Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090201

Authors: Steven B. Giddings

The impressive images from the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) sharpen the conflict between our observations of gravitational phenomena and the principles of quantum mechanics. Two related scenarios for reconciling quantum mechanics with the existence of black hole-like objects, with &ldquo;minimal&rdquo; departure from general relativity and local quantum field theory, have been explored; one of these could produce signatures visible to EHT observations. A specific target is temporal variability of images, with a characteristic time scale determined by the classical black hole radius. The absence of evidence for such variability in the initial observational span of seven days is not expected to strongly constrain such variability. Theoretical and observational next steps towards investigating such scenarios are outlined.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090200

Authors: Zhu Yi Yungui Gong

The swampland criteria are generically in tension with single-field slow-roll inflation because the first swampland criterion requires small tensor-to-scalar ratio while the second swampland criterion requires either large tensor-to-scalar ratio or large scalar spectral tilt. The challenge to single-field slow-roll inflation imposed by the swampland criteria can be avoided by modifying the relationship between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the slow-roll parameter. We show that the Gauss&ndash;Bonnet inflation with the coupling function inversely proportional to the potential overcomes the challenge by adding a constant factor in the relationship between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the slow-roll parameter. For the Gauss&ndash;Bonnet inflation, while the swampland criteria are satisfied, the slow-roll conditions are also fulfilled, so the scalar spectral tilt and the tensor-to-scalar ratio are consistent with the observations. We use the potentials for chaotic inflation and the E-model as examples to show that the models pass all the constraints. The Gauss&ndash;Bonnet coupling seems a way out of the swampland issue for single-field inflationary models.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090199

Authors: Luigi Foschini Stefano Ciroi Marco Berton Stefano Vercellone Patrizia Romano Valentina Braito

Taking advantage of the most recent measurements by means of high-resolution radio observations and other multiwavelength campaigns, it is possible to elaborate a detailed map of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0323 + 342 . This map will open the possibility of intriguing hypotheses about the generation of high-energy &gamma; rays in the narrow-line region.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090198

Authors: Boris E. Meierovich

The possibility of an equilibrium state of a gravitating scalar field (describing ordinary matter) inside a black hole, compressed to the state of boson condensate, in balance with a longitudinal vector field (describing dark matter) from the outside, is considered. Analytical analysis, confirmed numerically, shows that there are regular static solutions to the Einstein equations with no limitation on the mass of a black hole. The metric tensor component grr(r) changes sign twice. The behavior of the gravitational field and material fields in the vicinity of these two Schwarzschild radii were studied in detail. The equality of the energy&ndash;momentum tensors of the scalar and longitudinal vector fields at the interface supports the phase equilibrium of a black hole and dark matter. Considering the gravitating scalar field as an example, a possible internal structure of a black hole and its influence on the dark matter at the periphery of a galaxy are clarified. In particular, the speed on the plateau of a galaxy rotation curve as a function of a black hole&rsquo;s mass is determined.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090197

Authors: Hui-Hong Deng De-Fu Bu

For systems with extremely low accretion rate, such as Galactic Center Sgr A* and M87 galaxy, the ion collisional mean free path can be considerably larger than its Larmor radius. In this case, the gas pressure is anisotropic to magnetic field lines. In this paper, we pay attention to how the properties of outflow change with the strength of anisotropic pressure and the magnetic field. We use an anisotropic viscosity to model the anisotropic pressure. We solve the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in spherical coordinates and assume that the accretion flow is radially self-similar. We find that the work done by anisotropic pressure can heat the accretion flow. The gas temperature is heightened when anisotropic stress is included. The outflow velocity increases with the enhancement of strength of the anisotropic force. The Bernoulli parameter does not change much when anisotropic pressure is involved. However, we find that the energy flux of outflow can be increased by a factor of 20 in the presence of anisotropic stress. We find strong wind (the mass outflow is about 70% of the mass inflow rate) is formed when a relatively strong magnetic field is present. Outflows from an active galactic nucleus can interact with gas in its host galaxies. Our result predicts that outflow feedback effects can be enhanced significantly when anisotropic pressure and a relatively powerful magnetic field is considered.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090196

Authors: Jan Vanek

Study of the open-charm hadron production in heavy-ion collisions is crucial for understanding the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. In these papers, we report on a selection of recent STAR measurements of open-charm hadrons in Au+Au collisions at s NN = 200 GeV , using the Heavy-Flavor Tracker. In particular, the nuclear modification factors of D 0 and D &plusmn; mesons, elliptic and directed flow of D 0 mesons, D s /D 0 and &Lambda; c / D 0 yield ratios are discussed. The observed suppression of D 0 and D &plusmn; mesons suggests strong interactions of the charm quarks with the QGP. The measured elliptic flow of D 0 mesons is large and follows the NCQ scaling, suggesting that charm quarks may be close to thermal equilibrium with the QGP medium. Both D s /D 0 and &Lambda; c / D 0 yield ratios are found to be enhanced in Au+Au collisions. The enhancement can be explained by models incorporating coalescence hadronization of charm quarks. In addition, the directed flow of the D 0 mesons is measured to be negative and larger than that of light-flavor mesons which is in a qualitative agreement with hydrodynamic model predictions with a tilted QGP bulk.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090195

Authors: Bahram Mashhoon Friedrich W. Hehl

We briefly review the current status of nonlocal gravity (NLG), which is a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein&rsquo;s theory of gravitation based on a certain analogy with the nonlocal electrodynamics of media. Nonlocal gravity thus involves integro-differential field equations and a causal constitutive kernel that should ultimately be determined from observational data. We consider the stationary gravitational field of an isolated rotating astronomical source in the linear approximation of nonlocal gravity. In this weak-field and slow-motion approximation of NLG, we describe the gravitomagnetic field associated with the rotating source and compare our results with gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM) of the standard general relativity theory. Moreover, we briefly study the energy-momentum content of the GEM field in nonlocal gravity.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090194

Authors: Bálint Kurgyis Máté Csanád

The quark gluon plasma is formed in heavy-ion collisions, and it can be described by solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics. In this paper we utilize perturbative hydrodynamics, where we study first order perturbations on top of a known solution. We investigate the perturbations on top of the Hubble flow. From this perturbative solution we can give the form of the particle emitting source and calculate observables of heavy-ion collisions. We describe the source function and the single-particle momentum spectra for a spherically symmetric solution.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090193

Authors: Bryen Irving Thomas Klähn Prashanth Jaikumar Marc Salinas Wei Wei

We study a specific model of neutron star matter that supports a phase transition to quark matter at high density and examine parameter ranges for consistency with the mass-weighted tidal deformability of &Lambda; &tilde; = 300 &minus; 230 + 420 for a mass ratio of q &isin; [ 0.73 , 1.0 ] , as inferred from observations of gravitational waves from the binary neutron star merger event GW170817. By using this observation to restrict the parameter space for the equation of state (EoS) model used throughout this study, we aim to assess the possibility of a potential solution to the masquerade and flavor camouflage problems for hybrid EoS models. Assuming the two stars have the same EoS, in which the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree Fock (DBHF) nuclear model transitions to the vBag quark model, we see if the parameter space of these hybrid model stars are restricted due to the adherence to the reported &Lambda; 1.4 &isin; 70 , 580 and M m a x &isin; [ 2.01 , 2.16 ] M ⊙ constraints. Upon completion, we find that, while the parameter space for our model does get restricted, it does not ultimately resolve the masquerade and flavor camouflage problems.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090192

Authors: Sandro Dias Pinto Vitenti Mariana Penna-Lima

The large amount of cosmological data already available (and in the near future) makes the development of efficient numerical codes necessary. Many software products have been implemented to perform cosmological analyses considering one or few probes. The need of multi-task software is rapidly increasing, in order to combine numerous cosmological probes along with their specificity (e.g., astrophysical descriptions and systematic errors). In this work, we mention some of these libraries, bringing out some challenges they will face in the few-percent error era (on the cosmological parameters). We review some concepts of the standard cosmological model, and examine some specific topics on their implementation, bringing, for example, the discussion on how some quantities are numerically defined in different codes. We also consider implementation differences between public codes, mentioning their advantages/disadvantages.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090191

Authors: Peter O. Hess Enrique López-Moreno

The Kerr black hole is studied within a modified theory of gravity, which adds the effects of vacuum fluctuations near a black hole. These vacuum fluctuations are treated as a dark energy. A parameter is introduced to account for these fluctuations. It is zero for the standard theory and acquires a maximal value, just before there would be no event horizon. The existence of an event horizon not only depends on the value of this parameter, but also on the spin of the black hole. In addition, we study the existence of a light-ring. We also elaborate on the relation of the appearance and vanishing of the event horizon and light-ring to phase transitions.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5090190

Authors: K. Ulrich Schreiber André Gebauer Jan Kodet Caroline L. Anyi Jon-Paul R. Wells

We review the current status of large ring laser gyroscopes having the potential to contribute to terrestrial measurements of general relativistic precessions. At this point in time, although these devices possess the raw sensitivity for such a measurement, they remain limited by long-term geometric instability, detection noise and imperfections in the physical models required to isolate geophysical effects. Furthermore, minute non-reciprocal biases provide a null-shift error and therefore no currently constructed laser system meets the requirement of absolute rotation rate sensing. Nevertheless, we are of the view that these are surmountable problems and the ability of ring laser gyroscopes to measure low frequency to DC signals has vastly increased in the last decade.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080189

Authors: Alessia Platania

According to the asymptotic safety conjecture, gravity is a renormalizable quantum field theory whose continuum limit is defined by an interacting fixed point of the renormalization group flow. In these proceedings, we review some implications of the existence of this nontrivial fixed point in cosmological contexts. Specifically, we discuss a toy model exemplifying how the departure from the fixed-point regime can explain the approximate scale-invariance of the power spectrum of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080188

Authors: Volkmar Putz

A non-relativistic theory of inertia based on Mach&rsquo;s principle is presented as has been envisaged, but not achieved, by Ernst Mach in 1872. The central feature is a space-dependent, anisotropic, symmetric inert mass tensor. The contribution of a mass element d m to the inertia of a particle m 0 experiencing an acceleration from rest is proportional to cos 2 &alpha; , where &alpha; is the angle between the line connecting m 0 and d m and the direction of the acceleration. Apsidal precession for planets circling around a central star is not a consequence of this theory, thereby avoiding the prediction of an apsidal precession with the wrong sign as is done by Mach-like theories with isotropic inert mass.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080187

Authors: Isha Kotecha

The intersection of thermodynamics, quantum theory and gravity has revealed many profound insights, all the while posing new puzzles. In this article, we discuss an extension of equilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics potentially compatible with a key feature of general relativity, background independence; and we subsequently use it in a candidate quantum gravity system, thus providing a preliminary formulation of a thermal quantum spacetime. Specifically, we emphasise an information-theoretic characterisation of generalised Gibbs equilibrium that is shown to be particularly suited to background independent settings, and in which the status of entropy is elevated to being more fundamental than energy. We also shed light on its intimate connections with the thermal time hypothesis. Based on this, we outline a framework for statistical mechanics of quantum gravity degrees of freedom of combinatorial and algebraic type, and apply it in several examples. In particular, we provide a quantum statistical basis for the origin of covariant group field theories, shown to arise as effective statistical field theories of the underlying quanta of space in a certain class of generalised Gibbs states.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080186

Authors: Mateusz Cierniak Tobias Fischer Niels-Uwe Bastian Thomas Klähn Marc Salinas

We construct a set of equations of state (EoS) of dense and hot matter with a 1st order phase transition from a hadronic system to a deconfined quark matter state. In this two-phase approach, hadrons are described using the relativistic mean field theory with different parametrisations and the deconfined quark phase is modeled using vBag, a bag&ndash;type model extended to include vector interactions as well as a simultaneous onset of chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement. This feature results in a non&ndash;trivial connection between the hadron and quark EoS, modifying the quark phase beyond its onset density. We find that this unique property has an impact on the predicted hybrid (quark core) neutron star mass&ndash;radius relations.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080185

Authors: Muhammad Sharif Qanitah Ama-Tul-Mughani

In this paper, we study the phase space portrait of homogeneous and isotropic universe by taking different coupling functions between dark energy models and bulk viscous dark matter. The dimensionless quantities are introduced to establish an autonomous set of equations. To analyze the stability of the cosmos, we evaluate critical points and respective eigenvalues for different dynamical quantities. For bulk viscous matter and radiation in tachyon coupled field, these points show stable evolution when &gamma; ≫ &delta; but accelerated expansion of the universe for &delta; &gt; 1 9 . The stability of the universe increases for some stationary points which may correspond to the late-time expansion for the coupled phantom field.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080184

Authors: Victor Miguel Banda Guzmán Mariana Kirchbach

The momentum-independent Casimir operators of the homogeneous spin-Lorentz group are employed in the construction of covariant projector operators, which can decompose anyone of its reducible finite-dimensional representation spaces into irreducible components. One of the benefits from such operators is that any one of the finite-dimensional carrier spaces of the Lorentz group representations can be equipped with Lorentz vector indices because any such space can be embedded in a Lorentz tensor of a properly-designed rank and then be unambiguously found by a projector. In particular, all the carrier spaces of the single-spin-valued Lorentz group representations, which so far have been described as 2 ( 2 j + 1 ) column vectors, can now be described in terms of Lorentz tensors for bosons or Lorentz tensors with the Dirac spinor component, for fermions. This approach facilitates the construct of covariant interactions of high spins with external fields in so far as they can be obtained by simple contractions of the relevant S O ( 1 , 3 ) indices. Examples of Lorentz group projector operators for spins varying from 1 / 2 &ndash;2 and belonging to distinct product spaces are explicitly worked out. The decomposition of multiple-spin-valued product spaces into irreducible sectors suggests that not only the highest spin, but all the spins contained in an irreducible carrier space could correspond to physical degrees of freedom.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080183

Authors: Vyacheslav I. Dokuchaev Natalia O. Nazarova

We propose the simple new method for extracting the value of the black hole spin from the direct high-resolution image of black hole by using a thin accretion disk model. In this model, the observed dark region on the first image of the supermassive black hole in the galaxy M87, obtained by the Event Horizon Telescope, is a silhouette of the black hole event horizon. The outline of this silhouette is the equator of the event horizon sphere. The dark silhouette of the black hole event horizon is placed within the expected position of the black hole shadow, which is not revealed on the first image. We calculated numerically the relation between the observed position of the black hole silhouette and the brightest point in the thin accretion disk, depending on the black hole spin. From this relation, we derive the spin of the supermassive black hole M87*, a = 0.75 &plusmn; 0.15 .

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080182

Authors: Alfio Bonanno

Although the Asymptotic Safety scenario is one of the most promising approaches to quantum gravity, little attention has been devoted to the issue of the vacuum state. Higher derivative operators often appear on the ultraviolet critical surface around the non-Gaussian fixed point generating additional degrees of freedom which can render the standard vacuum unstable. When this happens, translation and rotational symmetries can be spontaneously broken and a new set of symmetries can show up at the level of the effective action. In this work, it will be argued that a &ldquo;kinetic condensate&rdquo; characterizes the vacuum state of asymptotically safe quadratic gravity theories. If this scenario is realized in the full theory, the vacuum state of gravity is the gravitational analogous to the Savvidy vacuum in Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD).

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080181

Authors: Seth K. Asante Bianca Dittrich Florian Hopfmueller

In this work we construct holographic boundary theories for linearized 3D gravity, for a general family of finite or quasi-local boundaries. These boundary theories are directly derived from the dynamics of 3D gravity by computing the effective action for a geometric boundary observable, which measures the geodesic length from a given boundary point to some center in the bulk manifold. We identify the general form for these boundary theories and find that these are Liouville-like with a coupling to the boundary Ricci scalar. This is illustrated with various examples, which each offer interesting insights into the structure of holographic boundary theories.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080180

Authors: Michał Marczenko David Blaschke Krzysztof Redlich Chihiro Sasaki

We extend the recently developed hybrid quark&ndash;meson&ndash;nucleon model by augmenting a six-point scalar interaction and investigate the consequences for neutron-star sequences in the mass&ndash;radius diagram. One of the characteristic features of the model is that the chiral symmetry is restored within the hadronic phase by lifting the mass splitting between chiral partner states, before quark deconfinement takes place. At low temperature and finite baryon density, the model predicts a first- or second-order chiral phase transition, or a crossover, depending on the expectation value of a scalar field, and a first-order deconfinement phase transition. We discuss two sets of free parameters, which result in compact-star mass&ndash;radius relations that are at tension with the combined constraints for maximum-mass ( 2 M ⊙ ) and the compactness (GW170817). We find that the most preferable mass&ndash;radius relations result in isospin-symmetric phase diagram with rather low temperature for the critical point of the chiral phase transition.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080179

Authors: Jakub Mielczarek

Vertex amplitudes are elementary contributions to the transition amplitudes in the spin foam models of quantum gravity. The purpose of this article is to make the first step towards computing vertex amplitudes with the use of quantum algorithms. In our studies we are focused on a vertex amplitude of 3+1 D gravity, associated with a pentagram spin network. Furthermore, all spin labels of the spin network are assumed to be equal j = 1 / 2 , which is crucial for the introduction of the intertwiner qubits. A procedure of determining modulus squares of vertex amplitudes on universal quantum computers is proposed. Utility of the approach is tested with the use of: IBM&rsquo;s ibmqx4 5-qubit quantum computer, simulator of quantum computer provided by the same company and QX quantum computer simulator. Finally, values of the vertex probability are determined employing both the QX and the IBM simulators with 20-qubit quantum register and compared with analytical predictions.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5080178

Authors: Eckhard Rebhan

The model of a multiverse is advanced, which endows subuniverses like ours with space and time and imparts to their matter all information about the physical laws. It expands driven by dark energy (DE), which is felt in our Universe (U) by mass input and expansion&ndash;acceleration. This dark multiverse (DM) owes its origin to a creatio ex nihilo, described in previous work by a tunneling process in quasi-classical approximation. Here, this origin is treated again in the context of quantum gravity (QG) by solving a Wheeler de Witt (WdW) equation. Different than usual, the minisuperspace employed is not spanned by the expansion parameter a but by the volume 2 &pi; 2 a 3 . This not only modifies the WdW-equation, but also probabilities and solution properties. A &ldquo;soft entry&rdquo; can serve the same purpose as a tunneling process. Sections of solutions are identified, which show qualitative features of a volume-quantisation, albeit without a stringent quantitative definition. A timeless, spatially four-dimensional primordial state is also treated, modifying a state proposed by Hartle and Hawking (HH). For the later classical evolution, elaborated in earlier papers, a wave function is calculated and linked to the solutions for the quantum regime (QR). It is interpreted to mean that the expansion of the DM proceeds in submicroscopic leaps. Further results are also derived for the classical solutions.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070177

Authors: Jenny Wagner

When light from a distant source object, like a galaxy or a supernova, travels towards us, it is deflected by massive objects that lie in its path. When the mass density of the deflecting object exceeds a certain threshold, multiple, highly distorted images of the source are observed. This strong gravitational lensing effect has so far been treated as a model-fitting problem. Using the observed multiple images as constraints yields a self-consistent model of the deflecting mass density and the source object. As several models meet the constraints equally well, we develop a lens characterisation that separates data-based information from model assumptions. The observed multiple images allow us to determine local properties of the deflecting mass distribution on any mass scale from one simple set of equations. Their solution is unique and free of model-dependent degeneracies. The reconstruction of source objects can be performed completely model-independently, enabling us to study galaxy evolution without a lens-model bias. Our approach reduces the lens and source description to its data-based evidence that all models agree upon, simplifies an automated treatment of large datasets, and allows for an extrapolation to a global description resembling model-based descriptions.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070176

Authors: Michael R. Douglas

String/M theory is formulated in 10 and 11 space-time dimensions; in order to describe our universe, we must postulate that six or seven of the spatial dimensions form a small compact manifold. In 1985, Candelas et al. showed that by taking the extra dimensions to be a Calabi&ndash;Yau manifold, one could obtain the grand unified theories which had previously been postulated as extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. Over the years since, many more such compactifications were found. In the early 2000s, progress in nonperturbative string theory enabled computing the approximate effective potential for many compactifications, and it was found that they have metastable local minima with small cosmological constant. Thus, string/M theory appears to have many vacuum configurations which could describe our universe. By combining results on these vacua with a measure factor derived using the theory of eternal inflation, one gets a theoretical framework which realizes earlier ideas about the multiverse, including the anthropic solution to the cosmological constant problem. We review these arguments and some of the criticisms, with their implications for the prediction of low energy supersymmetry and hidden matter sectors, as well as recent work on a variation on eternal inflation theory motivated by computational complexity considerations.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070175

Authors: McCullen Sandora

Do mass extinctions affect the development of intelligence? If so, we may expect to be in a universe that is exceptionally placid. We consider the effects of impacts, supervolcanoes, global glaciations, and nearby gamma ray bursts, and how their rates depend on fundamental constants. It is interesting that despite the very disparate nature of these processes, each occurs on timescales of 100 Myr-Gyr. We argue that this is due to a selection effect that favors both tranquil locales within our universe, as well as tranquil universes. Taking gamma ray bursts to be the sole driver of mass extinctions is disfavored in multiverse scenarios, as the rate is much lower for different values of the fundamental constants. In contrast, geological causes of extinction are very compatible with the multiverse. Various frameworks for the effects of extinctions are investigated, and the intermediate disturbance hypothesis is found to be most compatible with the multiverse.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070174

Authors: János Takátsy Péter Kovács Zsolt Szép György Wolf

The equation of state provided by effective models of strongly interacting matter should comply with the restrictions imposed by current astrophysical observations of compact stars. Using the equation of state given by the (axial-)vector meson extended linear sigma model, we determine the mass&ndash;radius relation and study whether these restrictions are satisfied under the assumption that most of the star is filled with quark matter. We also compare the mass&ndash;radius sequence with those given by the equations of state of somewhat simpler models.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070173

Authors: Jose Beltrán Jiménez Lavinia Heisenberg Tomi S. Koivisto

The geometrical nature of gravity emerges from the universality dictated by the equivalence principle. In the usual formulation of General Relativity, the geometrisation of the gravitational interaction is performed in terms of the spacetime curvature, which is now the standard interpretation of gravity. However, this is not the only possibility. In these notes, we discuss two alternative, though equivalent, formulations of General Relativity in flat spacetimes, in which gravity is fully ascribed either to torsion or to non-metricity, thus putting forward the existence of three seemingly unrelated representations of the same underlying theory. Based on these three alternative formulations of General Relativity, we then discuss some extensions.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070172

Authors: Mariusz P. Da̧browski

This paper evaluates some important aspects of the multiverse concept. Firstly, the most realistic opportunity for it which is the spacetime variability of the physical constants and may deliver worlds with different physics, hopefully fulfilling the conditions of the anthropic principles. Then, more esoteric versions of the multiverse being the realisation of some abstract mathematics or even logic (cf. paper by M. Heller in this volume). Finally, it evaluates the big challenge of getting any signal from &ldquo;other universes&rdquo; using recent achievements of the quantum theory.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070171

Authors: McCullen Sandora

In a multiverse context, determining the probability of being in our particular universe depends on estimating its overall habitability compared to other universes with different values of the fundamental constants. One of the most important factors in determining this is the fraction of planets that actually develop life, and how this depends on planetary conditions. Many proposed possibilities for this are incompatible with the multiverse: if the emergence of life depends on the lifetime of its host star, the size of the habitable planet, or the amount of material processed, the chances of being in our universe would be very low. If the emergence of life depends on the entropy absorbed by the planet, however, our position in this universe is very natural. Several proposed models for the subsequent development of life, including the hard step model and several planetary oxygenation models, are also shown to be incompatible with the multiverse. If any of these are observed to play a large role in determining the distribution of life throughout our universe, the multiverse hypothesis will be ruled out to high significance.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070170

Authors: Max Joseph Fahn Kristina Giesel Michael Kobler

We use the method of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant to analyze the dynamical properties of the Mukhanov-Sasaki Hamiltonian and, following this approach, investigate whether we can obtain possible candidates for initial states in the context of inflation considering a quasi-de Sitter spacetime. Our main interest lies in the question of to which extent these already well-established methods at the classical and quantum level for finitely many degrees of freedom can be generalized to field theory. As our results show, a straightforward generalization does in general not lead to a unitary operator on Fock space that implements the corresponding time-dependent canonical transformation associated with the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant. The action of this operator can be rewritten as a time-dependent Bogoliubov transformation, where we also compare our results to already existing ones in the literature. We show that its generalization to Fock space has to be chosen appropriately in order to not violate the Shale-Stinespring condition. Furthermore, our analysis relates the Ermakov differential equation that plays the role of an auxiliary equation, whose solution is necessary to construct the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant, as well as the corresponding time-dependent canonical transformation, to the defining differential equation for adiabatic vacua. Therefore, a given solution of the Ermakov equation directly yields a full solution of the differential equation for adiabatic vacua involving no truncation at some adiabatic order. As a consequence, we can interpret our result obtained here as a kind of non-squeezed Bunch-Davies mode, where the term non-squeezed refers to a possible residual squeezing that can be involved in the unitary operator for certain choices of the Bogoliubov map.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070169

Authors: Fridolin Weber Delaney Farrell William M. Spinella Germán Malfatti Milva G. Orsaria Gustavo A. Contrera Ian Maloney

In the first part of this paper, we investigate the possible existence of a structured hadron-quark mixed phase in the cores of neutron stars. This phase, referred to as the hadron-quark pasta phase, consists of spherical blob, rod, and slab rare phase geometries. Particular emphasis is given to modeling the size of this phase in rotating neutron stars. We use the relativistic mean-field theory to model hadronic matter and the non-local three-flavor Nambu&ndash;Jona-Lasinio model to describe quark matter. Based on these models, the hadron-quark pasta phase exists only in very massive neutron stars, whose rotational frequencies are less than around 300 Hz. All other stars are not dense enough to trigger quark deconfinement in their cores. Part two of the paper deals with the quark-hadron composition of hot (proto) neutron star matter. To this end we use a local three-flavor Polyakov&ndash;Nambu&ndash;Jona-Lasinio model which includes the &rsquo;t Hooft (quark flavor mixing) term. It is found that this term leads to non-negligible changes in the particle composition of (proto) neutron stars made of hadron-quark matter.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070168

Authors: Tomi Koivisto Manuel Hohmann Tom Złośnik

A Cartan geometry of the General Linear symmetry is formulated by dividing out the displacements from the group. The resulting action is quadratic in curvature, polynomial in all the (minimal) variables, and describes an observer space that&mdash;in the symmetry-broken phase&mdash;reproduces the predictions of General Relativity in the presence of dark matter.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070167

Authors: Manuel Hohmann

We study disformal transformations in the context of scalar extensions to teleparallel gravity, in which the gravitational interaction is mediated by the torsion of a flat, metric compatible connection. We find a generic class of scalar–torsion actions which is invariant under disformal transformations, and which possesses different invariant subclasses. For the most simple of these subclasses we explicitly derive all terms that may appear in the action. We propose to study actions from this class as possible teleparallel analogues of healthy beyond Horndeski theories.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070166

Authors: Ivan Arraut

We compare the standard Higgs mechanism corresponding to the scalar field, with the dynamical origin of the graviton mass inside the scenario of the dRGT theory of massive gravity. We demonstrate that the effective mass perceived locally by different observers depends on how they define the local time with respect to the preferred notion of time defined by the St&uuml;ckelberg function T 0 ( r , t ) .

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070165

Authors: Lorenzo Iorio

HERO (Highly Eccentric Relativity Orbiter) is a space-based mission concept aimed to perform several tests of post-Newtonian gravity around the Earth with a preferably drag-free spacecraft moving along a highly elliptical path fixed in its plane undergoing a relatively fast secular precession. We considered two possible scenarios&mdash;a fast, 4-h orbit with high perigee height of 1047 km and a slow, 21-h path with a low perigee height of 642 km . HERO may detect, for the first time, the post-Newtonian orbital effects induced by the mass quadrupole moment J 2 of the Earth which, among other things, affects the semimajor axis a via a secular trend of ≃4&ndash;12 cm yr &minus; 1 , depending on the orbital configuration. Recently, the secular decay of the semimajor axis of the passive satellite LARES was measured with an error as little as 0 . 7 cm yr &minus; 1 . Also the post-Newtonian spin dipole (Lense-Thirring) and mass monopole (Schwarzschild) effects could be tested to a high accuracy depending on the level of compensation of the non-gravitational perturbations, not treated here. Moreover, the large eccentricity of the orbit would allow one to constrain several long-range modified models of gravity and accurately measure the gravitational red-shift as well. Each of the six Keplerian orbital elements could be individually monitored to extract the G J 2 / c 2 signature, or they could be suitably combined in order to disentangle the post-Newtonian effect(s) of interest from the competing mismodeled Newtonian secular precessions induced by the zonal harmonic multipoles J ℓ of the geopotential. In the latter case, the systematic uncertainty due to the current formal errors &sigma; J ℓ of a recent global Earth&rsquo;s gravity field model are better than 1 % for all the post-Newtonian effects considered, with a peak of ≃ 10 &minus; 7 for the Schwarzschild-like shifts. Instead, the gravitomagnetic spin octupole precessions are too small to be detectable.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070164

Authors: Luis Herrera

We elaborate on the link relating gravitational radiation, vorticity and a flux of super&ndash;energy on the plane orthogonal to the vorticity vector. We examine the vorticity appearing in the congruence of observers at the outside of the source, as well as the vorticity of the fluid distribution, the source of the gravitational radiation is made of. The information provided by the study of the physical aspects of the source poses new questions which could, in principle, be solved by the observational evidence. Besides the study of the theoretical issues associated to such relationship, we also stress the new observational possibilities to detect gravitational radiation, appearing as consequence of the above mentioned link. The high degree of development achieved in the gyroscope technology, as well as recent proposals to detect rotations by means of ring lasers, atom interferometers, atom lasers and anomalous spin&ndash;precession experiments, lead us to believe that an alternative to the laser interferometers used so far to detect gravitational waves, may be implemented based on the detection of the vorticity associated with gravitational radiation. Additionally, this kind of detectors might be able to elucidate the open question about the physical properties of the tail of the waves appearing as the consequence of the violation of the Huygens&rsquo;s principle in general relativity.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070163

Authors: Irina Dymnikova Kirill Kraav

We study shadows of regular rotating black holes described by the axially symmetric solutions asymptotically Kerr for a distant observer, obtained from regular spherical solutions of the Kerr&ndash;Schild class specified by T t t = T r r ( p r = &minus; &epsilon; ) . All regular solutions obtained with the Newman&ndash;Janis algorithm belong to this class. Their basic generic feature is the de Sitter vacuum interior. Information about the interior content of a regular rotating de Sitter-Kerr black hole can be in principle extracted from observation of its shadow. We present the general formulae for description of shadows for this class of regular black holes, and numerical analysis for two particular regular black hole solutions. We show that the shadow of a de Sitter-Kerr black hole is typically smaller than that for the Kerr black hole, and the difference depends essentially on the interior density and on the pace of its decreasing.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070162

Authors: Vadim Monakhov

A new formalism involving spinors in theories of spacetime and vacuum is presented. It is based on a superalgebraic formulation of the theory of algebraic spinors. New algebraic structures playing role of Dirac matrices are constructed on the basis of Grassmann variables, which we call gamma operators. Various field theory constructions are defined with use of these structures. We derive formulas for the vacuum state vector. Five operator analogs of five Dirac gamma matrices exist in the superalgebraic approach as well as two additional operator analogs of gamma matrices, which are absent in the theory of Dirac spinors. We prove that there is a relationship between gamma operators and the most important physical operators of the second quantization method: number of particles, energy&ndash;momentum and electric charge operators. In addition to them, a series of similar operators are constructed from the creation and annihilation operators, which are Lorentz-invariant analogs of Dirac matrices. However, their physical meaning is not yet clear. We prove that the condition for the existence of spinor vacuum imposes restrictions on possible variants of the signature of the four-dimensional spacetime. It can only be (1, &minus; 1 , &minus; 1 , &minus; 1 ), and there are two additional axes corresponding to the inner space of the spinor, with a signature ( &minus; 1 , &minus; 1 ). Developed mathematical formalism allows one to obtain the second quantization operators in a natural way. Gauge transformations arise due to existence of internal degrees of freedom of superalgebraic spinors. These degrees of freedom lead to existence of nontrivial affine connections. Proposed approach opens perspectives for constructing a theory in which the properties of spacetime have the same algebraic nature as the momentum, electromagnetic field and other quantum fields.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070161

Authors: Amir B. Aazami Charles R. Keeton Arlie O. Petters

In gravitational lensing, magnification cross sections characterize the probability that a light source will have magnification greater than some fixed value, which is useful in a variety of applications. The (area) cross section is known to scale as &mu; &minus; 2 for fold caustics and &mu; &minus; 2.5 for cusp caustics. We aim to extend the results to higher-order caustic singularities, focusing on the elliptic umbilic, which can be manifested in lensing systems with two or three galaxies. The elliptic umbilic has a caustic surface, and we show that the volume cross section scales as &mu; &minus; 2.5 in the two-image region and &mu; &minus; 2 in the four-image region, where &mu; is the total unsigned magnification. In both cases our results are supported both numerically and analytically.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070160

Authors: Dezso Horváth

The discovery and study of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider of CERN has proven the validity of the Brout–Englert–Higgs mechanism of mass creation in the standard model via spontaneous symmetry breaking. The new results obtained by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the LHC show that all measured cross-sections agree within uncertainties with the predictions of the theory. However, the standard model has obvious difficulties (nonzero neutrino masses, hierarchy problem, existence of dark matter, non-existence of antimatter galaxies, etc.), which point towards more possible violated symmetries. We first summarize the present status of the studies of the Higgs boson, including the latest results at 13 TeV p-p collision energy, then enlist some of the problems with possible solutions and the experimental situation regarding them.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5070159

Authors: James M. Lattimer

Constraints on neutron star masses and radii now come from a variety of sources: theoretical and experimental nuclear physics, astrophysical observations including pulsar timing, thermal and bursting X-ray sources, and gravitational waves, and the assumptions inherent to general relativity and causality of the equation of state. These measurements and assumptions also result in restrictions on the dense matter equation of state. The two most important structural parameters of neutron stars are their typical radii, which impacts intermediate densities in the range of one to two times the nuclear saturation density, and the maximum mass, which impacts the densities beyond about three times the saturation density. Especially intriguing has been the multi-messenger event GW170817, the first observed binary neutron star merger, which provided direct estimates of both stellar masses and radii as well as an upper bound to the maximum mass.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060158

Authors: Cecilia Bejarano Rafael Ferraro Franco Fiorini María José Guzmán

We review the current status of the Lorentz covariance in teleparallel and modified teleparallel theories of gravity, and discuss the controversial features of the different approaches. We also revisit the issue of the remnant Lorentz gauge symmetries in f ( T ) gravity.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060157

Authors: McCullen Sandora

How good is our universe at making habitable planets? The answer to this depends on which factors are important for life: Does a planet need to be Earth mass? Does it need to be inside the temperate zone? are systems with hot Jupiters habitable? Here, we adopt different stances on the importance of each of these criteria to determine their effects on the probabilities of measuring the observed values of several physical constants. We find that the presence of planets is a generic feature throughout the multiverse, and for the most part conditioning on their particular properties does not alter our conclusions much. We find conflict with multiverse expectations if planetary size is important and it is found to be uncorrelated with stellar mass, or the mass distribution is too steep. The existence of a temperate circumstellar zone places tight lower bounds on the fine structure constant and electron to proton mass ratio.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060156

Authors: Matthias Hanauske Luke Bovard Elias Most Jens Papenfort Jan Steinheimer Anton Motornenko Volodymyr Vovchenko Veronica Dexheimer Stefan Schramm Horst Stöcker

The long-awaited detection of a gravitational wave from the merger of a binary neutron star in August 2017 (GW170817) marks the beginning of the new field of multi-messenger gravitational wave astronomy. By exploiting the extracted tidal deformations of the two neutron stars from the late inspiral phase of GW170817, it is now possible to constrain several global properties of the equation of state of neutron star matter. However, the most interesting part of the high density and temperature regime of the equation of state is solely imprinted in the post-merger gravitational wave emission from the remnant hypermassive/supramassive neutron star. This regime was not observed in GW170817, but will possibly be detected in forthcoming events within the current observing run of the LIGO/VIRGO collaboration. Numerous numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries have been performed during the last decades, and the emitted gravitational wave profiles and the interior structure of the generated remnants have been analysed in detail. The consequences of a potential appearance of a hadron-quark phase transition in the interior region of the produced hypermassive neutron star and the evolution of its underlying matter in the phase diagram of quantum cromo dynamics will be in the focus of this article. It will be shown that the different density/temperature regions of the equation of state can be severely constrained by a measurement of the spectral properties of the emitted post-merger gravitational wave signal from a future binary compact star merger event.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060155

Authors: Sayantan Choudhury

In this work, we study the key role of generic Effective Field Theory (EFT) framework to quantify the correlation functions in a quasi de Sitter background for an arbitrary initial choice of the quantum vacuum state. We perform the computation in unitary gauge, in which we apply the St&uuml;ckelberg trick in lowest dimensional EFT operators which are broken under time diffeomorphism. In particular, using this non-linear realization of broken time diffeomorphism and truncating the action by considering the contribution from two derivative terms in the metric, we compute the two-point and three-point correlations from scalar perturbations and two-point correlation from tensor perturbations to quantify the quantum fluctuations observed in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) map. We also use equilateral limit and squeezed limit configurations for the scalar three-point correlations in Fourier space. To give future predictions from EFT setup and to check the consistency of our derived results for correlations, we use the results obtained from all classes of the canonical single-field and general single-field P ( X , ϕ ) model. This analysis helps us to fix the coefficients of the relevant operators in EFT in terms of the slow-roll parameters and effective sound speed. Finally, using CMB observations from Planck we constrain all these coefficients of EFT operators for the single-field slow-roll inflationary paradigm.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060154

Authors: Barnabás Pórfy

Bose&ndash;Einstein (or Hanbury&ndash;Brown and Twiss (HBT)) momentum correlations reveal the space&ndash;time structure of the particle emitting source created in high energy nucleus&ndash;nucleus collisions. In this paper we present the latest NA61/SHINE measurements of Bose&ndash;Einstein correlations of identified pion pairs and their description based on L&eacute;vy distributed sources in Be + Be collisions at 150A GeV/c. We investigate the transverse mass dependence of the L&eacute;vy source parameters and discuss their possible interpretations.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060153

Authors: Péter Pósfay Gergely Gábor Barnaföldi Antal Jakovác

Recent multi-channel astrophysics observations and the soon-to-be published new measured electromagnetic and gravitation data provide information on the inner structure of the compact stars. These macroscopic observations can significantly increase our knowledge on the neutron star enteriors, providing constraints on the microscopic physical properties. On the other hand, due to the masquarade problem, there are still uncertainties on the various nuclear-matter models and their parameters as well. Calculating the properties of the dense nuclear matter, effective field theories are the most widely-used tools. However, the values of the microscopical parameters need to be set consistently to the nuclear and astrophysical measurements. In this work, we investigate how uncertainties are induced by the variation of the microscopical parameters. We use a symmetric nuclear matter in an extended &sigma; - &omega; model to see the influence of the nuclear matter parameters. We calculate the dense matter equation of state and give the mass-radius diagram for a simplistic neutron star model. We present that the Landau mass and compressibility modulus of the nuclear matter have definite linear relation to the maximum mass of a Schwarzschild neutron star.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060152

Authors: Hai-Ling Lao Ya-Qin Gao Fu-Hu Liu

We collect the yields of charged pions ( &pi; &minus; and &pi; + ), charged kaons ( K &minus; and K + ), anti-protons ( p &macr; ), and protons (p) produced in mid-rapidity interval (in most cases) in central gold&ndash;gold (Au&ndash;Au), central lead&ndash;lead (Pb&ndash;Pb), and inelastic or non-single-diffractive proton&ndash;proton ( p p ) collisions at different collision energies. The chemical potentials of light particles and quarks are extracted from the yield ratios, &pi; &minus; / &pi; + , K &minus; / K + , and p &macr; / p , of antiparticles to particles over an energy range from a few GeV to above 10 TeV. At a few GeV (&sim;4 GeV), the chemical potentials show, and the yield ratios do not show, different trends comparing with those at other energies, although the limiting values of the chemical potentials and the yield ratios at very high energy are 0 and 1, respectively.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060151

Authors: Gian Paolo Vacca Alessandro Codello Mahmoud Safari Omar Zanusso

We present some general results for the multi-critical multi-field models in d &gt; 2 recently obtained using conformal field theory (CFT) and Schwinger&ndash;Dyson methods at the perturbative level without assuming any symmetry. Results in the leading non trivial order are derived consistently for several conformal data in full agreement with functional perturbative renormalization group (RG) methods. Mechanisms like emergent (possibly approximate) symmetries can be naturally investigated in this framework.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060150

Authors: Salvador J. Robles-Pérez

The classical evolution of the universe can be seen as a parametrised worldline of the minisuperspace, with the time variable t being the parameter that parametrises the worldline. The time reversal symmetry of the field equations implies that for any positive oriented solution there can be a symmetric negative oriented one that, in terms of the same time variable, respectively represent an expanding and a contracting universe. However, the choice of the time variable induced by the correct value of the Schr&ouml;dinger equation in the two universes makes it so that their physical time variables can be reversely related. In that case, the two universes would both be expanding universes from the perspective of their internal inhabitants, who identify matter with the particles that move in their spacetimes and antimatter with the particles that move in the time reversely symmetric universe. If the assumptions considered are consistent with a realistic scenario of our universe, the creation of a universe&ndash;antiuniverse pair might explain two main and related problems in cosmology: the time asymmetry and the primordial matter&ndash;antimatter asymmetry of our universe.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060149

Authors: McCullen Sandora

In a multiverse setting, we expect to be situated in a universe that is exceptionally good at producing life. Though the conditions for what life needs to arise and thrive are currently unknown, many will be tested in the coming decades. Here we investigate several different habitability criteria, and their influence on multiverse expectations: Does complex life need photosynthesis? Is there a minimum timescale necessary for development? Can life arise on tidally locked planets? Are convective stars habitable? Variously adopting different stances on each of these criteria can alter whether our observed values of the fine structure constant, the electron to proton mass ratio, and the strength of gravity are typical to high significance. This serves as a way of generating predictions for the requirements of life that can be tested with future observations, any of which could falsify the multiverse scenario.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060148

Authors: Boris Tomášik Jakub Cimerman Christopher Plumberg

A brief pedagogical introduction to correlation femtoscopy is given. We then focus on the shape of the correlation function and discuss the possible reasons for its departure from the Gaussian form and better reproduction with a L&eacute;vy stable distribution. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations based on asymmetric extension of the Blast-Wave model with resonances we demonstrate possible influence of averaging over many events and integrating over wide momentum bins on the shape of the correlation function. We also show that the shape is strongly influenced by the use of the one-dimensional parametrisation in the q i n v variable.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060147

Authors: Andreas G. A. Pithis Mairi Sakellariadou

This contribution is an appetizer to the relatively young and fast-evolving approach to quantum cosmology based on group field theory condensate states. We summarize the main assumptions and pillars of this approach which has revealed new perspectives on the long-standing question of how to recover the continuum from discrete geometric building blocks. Among others, we give a snapshot of recent work on isotropic cosmological solutions exhibiting an accelerated expansion, a bounce where anisotropies are shown to be under control, and inhomogeneities with an approximately scale-invariant power spectrum. Finally, we point to open issues in the condensate cosmology approach.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060146

Authors: Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan

The exact time-dependent solution is obtained for a magnetic field growth during a spherically symmetric accretion into a black hole (BH) with a Schwarzschild metric. Magnetic field is increasing with time, changing from the initially uniform into a quasi-radial field. Equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energies in the falling gas is supposed to be established in the developed stages of the flow. Estimates of the synchrotron radiation intensity are presented for the stationary flow. The main part of the radiation is formed in the relativistic region r ≤ 7 r g , where r g is a BH gravitational radius. The two-dimensional stationary self-similar magnetohydrodynamic solution is obtained for the matter accretion into BH, in a presence of a large-scale magnetic field, under assumption, that the magnetic field far from the BH is homogeneous and its influence on the flow is negligible. At the symmetry plane perpendicular to the direction of the distant magnetic field, the dense quasi-stationary disk is formed around BH, which structure is determined by dissipation processes. Solutions of the disk structure have been obtained for a laminar disk with Coulomb resistivity and for a turbulent disk. Parameters of the shock forming due to matter infall onto the disk are obtained. The radiation spectrum of the disk and the shock are obtained for the 10 M ⊙ BH. The luminosity of such object is about the solar one, for a characteristic galactic gas density, with possibility of observation at distances less than 1 kpc. The spectra of a laminar and a turbulent disk structure around BH are very different. The laminar disk radiates mainly in the ultraviolet, the turbulent disk emits a large part of its flux in the infrared. It may occur that some of the galactic infrared star-like sources are a single BH in the turbulent accretion state. The radiative efficiency of the magnetized disk is very high, reaching ∼ 0.5 M ˙ c 2 . This model of accretion was called recently as a magnetically arrested disk (MAD). Numerical simulations of MAD and its appearance during accretion into neutron stars, are considered and discussed.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060145

Authors: David Garofalo Damian J. Christian Andrew M. Jones

By exploring more than sixty thousand quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5, Steinhardt &amp; Elvis discovered a sub-Eddington boundary and a redshift-dependent drop-off at higher black hole mass, possible clues to the growth history of massive black holes. Our contribution to this special issue of Universe amounts to an application of a model for black hole accretion and jet formation to these observations. For illustrative purposes, we include ~100,000 data points from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 where the sub-Eddington boundary is also visible and propose a theoretical picture that explains these features. By appealing to thin disk theory and both the lower accretion efficiency and the time evolution of jetted quasars compared to non-jetted quasars in our &ldquo;gap paradigm&rdquo;, we explain two features of the sub-Eddington boundary. First, we show that a drop-off on the quasar mass-luminosity plane for larger black hole mass occurs at all redshifts. But the fraction of jetted quasars is directly related to the merger function in this paradigm, which means the jetted quasar fraction drops with decrease in redshift, which allows us to explain a second feature of the sub-Eddington boundary, namely a redshift dependence of the slope of the quasar mass&ndash;luminosity boundary at high black hole mass stemming from a change in radiative efficiency with time. We are able to reproduce the mass dependence of, as well as the oscillating behavior in, the slope of the sub-Eddington boundary as a function of time. The basic physical idea involves retrograde accretion occurring only for a subset of the more massive black holes, which implies that most spinning black holes in our model are prograde accretors. In short, this paper amounts to a qualitative overview of how a sub-Eddington boundary naturally emerges in the gap paradigm.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060144

Authors: J. E. Horvath O. G. Benvenuto E. Bauer L. Paulucci A. Bernardo H. R. Viturro

In this talk, we summarize the work in progress toward a full characterization of strange star&ndash;strange star (SS&ndash;SS) mergers related to the GW/GRB/kilonova events. In addition, we show that the a priori probability constructed from the observed neutron star mass distribution points toward an asymmetric binary system as the progenitor of the GW170817 event.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060143

Authors: Daniel Blixt Manuel Hohmann Christian Pfeifer

The covariant formulation of teleparallel gravity theories must include the spin connection, which has 6 degrees of freedom. One can, however, always choose a gauge such that the spin connection is put to zero. In principle this gauge may affect counting of degrees of freedom in the Hamiltonian analysis. We show for general teleparallel theories of gravity, that fixing the gauge such that the spin connection vanishes in fact does not affect the counting of degrees of freedom. This manifests in the fact that the momenta of the Lorentz transformations which generate the spin connection are fully determined by the momenta of the tetrads.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060142

Authors: Laur Järv Manuel Hohmann Martin Krššák Christian Pfeifer

Teleparallel geometry utilizes Weitzenb&ouml;ck connection which has nontrivial torsion but no curvature and does not directly follow from the metric like Levi&ndash;Civita connection. In extended teleparallel theories, for instance in f ( T ) or scalar-torsion gravity, the connection must obey its antisymmetric field equations. Thus far, only a few analytic solutions were known. In this note, we solve the f ( T , ϕ ) gravity antisymmetric vacuum field equations for a generic rotating tetrad ansatz in Weyl canonical coordinates, and find the corresponding spin connection coefficients. By a coordinate transformation, we present the solution also in Boyer&ndash;Lindquist coordinates, often used to study rotating solutions in general relativity. The result hints for the existence of another branch of rotating solutions besides the Kerr family in extended teleparallel gravities.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060141

Authors: David M. Lucchesi Luciano Anselmo Massimo Bassan Carmelo Magnafico Carmen Pardini Roberto Peron Giuseppe Pucacco Massimo Visco

Recent results of the LARASE research program in terms of model improvements and relativistic measurements are presented. In particular, the results regarding the development of new models for the non-gravitational perturbations that affect the orbit of the LAGEOS and LARES satellites are described and discussed. These are subtle and complex effects that need a deep knowledge of the structure and the physical characteristics of the satellites in order to be correctly accounted for. In the field of gravitational measurements, we present a new measurement of the relativistic Lense-Thirring precession with a 0.5 % precision. In this measurement, together with the relativistic effect we also estimated two even zonal harmonics coefficients. The uncertainties of the even zonal harmonics of the gravitational field of the Earth have been responsible, until now, of the larger systematic uncertainty in the error budget of this kind of measurements. For this reason, the role of the errors related to the model used for the gravitational field of the Earth in these measurements is discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to GRACE temporal models, that strongly help to reduce this kind of systematic errors.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060140

Authors: Michael J. Tannenbaum

Results from Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Physics in 2018 and plans for the future at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060139

Authors: José G. Pereira Yuri N. Obukhov

During the conference Teleparallel Universes in Salamanca, we became aware of a recent paper [M. Fontanini, E. Huguet, and M. Le Delliou, Phys. Rev. D 2019, 99, 064006] in which some criticisms on the interpretation of teleparallel gravity as a gauge theory for the translation group were put forward. This triggered a discussion about the arguments on which those criticisms were based, whose output is described in the present paper. The main conclusion is that to a great extent, those arguments are incorrect, and lack mathematical and physical support.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060138

Authors: Louis Perenon Hermano Velten

We summarize the effective field theory of dark energy construction to explore observable predictions of linear Horndeski theories. We review the diagnostic of these theories on the correlation of the large-scale structure phenomenological functions: the effective Newton constant, the light deflection parameter, and the growth function of matter perturbations. We take this opportunity to discuss the evolution of the bounds the propagation speed of gravitational waves has undergone and use the most restrictive one to update the diagnostic.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060137

Authors: Valerio Marra Rogerio Rosenfeld Riccardo Sturani

Despite the observational success of the standard model of cosmology, present-day observations do not tightly constrain the nature of dark matter and dark energy and modifications to the theory of general relativity. Here, we will discuss some of the ongoing and upcoming surveys that will revolutionize our understanding of the dark sector.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060136

Authors: Amir Ouyed Rachid Ouyed Prashanth Jaikumar

Hadron-quark combustion in dense matter is a central topic in the study of phases in compact stars and their high-energy astrophysics. We critically reviewed the literature on hadron-quark combustion, dividing them into a &ldquo;first wave&rdquo; that treats the problem as a steady-state burning with or without constraints of mechanical equilibrium, and a &ldquo;second wave&rdquo; which uses numerical techniques to resolve the burning front and solves the underlying partial differential equations for the chemistry of the burning front under less restrictive conditions. We detailed the inaccuracies that the second wave amends over the first wave and highlight crucial differences between various approaches in the second wave. We also include results from time-dependent simulations of the reaction zone that include a hadronic EOS, neutrinos, and self-consistent thermodynamics without using parameterized shortcuts.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060135

Authors: In Ki Hong Choong Sun Kim

By using complex quaternion, which is the system of quaternion representation extended to complex numbers, we show that the laws of electromagnetism can be expressed much more simply and concisely. We also derive the quaternion representation of rotations and boosts from the spinor representation of Lorentz group. It is suggested that the imaginary &ldquo;i&rdquo; should be attached to the spatial coordinates, and observe that the complex conjugate of quaternion representation is exactly equal to parity inversion of all physical quantities in the quaternion. We also show that using quaternion is directly linked to the two-spinor formalism. Finally, we discuss meanings of quaternion, octonion and sedenion in physics as n-fold rotation.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060134

Authors: Gábor Bíró Gergely Gábor Barnaföldi Gábor Papp Tamás Sándor Biró

The non-extensive statistical description of the identified final state particles measured in high energy collisions is well-known by its wide range of applicability. However, there are many open questions that need to be answered, including but not limited to, the question of the observed mass scaling of massive hadrons or the size and multiplicity dependence of the model parameters. This latter is especially relevant, since currently the amount of available experimental data with high multiplicity at small systems is very limited. This contribution has two main goals: On the one hand we provide a status report of the ongoing tuning of the soon-to-be-released HIJING++ Monte Carlo event generator. On the other hand, the role of multiplicity dependence of the parameters in the non-extensive hadronization model is investigated with HIJING++ calculations. We present cross-check comparisons of HIJING++ with existing experimental data to verify its validity in our range of interest as well as calculations at high-multiplicity regions where we have insufficient experimental data.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5060133

Authors: Máté Csanád Sándor Lökös Márton Nagy

Investigation of momentum space correlations of particles produced in high energy reactions requires taking final state interactions into account, a crucial point of any such analysis. Coulomb interaction between charged particles is the most important such effect. In small systems like those created in e + e - - or p + p collisions, the so-called Gamow factor (valid for a point-like particle source) gives an acceptable description of the Coulomb interaction. However, in larger systems such as central or mid-central heavy ion collisions, more involved approaches are needed. In this paper we investigate the Coulomb final state interaction for L&eacute;vy-type source functions that were recently shown to be of much interest for a refined description of the space-time picture of particle production in heavy-ion collisions.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050132

Authors: Zoltán Varga Róbert Vértesi Gergely Gábor Barnaföldi

A study investigating a possible jet shape dependence on the charged event multiplicity was performed on collision samples generated by Monte–Carlo (MC) event generators Pythia and Hijing++. We calculated the integral jet shape and found a significant modification caused by multiple-parton interactions. By interchanging and enabling different model ingredients in the simulations and analyzing the results in several p T bins and event multiplicity classes, we found a characteristic jet size measure that was independent of the chosen tunes, settings, and jet reconstruction algorithms.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050131

Authors: Bozena Czerny

The concept of slim accretion disks emerged over 30 years ago as an answer to several unsolved problems. Since that time there has been a tremendous increase in the amount of observational data where this model applies. However, many critical issues on the theoretical side remain unsolved, as they are inherently difficult. This is the issue of the disk stability under radiation pressure, the role of the magnetic field in the energy transfer inside the disk, the formation (or not) of a warm corona, and outflows. Thus the progress has to be done both through further developments of the model and through careful comparison with the observational data.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050130

Authors: Róbert Vértesi

Heavy quarks (charm and beauty) are produced early in the nucleus–nucleus collisions, and heavy flavor survives throughout the later stages. Measurements of heavy-flavor quarks thus provide us with means to understand the properties of the Quark–Gluon Plasma, a hot and dense state of matter created in heavy-ion collisions. Production of heavy-flavor in small collision systems, on the other hand, can be used to test Quantum-chromodynamics models. After a successful completion of the Run-I data taking period, the increased luminosity from the LHC and an upgraded ALICE detector system in the Run-II data taking period allows for unprecedented precision in the study of heavy quarks. In this article we give an overview of selected recent results on heavy-flavor measurements with ALICE experiments at the LHC.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050129

Authors: Veronica Dexheimer Constantinos Constantinou Elias R. Most L. Jens Papenfort Matthias Hanauske Stefan Schramm Horst Stoecker Luciano Rezzolla

In this work, we discuss the dense matter equation of state (EOS) for the extreme range of conditions encountered in neutron stars and their mergers. The calculation of the properties of such an EOS involves modeling different degrees of freedom (such as nuclei, nucleons, hyperons, and quarks), taking into account different symmetries, and including finite density and temperature effects in a thermodynamically consistent manner. We begin by addressing subnuclear matter consisting of nucleons and a small admixture of light nuclei in the context of the excluded volume approach. We then turn our attention to supranuclear homogeneous matter as described by the Chiral Mean Field (CMF) formalism. Finally, we present results from realistic neutron-star-merger simulations performed using the CMF model that predict signatures for deconfinement to quark matter in gravitational wave signals.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050128

Authors: Monika Varga-Kofarago

The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ALICE detector is undergoing a major upgrade in the Second Long Shutdown of the LHC in 2019–2020. During this upgrade, the innermost detector, the Inner Tracking System, will be completely replaced by a new detector which is built from the ALPIDE sensor. In the Bergen proton computer tomography (pCT) collaboration, we decided to apply these sensors for medical applications. They can be used for positioning in hadron therapies due to their good position resolution and radiation tolerance. Dose planning of hadron therapy is calculated currently from photon CT measurements, which results in large uncertainties in the planning and therefore in a necessary enlargement of the treatment area. This uncertainty can be reduced by performing the CT scan using protons. The current contribution shows the development of a sampling calorimeter built from the ALPIDE detector for proton CT measurements and describes the state of the project.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050127

Authors: Yuri N. Obukhov

In the framework of the gauge theory based on the Poincar&eacute; symmetry group, the gravitational field is described in terms of the coframe and the local Lorentz connection. Considered as gauge field potentials, they give rise to the corresponding field strength which are naturally identified with the torsion and the curvature on the Riemann&ndash;Cartan spacetime. We study the class of quadratic Poincar&eacute; gauge gravity models with the most general Yang&ndash;Mills type Lagrangian which contains all possible parity-even and parity-odd invariants built from the torsion and the curvature. Exact vacuum solutions of the gravitational field equations are constructed as a certain deformation of de Sitter geometry. They are black holes with nontrivial torsion.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050126

Authors: Andrey Seryakov

The phase diagram of the strongly interacting matter is the main research subject for different current and future experiments in high-energy physics. System size and energy scan programs aim to find a possible critical point. One of such programs was accomplished by the fixed-target NA61/SHINE experiment in 2018. It includes six beam energies and six colliding systems: p + p, Be + Be, Ar + Sc, Xe + La, Pb + Pb and p + Pb. In this study, we discuss how the efficiency of centrality selection by forward spectators influences multiplicity and fluctuation measures and how this influence depends on the size of colliding systems. We use SHIELD and EPOS Monte-Carlo (MC) generators along with the wounded nucleon model, introduce a probability to lose a forward spectator and spectator energy loss. We show that for light colliding systems such as Be or Li even a small inefficiency in centrality selection has a dramatic impact on multiplicity scaled variance. Conversely, heavy systems such as Ar + Sc are much less prone to the effect.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050125

Authors: Arman Tursunov Naresh Dadhich

Magnetic Penrose process (MPP) is not only the most exciting and fascinating process mining the rotational energy of black hole but it is also the favored astrophysically viable mechanism for high energy sources and phenomena. It operates in three regimes of efficiency, namely low, moderate and ultra, depending on the magnetization and charging of spinning black holes in astrophysical setting. In this paper, we revisit MPP with a comprehensive discussion of its physics in different regimes, and compare its operation with other competing mechanisms. We show that MPP could in principle foot the bill for powering engine of such phenomena as ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, relativistic jets, fast radio bursts, quasars, AGNs, etc. Further, it also leads to a number of important observable predictions. All this beautifully bears out the promise of a new vista of energy powerhouse heralded by Roger Penrose half a century ago through this process, and it has today risen in its magnetically empowered version of mid 1980s from a purely thought experiment of academic interest to a realistic powering mechanism for various high-energy astrophysical phenomena.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050124

Authors: Filip Krizek

There are two prominent experimental signatures of quark–gluon plasma creation in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions: the jet quenching phenomenon and the azimuthal-momentum space-anisotropy of final-state particle emission. Recently, the latter signature was also observed in lighter collision systems such as p–Pb or pp. This raises a natural question of whether in these systems, the observed collectivity is also accompanied by jet quenching. In this paper, we overview ALICE measurements of the jet quenching phenomenon studied using semi-inclusive distributions of track-based jets recoiling from a high-transverse momentum ( p T ) hadron trigger in Pb–Pb and p–Pb collisions at LHC energies. The constructed coincidence observable, the per trigger normalized yield of associated recoil jets, is corrected for the complex uncorrelated jet background, including multi-partonic interactions, using a data-driven statistical subtraction method. In the p–Pb data, the observable was measured in events with different underlying event activity and was utilized to set an upper limit on the average medium-induced out-of-cone energy transport for jets with resolution parameter R = 0.4 . The associated jet momentum shift was found to be less than 0.4 GeV/c at 90% confidence.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050123

Authors: Giorgio Papini

We report on the behavior of two-level quantum systems, or qubits, in the background of rotating and non-rotating metrics and provide a method to derive the related spin currents and motions. The calculations are performed in the external field approximation.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050122

Authors: Keming Shen Gergely Gábor Barnaföldi Tamás Sándor Biró

We investigate how the non-extensive approach works in high-energy physics. Transverse momentum ( p T ) spectra of several hadrons are fitted by various non-extensive momentum distributions and by the Boltzmann&ndash;Gibbs statistics. It is shown that some non-extensive distributions can be transferred one into another. We find explicit hadron mass and center-of-mass energy scaling both in the temperature and in the non-extensive parameter, q, in proton&ndash;proton and heavy-ion collisions. We find that the temperature depends linearly, but the Tsallis q follows a logarithmic dependence on the collision energy in proton&ndash;proton collisions. In the nucleus&ndash;nucleus collisions, on the other hand, T and q correlate linearly, as was predicted in our previous work.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050121

Authors: Gianluca Calcagni

The author did not realize that some of the initial conditions in [...]

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050120

Authors: Marzio De Napoli

The Beam Dump eXperiment (BDX) is a an electron-beam thick-target experiment aimed to investigate the existence of light Dark Matter particles in the MeV-GeV mass region at Jefferson Lab. The experiment will make use of a 10.6 GeV high-intensity electron-beam impinging on the Hall-A beam-dump to produce the Dark Matter particles ( &chi; ) through the Dark Photon portal. The BDX detector located at &sim;20 m from the dump consists of two main components: an electromagnetic calorimeter to detect the signals produced by the &chi; -electron scattering and a veto system to reject background. The expected signature of the DM (Dark Matter) interaction in the Ecal (Electromagnetic calorimeter) is a &sim;GeV electromagnetic shower paired with a null activity in the surrounding active veto counters. Collecting 10 22 electrons on target in 285 days of parasitic run at 65 &mu; A of beam current, and with an expected background of O(5) counts, in the case of a null discovery, BDX will be able to lower the exclusion limits by one to two orders of magnitude in the parameter space of dark-matter coupling versus mass. This paper describes the experiment and presents a summary of the most significant results achieved thus far, which led to the recent approval of the experiment by JLab-PAC46.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050119

Authors: David Lafferty Alexander Rothkopf

We present an improved analytic parametrisation of the complex in-medium heavy quark potential derived rigorously from the generalised Gauss law. To this end we combine in a self-consistent manner a non-perturbative vacuum potential with a weak-coupling description of the QCD medium. The resulting Gauss-law parametrisation is able to reproduce full lattice QCD data by using only a single temperature dependent parameter, the Debye mass m D . Using this parametrisation we model the in-medium potential at finite baryo-chemical potential, which allows us to estimate the &Psi; &prime; / J / &Psi; ratio in heavy-ion collisions at different beam energies.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050118

Authors: Eszter Frajna Róbert Vértesi

The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring is designed to study the strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. In this paper we investigate correlations of heavy and light flavors in simulations at LHC energies at mid-rapidity, with the primary purpose of proposing experimental applications of these methods. Our studies have shown that investigating the correlation images can aid the experimental separation of heavy quarks and help understanding the physics that create them. The shape of the correlation peaks can be used to separate the electrons stemming from b quarks. This could be a method of identification that, combined with identification in silicon vertex detectors, may provide much better sample purity for examining the secondary vertex shift. Based on a correlation picture it is also possible to distinguish between prompt and late contributions to D meson yields.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050117

Authors: Alexander Rothkopf

We report on recent theory progress in understanding the production of heavy quarkonium in heavy-ion collisions based on the in-medium heavy-quark potential extracted from lattice QCD simulations. On the one hand, the proper in-medium potential allows us to study the spectral properties of heavy quarkonium in thermal equilibrium, from which we estimate the &psi; &prime; to J / &psi; ratio in heavy-ion collisions. On the other hand, the potential provides a central ingredient in the description of the real-time evolution of heavy-quarkonium formulated in the open-quantum-systems framework.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050116

Authors: Philipp A. Höhn

Despite its importance in general relativity, a quantum notion of general covariance has not yet been established in quantum gravity and cosmology, where, given the a priori absence of coordinates, it is necessary to replace classical frames with dynamical quantum reference systems. As such, quantum general covariance bears on the ability to consistently switch between the descriptions of the same physics relative to arbitrary choices of quantum reference system. Recently, a systematic approach for such switches has been developed. It links the descriptions relative to different choices of quantum reference system, identified as the correspondingly reduced quantum theories, via the reference-system-neutral Dirac quantization, in analogy to coordinate changes on a manifold. In this work, we apply this method to a simple cosmological model to demonstrate how to consistently switch between different internal time choices in quantum cosmology. We substantiate the argument that the conjunction of Dirac and reduced quantized versions of the theory defines a complete relational quantum theory that not only admits a quantum general covariance, but, we argue, also suggests a new perspective on the &lsquo;wave function of the universe&rsquo;. It assumes the role of a perspective-neutral global state, without immediate physical interpretation that, however, encodes all the descriptions of the universe relative to all possible choices of reference system at once and constitutes the crucial link between these internal perspectives. While, for simplicity, we use the Wheeler-DeWitt formulation, the method and arguments might be also adaptable to loop quantum cosmology.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050115

Authors: Ali Övgün

In this research, we used the Gibbons&ndash;Werner method (Gauss&ndash;Bonnet theorem) on the optical geometry of a black hole and wormhole, extending the calculation of weak gravitational lensing within the Maxwell&rsquo;s fish eye-like profile and dark-matter medium. The angle is seen as a partially topological effect, and the Gibbons&ndash;Werner method can be used on any asymptotically flat Riemannian optical geometry of compact objects in a dark-matter medium.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050114

Authors: Veronika Agafonova

Nuclear&ndash;nuclear collisions at energies attainable at the large accelerators RHIC and the LHC are an ideal environment to study nuclear matter under extreme conditions of high temperature and energy density. One of the most important probes of such nuclear matter is the study of production of jets. In this article, several jet shape observables in Au+Au collisions at the center of mass energy per nucleon&ndash;nucleon pair of s N N = 200 GeV simulated in the Monte Carlo generator JEWEL are presented. Jets were reconstructed using the anti- k T algorithm and their shapes were studied as a function of the jet-resolution parameter R, transverse momentum p T and collision centrality.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050113

Authors: Michael Heller

The aim of this essay is to look at the idea of the multiverse&mdash;not so much from the standpoint of physics or cosmology, but rather from a philosophical perspective. The modern story of the multiverse began with Leibniz. Although he treated &ldquo;other worlds&rdquo; as mere possibilities, they played an important role in his logic. In a somewhat similar manner, the practice of cosmology presupposes a consideration of an infinite number of universes, each being represented by a solution to Einstein&rsquo;s equations. This approach prepared the way to the consideration of &ldquo;other universes&rdquo; which actually exist, first as an auxiliary concept in discussing the so-called anthropic principle, and then as real universes, the existence of which were supposed to solve some cosmological conundrums. From the point of view of the philosophy of science, the question is: Could the explanatory power of a multiverse ideology compensate for the relaxation of empirical control over so many directly unobservable entities? It is no surprise that appealing to a possibly infinite number of &ldquo;other universes&rdquo; in order to explain some regularities in our world would seem &ldquo;too much&rdquo; for a self-disciplined philosopher. With no strict empirical control at our disposal, it is logic that must be our guide. Also, what if logic changes from one world to another in the multiverse? Such a possibility is suggested by the category theory. From this point of view, our present concepts of the multiverse are certainly &ldquo;not enough&rdquo;. Should this be read as a warning that the learned imagination can lead us too far into the realms of mere possibilities?

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050112

Authors: Xiong-Tao Gong Ze-Fang Jiang Duan She C. B. Yang

Based on the analytical solution of accelerating relativistic viscous fluid hydrodynamics and Buda&ndash;Lund model, the pseudorapidity distributions of the most central Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions are presented. Inspired by the CNC model, a modified energy density estimation formula is presented to investigate the dependence of the initial energy density estimation on the viscous effect. This new energy density estimation formula shows that the bulk energy is deposited to the neighboring fluid cells in the presence of the shear viscosity and bulk viscosity. In contrast to the well-known CNC energy density estimation formula, a 4.9% enhancement of the estimated energy density at the LHC kinematics is shown.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050111

Authors: Irina Dymnikova

We outline the basic ideas and analyze the possibilities of the quantum birth of universes inside regular black holes with the de Sitter interior replacing a singularity. We compare different cases and show that the most plausible case is the birth of a flat universe from an initial quantum fluctuation with a small admixture of radiation and strings with the negative deficit angle, which provides the existence of a potential barrier needed for quantum tunneling.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050110

Authors: J. A. Rueda R. Ruffini Y. Wang

There is increasing observational evidence that short and long Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate in different subclasses, each one with specific energy release, spectra, duration, etc, and all of them with binary progenitors. The binary components involve carbon-oxygen cores (CO core ), neutron stars (NSs), black holes (BHs), and white dwarfs (WDs). We review here the salient features of the specific class of binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) scenario for the explanation of the long GRBs. The progenitor is a CO core -NS binary. The supernova (SN) explosion of the CO core , producing at its center a new NS ( &nu; NS), triggers onto the NS companion a hypercritical, i.e., highly super-Eddington accretion process, accompanied by a copious emission of neutrinos. By accretion the NS can become either a more massive NS or reach the critical mass for gravitational collapse with consequent formation of a BH. We summarize the results on this topic from the first analytic estimates in 2012 all the way up to the most recent three-dimensional (3D) smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics (SPH) numerical simulations in 2018. Thanks to these results it is by now clear that long GRBs are richer and more complex systems than thought before. The SN explosion and its hypercritical accretion onto the NS explain the X-ray precursor. The feedback of the NS accretion, the NS collapse and the BH formation produce asymmetries in the SN ejecta, implying the necessity of a 3D analysis for GRBs. The newborn BH, the surrounding matter and the magnetic field inherited from the NS, comprises the inner engine from which the GRB electron-positron ( e + e &minus; ) plasma and the high-energy emission are initiated. The impact of the e + e &minus; on the asymmetric ejecta transforms the SN into a hypernova (HN). The dynamics of the plasma in the asymmetric ejecta leads to signatures depending on the viewing angle. This explains the ultrarelativistic prompt emission in the MeV domain and the mildly-relativistic flares in the early afterglow in the X-ray domain. The feedback of the &nu; NS pulsar-like emission on the HN explains the X-ray late afterglow and its power-law regime. All of the above is in contrast with a simple GRB model attempting to explain the entire GRB with the kinetic energy of an ultrarelativistic jet extending through all of the above GRB phases, as traditionally proposed in the &ldquo;collapsar-fireball&rdquo; model. In addition, BdHNe in their different flavors lead to &nu; NS-NS or &nu; NS-BH binaries. The gravitational wave emission drives these binaries to merge producing short GRBs. It is thus established a previously unthought interconnection between long and short GRBs and their occurrence rates. This needs to be accounted for in the cosmological evolution of binaries within population synthesis models for the formation of compact-object binaries.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050109

Authors: Yuzuru Kurosaki Keiichi Yokoyama

We investigated the roles of one-photon and two-photon processes in the laser-controlled rovibrational transitions of the diatomic alkali halide, 7Li37Cl. Optimal control theory calculations were carried out using the Hamiltonian, including both the one-photon and two-photon field-molecule interaction terms. Time-dependent wave packet propagation was performed with both the radial and angular motions being treated quantum mechanically. The targeted processes were pure rotational and vibrational&ndash;rotational excitations: (v = 0, J = 0) &rarr; (v = 0, J = 2); (v = 0, J = 0) &rarr; (v = 1, J = 2). Total time of the control pulse was set to 2,000,000 atomic units (48.4 ps). In each control excitation process, weak and strong optimal fields were obtained by means of giving weak and strong field amplitudes, respectively, to the initial guess for the optimal field. It was found that when the field is weak, the control mechanism is dominated exclusively by a one-photon process, as expected, in both the targeted processes. When the field is strong, we obtained two kinds of optimal fields, one causing two-photon absorption and the other causing a Raman process. It was revealed, however, that the mechanisms for strong fields are not simply characterized by one process but rather by multiple one- and two-photon processes. It was also found that in the rotational excitation, (v = 0, J = 0) &rarr; (v = 0, J = 2), the roles of one- and two-photon processes are relatively distinct but in the vibrational&ndash;rotational excitation, (v = 0, J = 0) &rarr; (v = 1, J = 2), these roles are ambiguous and the cooperative effect associated with these two processes is quite large.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050108

Authors: Lankeswar Dey Achamveedu Gopakumar Mauri Valtonen Stanislaw Zola Abhimanyu Susobhanan Rene Hudec Pauli Pihajoki Tapio Pursimo Andrei Berdyugin Vilppu Piirola Stefano Ciprini Kari Nilsson Helen Jermak Mark Kidger Stefanie Komossa

The bright blazar OJ 287 is the best-known candidate for hosting a nanohertz gravitational wave (GW) emitting supermassive binary black hole (SMBBH) in the present observable universe. The binary black hole (BBH) central engine model, proposed by Lehto and Valtonen in 1996, was influenced by the two distinct periodicities inferred from the optical light curve of OJ 287. The current improved model employs an accurate general relativistic description to track the trajectory of the secondary black hole (BH) which is crucial to predict the inherent impact flares of OJ 287. The successful observations of three predicted impact flares open up the possibility of using this BBH system to test general relativity in a hitherto unexplored strong field regime. Additionally, we briefly describe an ongoing effort to interpret observations of OJ 287 in a Bayesian framework.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050107

Authors: Marco de Cesare

We illustrate a general reconstruction procedure for mimetic gravity. Focusing on a bouncing cosmological background, we derive general properties that must be satisfied by the function f(□ϕ) implementing the limiting curvature hypothesis. We show how relevant physical information can be extracted from power-law expansions of f in different regimes, corresponding e.g., to the very early universe or to late times. Our results are then applied to two specific models reproducing the cosmological background dynamics obtained in group field theory and in loop quantum cosmology, and we discuss the possibility of using this framework as providing an effective field theory description of quantum gravity. We study the evolution of anisotropies near the bounce, and discuss instabilities of scalar perturbations. Furthermore, we provide two equivalent formulations of mimetic gravity: one in terms of an effective fluid with exotic properties, the other featuring two distinct time-varying gravitational &ldquo;constants&rdquo; in the cosmological equations.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050106

Authors: Sergey Ostapchenko Marcus Bleicher

Steep rise of parton densities in the limit of small parton momentum fraction x poses a challenge for describing the observed energy-dependence of the total and inelastic proton-proton cross sections &sigma; p p tot / inel : considering a realistic parton spatial distribution, one obtains a too-strong increase of &sigma; p p tot / inel in the limit of very high energies. We discuss various mechanisms which allow one to tame such a rise, paying special attention to the role of parton-parton correlations. In addition, we investigate a potential impact on model predictions for &sigma; p p tot, related to dynamical higher twist corrections to parton-production processes.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050105

Authors: Ferenc Siklér

A novel combination of data analysis techniques is introduced for the reconstruction of primary charged particles and of daughters of photon conversions, created in high energy collisions. Instead of performing a classical trajectory building or an image transformation, efficient use of both local and global information is undertaken while keeping competing choices open. The measured hits in silicon-based tracking detectors are clustered with the help of a k-medians clustering. It proceeds by alternating between the hit-to-track assignment and the track-fit update steps, until convergence. The clustering is complemented with the possibility of adding new track hypotheses or removing unnecessary ones. A simplified model of a silicon tracker is employed to test the performance of the proposed method, showing good efficiency and purity characteristics.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050104

Authors: Efrain J. Ferrer Aric Hackebill

We discuss how a magnetic field can affect the equation of state of a many-particle neutron system. We show that, due to the anisotropy in the pressures, the pressure transverse to the magnetic field direction increases with the magnetic field, while the one along the field direction decreases. We also show that in this medium there exists a significant negative field-dependent contribution associated with the vacuum pressure. This negative pressure demands a neutron density sufficiently high (corresponding to a baryonic chemical potential of &mu; = 2.25 GeV) to produce the necessary positive matter pressure that can compensate for the gravitational pull. The decrease of the parallel pressure with the field limits the maximum magnetic field to a value of the order of 10 18 G, where the pressure decays to zero. We show that the combination of all these effects produces an insignificant variation of the system equation of state. We also found that this neutron system exhibits paramagnetic behavior expressed by the Curie&rsquo;s law in the high-temperature regime. The reported results may be of interest for the astrophysics of compact objects such as magnetars, which are endowed with substantial magnetic fields.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050103

Authors: Daria Prokhorova Nikolaos Davis

The NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN SPS searches for the critical point of strongly interacting matter via scanning the phase diagram by changing beam momenta (13A&ndash;150A GeV/c) and system size (p + p, p + Pb, Be + Be, Ar + Sc, Xe + La). An observation of local proton-density fluctuations that scale as a power law of the appropriate universality class as a function of phase space bin size would signal the approach of the system to the vicinity of the possible critical point. An investigation of this phenomenon was performed in terms of the second-scaled factorial moments (SSFMs) of proton density in transverse momentum space with subtraction of a noncritical background. New NA61/SHINE preliminary analysis of Ar + Sc data at 150A GeV/c revealed a nontrivial intermittent behavior of proton moments. A similar effect was observed by NA49 in &ldquo;Si&rdquo; + Si data at 158A GeV/c. At the same time, no intermittency signal was detected in &ldquo;C&rdquo; + C and Pb + Pb events by NA49, as well as in Be + Be collisions by NA61/SHINE. EPOS1.99 also fails to describe the power-law scaling of SSFMs in Ar + Sc. Qualitatively, the effect is more pronounced with the increase of collision-peripherality and proton-purity thresholds, but a quantitative estimate is to be properly done via power-law exponent fit using the bootstrap method and compared to intermittency critical index ϕ 2 , derived from 3D-Ising effective action.

]]>Universe doi: 10.3390/universe5050102

Authors: Rajendra P. Gupta

Many models have been proposed to explain the intergalactic redshift using different observational data and different criteria for the goodness-of-fit of a model to the data. The purpose of this paper is to examine several suggested models using the same supernovae Ia data and gamma-ray burst (GRB) data with the same goodness-of-fit criterion and weigh them against the standard Lambda cold dark matter model (&Lambda;CDM). We have used the redshift&mdash;distance modulus (z &minus; &mu;) data for 580 supernovae Ia with 0.015 &le; z &le; 1.414 to determine the parameters for each model and then use these model parameter to see how each model fits the sole SNe Ia data at z = 1.914 and the GRB data up to z = 8.1. For the goodness-of-fit criterion, we have used the chi-square probability determined from the weighted least square sum through non-linear regression fit to the data relative to the values predicted by each model. We find that the standard &Lambda;CDM model gives the highest chi-square probability in all cases albeit with a rather small margin over the next best model&mdash;the recently introduced nonadiabatic Einstein de Sitter model. We have made (z &minus; &mu;) projections up to z = 1096 for the best four models. The best two models differ in &mu; only by 0.328 at z = 1096, a tiny fraction of the measurement errors that are in the high redshift datasets.

]]>