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Sci. Pharm., Volume 92, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 4 articles

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8 pages, 1072 KiB  
Communication
Implementation of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at the Hospital and ICU Level of a Clinic in Sincelejo-Sucre
by Erick Diaz-Morales, Ana Paola Pacheco-Hermosilla, Daniel Esteban Castro-Mangonez and Nerlis Pajaro-Castro
Sci. Pharm. 2024, 92(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm92030039 - 17 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Objectives: In this retrospective observational study, the aim is to establish how the implementation of the use of antimicrobial stewardship programs at the hospital and intensive care unit level in a Sucre Clinic in Sincelejo has had a significant impact on the improvement [...] Read more.
Objectives: In this retrospective observational study, the aim is to establish how the implementation of the use of antimicrobial stewardship programs at the hospital and intensive care unit level in a Sucre Clinic in Sincelejo has had a significant impact on the improvement of the rational use of antibiotics, due to the alarming situation of increasing antibiotic resistance. Materials and methods: The methodology used was to analyze the Excel database of the Clinic in such a way as to compare the data from 2017, the period prior to the implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), with the subsequent evolution between the years 2018 and 2022, in relation to the institutional records of four antibiotics—ceftriaxone3, ciprofloxacin4, meropenem5, and vancomycin6, measured in defined daily dose (DDD). Results: According to the defined daily dose values obtained for the four antibiotics, a reduction in the defined daily dose was identified in the post-implementation period. On the other hand, considering the DDD reported by the World Health Organization for each of the antibiotics, significant differences were verified in comparison with those obtained in the clinic in the hospitalization and intensive care unit services. Conclusions: In conclusion, in the clinic, a reduction in the defined daily dose was verified in the period after the implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship program compared to the previous period, both in the hospitalization and intensive care unit, as well as having a mild-to-large effect with Cohen’s D. Full article
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13 pages, 2723 KiB  
Article
Combined Effect of Sertraline and Capecitabine on Breast Cancer Cell Lines In Vitro and In Silico Evidence for Synergistic Interaction
by Serap Ozkaya Gul, Alaaddin Korkut and Esra Aydemir
Sci. Pharm. 2024, 92(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm92030038 - 15 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Background: Depression is a common mood disorder that manifests itself simultaneously with chronic diseases. It is especially common in patients diagnosed with cancer, and when neglected, it reduces the success of cancer treatment. The fact that breast cancer is the most common type [...] Read more.
Background: Depression is a common mood disorder that manifests itself simultaneously with chronic diseases. It is especially common in patients diagnosed with cancer, and when neglected, it reduces the success of cancer treatment. The fact that breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women shows that the treatment of depression in women with cancer is very important. As a result, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in oncology units also use antidepressants simultaneously. It is critical to correctly understand the interactions between drugs used in combination. Method: In this study, doses were prepared for MCF7 and MDAMB-231 cell lines by serial dilution from 1000 ng/mL to 1.95 ng/mL. Cell viability was calculated with the WST-1 kit by applying the prepared doses of capecitabine and sertraline alone. In the sertraline/capecitabine combination study, cell viability was examined in MDAMB-231 and MCF-7 cells by applying doses of 300, 100, 50, 25, 10 ng/mL. Combinations that showed selective cytotoxicity after the combination were analyzed with the CompuSyn program and the combination index (CI<1 = synergism) was calculated. Studies on caspase 3-8-9, DNA fragmentation and mTOR were continued using a combination that showed a synergistic effect. Result: It was determined that compared to drug use alone, the sertraline/capecitabine combination decreased cell viability. There is no significant difference in caspase-3,-8,-9 and DNA fragmentation in cancer cells, but there is a reduction in the level of mTOR. This suggests that the death mechanism may be autophagy. Docking studies with autophagy pathway-related proteins further support our results. It is noteworthy that the AKT1-sertraline complex had the best binding affinity among the target proteins (−9.1 kcal/mol). Full article
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24 pages, 347 KiB  
Review
Intravenous Lipid Emulsions in Anticonvulsants’ Toxicity
by Simeonka Dimitrova, Stela Dragomanova and Gabriela Kehayova
Sci. Pharm. 2024, 92(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm92030037 - 4 Jul 2024
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Abstract
In recent years, an innovative approach has emerged in the field of toxicology for managing acute intoxications caused by lipophilic substances: intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs). Through numerous experiments and case reports, the efficacy of lipid emulsions in counteracting toxicities induced by lipophilic agents, [...] Read more.
In recent years, an innovative approach has emerged in the field of toxicology for managing acute intoxications caused by lipophilic substances: intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs). Through numerous experiments and case reports, the efficacy of lipid emulsions in counteracting toxicities induced by lipophilic agents, including a significant number of antiepileptic (AE) drugs, have become increasingly evident. Data spanning a 10-year period (2010–2020) were analyzed by searching through multiple scientific publication platforms like PubMed, Science Direct, Research Gate, and Springer Link. This study focused on reviewing relevant case reports detailing successful intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) administration in patients with acute intoxications with antiepileptics, specifically examining the impact of fat emulsions on neurological status, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, and corrected QT interval concerning hemodynamic instability. The typical symptoms of antiepileptic toxicity include central nervous system depression, ataxia, and nystagmus. Intravenous lipid emulsion application resulted in an increase in Glasgow Coma Scale scores and enhanced recovery from drug intoxication. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the potential utility of ILE as a component to antidote therapy in cases of acute AE poisoning involving neurotropic drugs. The process involves the engagement of various mechanisms of antitoxic activity. Full article
24 pages, 6382 KiB  
Article
Formulation and Physicochemical Characterization of Terpenocannabinoid-Functionalized Hemp Oil Emulsifier: Assessment of Topical Anti-Inflammatory, Antinociceptive, Wound Healing Activity and Cutaneous Toxicity Effects
by Amira Metouekel, Hind Zejli, Mohamed Chebaibi, Youssra Lefrioui, Dalila Bousta, Hamid El Amri, Elmostafa El Fahime, Saïd El Kazzouli and Nabil El Brahmi
Sci. Pharm. 2024, 92(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/scipharm92030036 - 21 Jun 2024
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Abstract
This article presents a comprehensive study on the formulation and physicochemical characterization of a novel terpenocannabinoid-functionalized hemp oil emulsifier (AMCana-Oil) for potential applications in topical anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and wound healing treatments. The emulsifier exhibits interesting properties, meets international acidity index requirements, and has [...] Read more.
This article presents a comprehensive study on the formulation and physicochemical characterization of a novel terpenocannabinoid-functionalized hemp oil emulsifier (AMCana-Oil) for potential applications in topical anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and wound healing treatments. The emulsifier exhibits interesting properties, meets international acidity index requirements, and has a room temperature density comparable to liquid oils. The prepared emulsifier (AMCana-Oil), AMCana-Oil (10% TC) and AMCana-Oil (20% TC), contains a diverse array of cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), alongside bioactive compounds such as benzenepropanoic acid and oleamide. Physicochemical properties of AMCana-Oil and MCana-Oil (20% TC) were found, respectively, as follows: density value of 0.9872 ± 0.001 mg/mL: g/cm³ and 0.9882 ± 0.002 mg/mL: g/cm³; an acidity index of 1.599 ± 0.002 mgKOH/g and 1.605 ± 0.001 mgKOH/g; an average peroxide value encompassing a range from 12.982 ± 0.351 to 23.320 ± 0.681 (mEq O2/kg), and a K of 1.575 ± 0.004 and 1.535 ± 0.0039, which underscore the fluidity, stability, and quality of emulsifiers studied. Preliminary pharmacological examinations reveal significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and wound healing potentials. Moreover, in silico predictions confirm the safety profile of the prepared emulsifiers. These findings emphasize the multifaceted nature of the terpenocannabinoid-functionalized emulsifier, paving the way for its potential applications in topical formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cannabis, Cannabinoids and Its Derivatives)
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