular polarization seen across the profile. Other constraints on the emission mechanism are provided by the detailed measurements of the spectral index variation across the profile window, where the central part of the profile, corresponding to the core component, has a steeper spectrum than the surrounding cones. Finally, the detailed measurements of the subpulse drifting behaviour can be explained by considering the presence of non-dipolar field on the stellar surface and the formation of the partially screened gap (PSG) above the polar cap region. The PSG gives rise to a non-stationary plasma flow that has a multi-component nature, consisting of highly energetic primary particles, secondary pair plasma, and iron ions discharged from the surface, with large fragmentation resulting in dense plasma clouds and lower-density inter-cloud regions. The physical properties of the outflowing plasma and the observational constraints lead us to consider coherent curvature radiation as the most viable explanation for the emission mechanism in normal pulsars, where propagation effects due to adiabatic walking and refraction are largely inconsequential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A New Horizon of Pulsar and Neutron Star: The 55-Year Anniversary)
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10 pages, 679 KiB  
Review
Neutrino Masses and Right-Handed Weak Currents Studied by Neutrino-Less ββ-Decay Detectors
by Saori Umehara and Hiroyasu Ejiri
Universe 2024, 10(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060247 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Detecting neutrino-less double beta (0νββ) decay with high-sensitivity 0νββ detectors is of current interest for studying the Majorana neutrino’s nature, the neutrino mass (ν-mass), right-handed weak currents (RHCs), and others beyond the Standard [...] Read more.
Detecting neutrino-less double beta (0νββ) decay with high-sensitivity 0νββ detectors is of current interest for studying the Majorana neutrino’s nature, the neutrino mass (ν-mass), right-handed weak currents (RHCs), and others beyond the Standard Model. Many experimental groups have studied 0νββ decay with ν-mass sensitivities on the order of 100 meV and RHC sensitivities on the order of 10 9–10 6, but no clear 0νββ signals have been observed so far in these ν-mass and RHC regions. Thus, several experimental groups are developing higher-sensitivity detectors to explore a smaller ν-mass region around 15–50 meV, which corresponds to the inverted hierarchy ν-mass, and smaller RHC regions on the order of 10 10–10 7 in the near future. Nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) for ν-mass and RHC processes are crucial for extracting the ν-mass and RHCs of particle physics interest from 0νββ experiments. This report briefly reviews detector sensitivities and upper limits on the ν-mass and right-handed currents for several current 0νββ detectors and the ν-mass and RHC sensitivities expected for some near-future ones. Full article
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18 pages, 6374 KiB  
Article
New Parametrization of the Dark-Energy Equation of State with a Single Parameter
by Jainendra Kumar Singh, Preeti Singh, Emmanuel N. Saridakis, Shynaray Myrzakul and Harshna Balhara
Universe 2024, 10(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060246 - 1 Jun 2024
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 285
Abstract
We propose a novel dark-energy equation-of-state parametrization, with a single parameter η that quantifies the deviation from ΛCDM cosmology. We first confront the scenario with various datasets, from the Hubble function (OHD), Pantheon, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and their joint observations, and we [...] Read more.
We propose a novel dark-energy equation-of-state parametrization, with a single parameter η that quantifies the deviation from ΛCDM cosmology. We first confront the scenario with various datasets, from the Hubble function (OHD), Pantheon, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and their joint observations, and we show that η has a preference for a non-zero value, namely, a deviation from ΛCDM cosmology is favored, although the zero value is marginally inside the 1σ confidence level. However, we find that the present Hubble function value acquires a higher value, namely, H0=66.6240.013+0.011 Km s1 Mpc1, which implies that the H0 tension can be partially alleviated. Additionally, we perform a cosmographic analysis, showing that the universe transits from deceleration to acceleration in the recent cosmological past; nevertheless, in the future, it will not result in a de Sitter phase since it exhibits a second transition from acceleration to deceleration. Finally, we perform the statefinder analysis. The scenario behaves similarly to the ΛCDM paradigm at high redshifts, while the deviation becomes significant at late and recent times and especially in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Modified Theories of Gravity and Cosmological Applications)
9 pages, 696 KiB  
Communication
X-ray Redshifts for Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei with AXIS Deep and Intermediate Surveys
by Alessandro Peca, Nico Cappelluti, Stefano Marchesi, Edmund Hodges-Kluck and Adi Foord
Universe 2024, 10(6), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060245 - 1 Jun 2024
Viewed by 277
Abstract
This study presents the capabilities of the AXIS telescope in estimating redshifts from X-ray spectra alone (X-ray redshifts, XZs). Through extensive simulations, we establish that AXIS observations enable reliable XZ estimates for more than 5500 obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) up to redshift [...] Read more.
This study presents the capabilities of the AXIS telescope in estimating redshifts from X-ray spectra alone (X-ray redshifts, XZs). Through extensive simulations, we establish that AXIS observations enable reliable XZ estimates for more than 5500 obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) up to redshift z6 in the proposed deep (7 Ms) and intermediate (375 ks) surveys. Notably, at least 1600 of them are expected to be in the Compton-thick regime (logNH/cm224), underscoring the pivotal role of AXIS in sampling these elusive objects that continue to be poorly understood. XZs provide an efficient alternative for optical/infrared faint sources, overcoming the need for time-consuming spectroscopy, the potential limitations of photometric redshifts, and potential issues related to multi-band counterpart association. This approach will significantly enhance the accuracy of constraints on the X-ray luminosity function and obscured AGN fractions up to high redshifts. This white paper is part of a series commissioned for the AXIS Probe Concept Mission; additional AXIS white papers can be found at the AXIS website. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Galaxies and Clusters)
21 pages, 1043 KiB  
Article
Charmonium Transport in Heavy-Ion Collisions at the LHC
by Biaogang Wu and Ralf Rapp
Universe 2024, 10(6), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060244 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 278
Abstract
We provide an update on our semi-classical transport approach for quarkonium production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, focusing on J/ψ and ψ(2S) mesons in 5.02 TeV Pb-Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at both forward and [...] Read more.
We provide an update on our semi-classical transport approach for quarkonium production in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, focusing on J/ψ and ψ(2S) mesons in 5.02 TeV Pb-Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at both forward and mid-rapidity. In particular, we employ the most recent charm-production cross sections reported in pp collisions, which are pivotal for the magnitude of the regeneration contribution, and their modifications due to cold-nuclear-matter (CNM) effects. Multi-differential observables are calculated in terms of nuclear modification factors as a function of centrality, transverse momentum, and rapidity, including the contributions from feeddown from bottom hadron decays. For our predictions for ψ(2S) production, the mechanism of sequential regeneration relative to the more strongly bound J/ψ meson plays an important role in interpreting recent ALICE data. Full article
12 pages, 577 KiB  
Communication
Search for R-Parity-Violation-Induced Charged Lepton Flavor Violation at Future Lepton Colliders
by Xunye Cai, Jingshu Li, Ran Ding, Meng Lu, Zhengyun You and Qiang Li
Universe 2024, 10(6), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060243 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 283
Abstract
Interest in searches for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) has continued in the past few decades since the observation of CLFV would indicate a new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). As several future lepton colliders with high luminosity have been proposed, the [...] Read more.
Interest in searches for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation (CLFV) has continued in the past few decades since the observation of CLFV would indicate a new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). As several future lepton colliders with high luminosity have been proposed, the search for CLFV will reach an unprecedented level of precision. Many BSM models allow CLFV processes at the tree level, such as the R-parity-violating (RPV) Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), which is a good choice for benchmarking. In this paper, we perform a detailed fast Monte Carlo simulation study on RPV-induced CLFV processes at future lepton colliders, including a 240 GeV circular electron positron collider (CEPC) and a 6 or 14 TeV Muon Collider. As a result, we found that the upper limits on the τ-related RPV couplings will be significantly improved, while several new limits on RPV couplings can be set, which are inaccessible by low-energy experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Search for New Physics at the LHC and Future Colliders)
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9 pages, 852 KiB  
Article
Optical Quasi-Periodic Oscillation of Blazar PKS 1440-389 in the TESS Light Curve
by He Lu, Tingfeng Yi, Yanke Tang, Junjie Wang, Shun Zhang, Liang Wang, Yutong Chen, Yuncai Shen, Liang Dong and Yangwei Zhang
Universe 2024, 10(6), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060242 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 294
Abstract
We report the results of time series analysis of blazar PKS 1440-389, observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) in two sectors. We find that the source has a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) of about 3.1 days for sector 11 and around 3.7 [...] Read more.
We report the results of time series analysis of blazar PKS 1440-389, observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) in two sectors. We find that the source has a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) of about 3.1 days for sector 11 and around 3.7 days for sector 38 in the optical band. We use two methods to assess the QPO and its confidence level: Lomb–Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet Z-transforms. We explore various potential explanations for these rapid quasi-periodic variations and propose that their source most likely resides within the innermost region of the accretion disk. Within this framework, we estimate the mass of the central black hole of this blazar. We obtain black hole masses of 6.65 × 108M (Schwarzschild black hole) and 4.22 × 109M (maximally rotating Kerr black hole), with a main period of 3.7 days. Finally, we utilize the kink instability model to explain the QPO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blazar Bursts: Theory and Observation)
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21 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Mechanisms for Producing Primordial Black Holes from Inflationary Models beyond Fine-Tuning
by Ioanna Stamou
Universe 2024, 10(6), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060241 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 240
Abstract
In this study, we present an analysis of the fine-tuning required in various inflationary models in order to explain the production of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). We specifically examine the degree of fine-tuning necessary in two prominent single-field inflationary models: those with an [...] Read more.
In this study, we present an analysis of the fine-tuning required in various inflationary models in order to explain the production of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). We specifically examine the degree of fine-tuning necessary in two prominent single-field inflationary models: those with an inflection point and those with step-like features in the potential. Our findings indicate that models with step-like features generally require less fine-tuning compared to those with an inflection point, making them more viable for consistent PBH production. An interesting outcome of these models is that, in addition to improved fine-tuning, they may also predict low-frequency signals that can be detected by pulsar timing array (PTA) collaborations. Additionally, we extend our analysis to multifield inflationary models to assess whether the integration of additional fields can further alleviate the fine-tuning demands. The study also explores the role of a spectator field and its impact on the fine-tuning process. Our results indicate that although mechanisms involving a spectator field can circumvent the issue of fine-tuning parameters for PBH production, both multifield models and models with step-like features present promising alternatives. While fine-tuning involves multiple considerations, our primary objective is to evaluate various inflationary models to identify the one that most naturally explains the formation of PBHs. Hence, this study introduces a novel approach by categorizing existing PBH mechanisms, paving the way for subsequent research to prioritize models that minimize the need for extensive fine-tuning. Full article
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25 pages, 661 KiB  
Article
Renormalization Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamics: Two-Loop Approximation
by Michal Hnatič, Tomáš Lučivjanský, Lukáš Mižišin, Yurii Molotkov and Andrei Ovsiannikov
Universe 2024, 10(6), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/universe10060240 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 263
Abstract
We investigate the stochastic version of the paradigmatic model of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The model can be interpreted as an active vector admixture subject to advective processes governed by turbulent flow. The back influence on fluid dynamics is explicitly taken into account. The velocity [...] Read more.
We investigate the stochastic version of the paradigmatic model of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The model can be interpreted as an active vector admixture subject to advective processes governed by turbulent flow. The back influence on fluid dynamics is explicitly taken into account. The velocity field is generated through a fully developed turbulent flow taking into account the violation of spatial parity, which is introduced through the helicity parameter ρ. We consider a generalized setup in which parameter A is introduced in model formulation, which is associated with the interaction part of the model, and its actual value represents different physical systems. The model is analyzed by means of the field-theoretic renormalization group. The calculation is performed using ε-expansion, where ε is the deviation from the Kolmogorov scaling. Two-loop numerical calculations of the renormalization constant associated with the renormalization of the magnetic field are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Field Theory)
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