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Electronics, Volume 11, Issue 16 (August-2 2022) – 158 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The article presents a method for assessing the impact of radiated electromagnetic interference generated by a selected rail traction unit on the operational process of trackside video monitoring systems. Emissions of radiated electromagnetic interference generated in an unintended manner by traction vehicles within a railway line lead to interference in the VMS operating process. Based on knowledge of actual VMS operating process data, spectral characteristics, and values of individual components of disturbing signals occurring in the emissions of radiated electromagnetic interference, it is possible to determine the parameters of damage intensities for the devices and elements of this system. Using data enables determining the VMS reliability parameters within its operating system. View this paper
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Article
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Global Web and Video Conferencing SaaS Market
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162633 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic related government interventions produced rapid decreases in worldwide economic and social activity, with multifaceted economic and social consequences. In particular, the disruption of key industries and significant lifestyle changes in the aftermath of the pandemic outbreak led to the exponential [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic related government interventions produced rapid decreases in worldwide economic and social activity, with multifaceted economic and social consequences. In particular, the disruption of key industries and significant lifestyle changes in the aftermath of the pandemic outbreak led to the exponential adoption of web and video conferencing Software as a Service (SaaS) programs and to the solutions-led video conferencing market growth. However, the magnitude and persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic impact on the video conferencing solutions segment remain uninvestigated. Building on previous evidence linking population web-search behavior, private consumption, and retail sales, this study sources and employs Google Trends data as an analytical and forecasting tool for the solutions segment of the videoconferencing market. It implements a univariate forecast evaluation approach that assesses the predictive performance of several statistical and machine-learning models for the relative search volume (RSV) in the two SaaS program leaders, Zoom and Teams. ETS is found to provide the best forecast of consumer GT search interest for both RSV series. A baseline level for the consumer interest over the first pandemic wave is subsequently produced with ETS and further serves to estimate the excess search interest over the February 2020–August 2020 period. Results indicate that the pandemic has created an excess or abnormal consumer interest in the global web and videoconferencing SaaS market that would not have occurred in the absence of the pandemic. Other findings indicate that the impact is persistent as the excess interest stabilized at higher levels than in the pre-pandemic period for both SaaS market leaders, although a higher saturation of the Zoom market is detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of COVID-19 on Multimedia Transformation)
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Article
A Coherent Integrated TDOA Estimation Method for Target and Reference Signals
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162632 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 288
Abstract
The performance of a time difference of arrival (TDOA) localization system is severely affected by time synchronization errors, and making use of reference signals is a common solution for the problem. The traditional method has two steps, first to measure the TDOAs of [...] Read more.
The performance of a time difference of arrival (TDOA) localization system is severely affected by time synchronization errors, and making use of reference signals is a common solution for the problem. The traditional method has two steps, first to measure the TDOAs of the target signal and reference signal separately, and next, to compensate the estimated target TDOA with the difference of the estimated reference TDOA and the true reference TDOA. Since the performance of the TDOA estimation is mainly decided by the frequency information, a coherent integration TDOA estimation method for the target signal and reference signal is proposed in this paper, based on cross correlation phase difference compensation, with use of the signals’ frequencies. First, as per the traditional method, the separated cross correlation functions of the target signal and reference signal were obtained by cross correlation, and the target TDOA and reference TDOA of the separate method were estimated. Next, the cross correlation phase was analyzed for each signal. Then the coherent integration cross correlation was obtained with phase compensation, from which the estimation of the target TDOA and reference TDOA could simultaneously be achieved. We performed simulation comparisons with the two methods, and showed that the proposed algorithm provided better performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Circuit and Signal Processing)
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Article
KHV: KVM-Based Heterogeneous Virtualization
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162631 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 360
Abstract
A KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) is subject to the complexity of the Linux kernel and the difficulty and cost of safety certification; thus, it is not popularized in embedded high-reliability scenarios. This paper proposes a KVM-based Heterogeneous Virtualization (KHV), which is independent of [...] Read more.
A KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) is subject to the complexity of the Linux kernel and the difficulty and cost of safety certification; thus, it is not popularized in embedded high-reliability scenarios. This paper proposes a KVM-based Heterogeneous Virtualization (KHV), which is independent of hardware virtualization (KVM mandatory virtualization), follows the principle of static partitioning, localizes the hypervisor, and inherits the KVM software ecosystem. KHV balances the demands of static partitioning and flexible sharing in the embedded system. The paper implemented KHV on the RISC-V Xuantie C910 CPU-based SoC and conducted a performance comparison with KVM. The experiment shows that KHV is 50% smaller than KVM in terms of fluctuation, and KHV makes the guest OS have the same performance as the bare-metal OS in scheduler benchmarks, whereas KVM dropped an average of 28%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging and New Technologies in Embedded Systems)
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Article
Temple Recommendation Engine for Route Planning Based on TPS Clustering CNN Method
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162630 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 340
Abstract
There are no restrictions on religious or cultural practices in India. India’s temples are becoming an ideal platform for Hindu groups to express their ideals in a global context. For the sake of devotees, temples now require widespread accessibility and participation by a [...] Read more.
There are no restrictions on religious or cultural practices in India. India’s temples are becoming an ideal platform for Hindu groups to express their ideals in a global context. For the sake of devotees, temples now require widespread accessibility and participation by a wide range of individuals on major holidays. A pilgrim may be unable to determine which site to visit, or where to stay, due to a variety of considerations such as cost, location, and the interests of each individual user. A user’s preferences are taken into consideration when a personalized recommendation list is generated. A large number of systems use Collaborative Filtering to produce user recommendations. In order to generate user-specific recommendations, this system uses a filtering method dubbed the “hybrid approach”. The Proposed OTPS Cluster technique is used to determine TPS (Time, Place, and Service). Users’ interests and TPA recommendations are taken into account. Users can forecast the location of the temple based on the temple’s history. Collaborative Filtering and Material-Based Filtering were used to propose sites based on comparable users and content, respectively. Testing shows that the algorithm is capable of solving difficulties in standard tour routing and providing a temple visit route that is tailored to each individual’s preferences. This study makes use of data from the South Indian city of Temple in the form of temples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neural Network Applications to Digital Signal Processing)
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Article
Active Directory Attacks—Steps, Types, and Signatures
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2629; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162629 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Active Directory Domain is a Microsoft service that allows and facilitates the centralized administration of all workstations and servers in any environment. Due to the wide use and adoption of this service, it has become a target for many attackers. Active Directory attacks [...] Read more.
Active Directory Domain is a Microsoft service that allows and facilitates the centralized administration of all workstations and servers in any environment. Due to the wide use and adoption of this service, it has become a target for many attackers. Active Directory attacks have evolved through years. The attacks target different functions and features provided by Active Directory. In this paper, we provide insights on the criticality, impact, and detection of Active Directory attacks. We review the different Active Directory attacks. We introduce the steps of the Active Directory attack and the Kerberos authentication workflow, which is abused in most attacks to compromise the Active Directory environment. Further, we conduct experiments on two attacks that are based on privilege escalation in order to examine the attack signatures on Windows event logs. The content designed in this paper may serve as a baseline for organizations implementing detection mechanisms for their Active Directory environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances and Challenges in Communication Networks)
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Article
Single-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Chaotic Image Encryption Scheme
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162628 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 305
Abstract
High security has always been the ultimate goal of image encryption, and the closer the ciphertext image is to the true random number, the higher the security. Aiming at popular chaotic image encryption methods, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is studied to select the [...] Read more.
High security has always been the ultimate goal of image encryption, and the closer the ciphertext image is to the true random number, the higher the security. Aiming at popular chaotic image encryption methods, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is studied to select the parameters and initial values of chaotic systems so that the chaotic sequence has higher entropy. Different from the other PSO-based image encryption methods, the proposed method takes the parameters and initial values of the chaotic system as particles instead of encrypted images, which makes it have lower complexity and therefore easier to be applied in real-time scenarios. To validate the optimization framework, this paper designs a new image encryption scheme. The algorithm mainly includes key selection, chaotic sequence preprocessing, block scrambling, expansion, confusion, and diffusion. The key is selected by PSO and brought into the chaotic map, and the generated chaotic sequence is preprocessed. Based on block theory, a new intrablock and interblock scrambling method is designed, which is combined with image expansion to encrypt the image. Subsequently, the confusion and diffusion framework is used as the last step of the encryption process, including row confusion diffusion and column confusion diffusion, which makes security go a step further. Several experimental tests manifest that the scenario has good encryption performance and higher security compared with some popular image encryption methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning Applications)
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Article
A Hierarchical Federated Learning-Based Intrusion Detection System for 5G Smart Grids
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2627; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162627 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 289
Abstract
As the core component of smart grids, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) provides the communication and control functions to implement critical services, which makes its security crucial to power companies and customers. An intrusion detection system (IDS) can be applied to monitor abnormal information [...] Read more.
As the core component of smart grids, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) provides the communication and control functions to implement critical services, which makes its security crucial to power companies and customers. An intrusion detection system (IDS) can be applied to monitor abnormal information and trigger an alarm to protect AMI security. However, existing intrusion detection models exhibit a low performance and are commonly trained on cloud servers, which pose a major threat to user privacy and increase the detection delay. To solve these problems, we present a transformer-based intrusion detection model (Transformer-IDM) to improve the performance of intrusion detection. In addition, we integrate 5G technology into the AMI system and propose a hierarchical federated learning intrusion detection system (HFed-IDS) to collaboratively train Transformer-IDM to protect user privacy in the core networks. Finally, extensive experimental results using a real-world intrusion detection dataset demonstrate that the proposed approach is superior to other existing approaches in terms of detection accuracy and communication cost for an IDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
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Article
Performance Analysis Antenna Diversity Technique with Wavelet Transform Using Array Gain for Millimeter Wave Communication System
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162626 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Utilizing antenna diversity techniques has become a well-known approach to improve the performance of wireless communication systems. Multiple antenna arrays with half-length spacing, such as a uniform linear array (ULA), have been taken into consideration. Since 60 GHz is an unlicensed frequency band [...] Read more.
Utilizing antenna diversity techniques has become a well-known approach to improve the performance of wireless communication systems. Multiple antenna arrays with half-length spacing, such as a uniform linear array (ULA), have been taken into consideration. Since 60 GHz is an unlicensed frequency band and ideal for local propagation, it is where the technology is being used. The transmitter and receiver both accomplish QAM modulation and demodulation. The performance in terms of bit error rate (BER) was tested in MATLAB simulation software for all antenna diversity scenarios: the single input and single output (SISO) DWT, multiple input and single output (MISO) DWT, single input and multiple output (SIMO) DWT, and multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) DWT. The MIMO DWT was shown to be the best of them. The performance of MIMO OFDM using various wavelets was also simulated, and the performance of the Haar wavelet transform was 2 dB better than that of the other wavelet transform. Compared to simulation results, the analytical results showed good agreement with little discrepancy. Full article
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Article
Service Function Chain Deployment Method Based on Traffic Prediction and Adaptive Virtual Network Function Scaling
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2625; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162625 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 239
Abstract
With the development of network function virtualization (NFV), the resource management of service function chains (SFC) in the virtualized environment has gradually become a research hotspot. Usually, users hope that they can get the network services they want anytime and anywhere. The network [...] Read more.
With the development of network function virtualization (NFV), the resource management of service function chains (SFC) in the virtualized environment has gradually become a research hotspot. Usually, users hope that they can get the network services they want anytime and anywhere. The network service requests are dynamic and real-time, which requires that the SFC in the NFV environment can also meet the dynamically changing network service requests. In this regard, this paper proposes an SFC deployment method based on traffic prediction and adaptive virtual network function (VNF) scaling. Firstly, an improved network traffic prediction method is proposed to improve its prediction accuracy for dynamically changing network traffic. Secondly, the predicted traffic data is processed for the subsequent scaling of the VNF. Finally, an adaptive VNF scaling method is designed for the purpose of dynamic management of network virtual resources. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can manage the network resources in dynamic scenarios. It can effectively improve the availability of network services, reduce the operating overhead and achieve a good optimization effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
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Article
Addressing a New Class of Multi-Objective Passive Device Optimization for Radiofrequency Circuit Design
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162624 - 22 Aug 2022
Viewed by 277
Abstract
The design of radiofrequency circuits and systems lends itself to multi-objective optimization and the bottom-up composition of Pareto-optimal fronts. Conventional multi-objective optimization algorithms can effectively attain these fronts, which maximize or minimize a set of competing objective functions of interest. However, some of [...] Read more.
The design of radiofrequency circuits and systems lends itself to multi-objective optimization and the bottom-up composition of Pareto-optimal fronts. Conventional multi-objective optimization algorithms can effectively attain these fronts, which maximize or minimize a set of competing objective functions of interest. However, some of these real-life optimization problems reveal a non-conventional feature: there is one objective function that calls neither for minimization nor maximization. Instead, using the Pareto front demands this objective function to be swept across so that all its feasible values are available. Such a non-conventional feature, as shown here, emerges in the case of inductor optimization. The problem thus turns into a non-conventional one: determining how to find uniformly distributed feasible values of this function over the broadest possible range (typically unknown) while minimizing or maximizing the remaining competing objective functions. An NSGA-II-inspired algorithm is proposed that, based on the dynamic allocation of objective function slots and a modified dominance definition, can successfully return sets of solutions for inductor optimization problems with one sweeping objective. Furthermore, a mathematical benchmark function modeling this kind of problem is presented, which is also used to exhaustively test the proposed algorithm and obtain insight into its parameter settings. Full article
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Article
Mean Phase Voltages and Duty Cycles Estimation of a Three-Phase Inverter in a Drive System Using Machine Learning Algorithms
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162623 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
To achieve an accurate, efficient, and high dynamic control performance of electric motor drives, precise phase voltage information is required. However, measuring the phase voltages of electrical motor drives online is expensive and potentially contains measurement errors, so they are estimated by inverter [...] Read more.
To achieve an accurate, efficient, and high dynamic control performance of electric motor drives, precise phase voltage information is required. However, measuring the phase voltages of electrical motor drives online is expensive and potentially contains measurement errors, so they are estimated by inverter models. In this paper, the idea is to investigate if various machine learning (ML) algorithms could be used to estimate the mean phase voltages and duty cycles of the black-box inverter model and black-box inverter compensation scheme with high accuracy using a publicly available dataset. Initially, nine ML algorithms were trained and tested using default parameters. Then, the randomized hyper-parameter search was developed and implemented alongside a 5-fold cross-validation procedure on each ML algorithm to find the hyper-parameters that will achieve high estimation accuracy on both the training and testing part of a dataset. Based on obtained estimation accuracies, the eight ML algorithms from all nine were chosen and used to build the stacking ensemble. The best mean estimation accuracy values achieved with stacking ensemble in the black-box inverter model are R¯2=0.9998, MAE¯=1.03, and RMSE¯=1.54, and in the case of the black-box inverter compensation scheme R¯2=0.9991, MAE¯=0.0042, and RMSE¯=0.0063, respectively. Full article
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Article
Intelligent Sensors and Environment Driven Biological Comfort Control Based Smart Energy Consumption System
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162622 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 394
Abstract
The smart energy consumption of any household, maintaining the thermal comfort level of the occupant, is of great interest. Sensors and Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based intelligent hardware setups control the home appliances intelligently and ensure smart energy consumption, considering environment parameters. However, the effects of [...] Read more.
The smart energy consumption of any household, maintaining the thermal comfort level of the occupant, is of great interest. Sensors and Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based intelligent hardware setups control the home appliances intelligently and ensure smart energy consumption, considering environment parameters. However, the effects of environment-driven consumer body dynamics on energy consumption, considering consumer comfort level, need to be addressed. Therefore, an Energy Management System (EMS) is modeled, designed, and analyzed with hybrid inputs, namely environmental perturbations, and consumer body biological shifts, such as blood flows in skin, fat, muscle, and core layers (affecting consumer comfort through blood-driven-sensations). In this regard, our work incorporates 69 Multi-Node (MN) Stolwijik’s consumer body interfaced with an indoor (room) electrical system capable of mutual interactions exchange from room environmental parameters and consumer body dynamics. The mutual energy transactions are controlled with classical PID and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy-Type II (NF-II) systems inside the room dimensions. Further, consumer comfort, room environment, and energy consumption relations with bidirectional control are demonstrated, analyzed, and tested in MATLAB/Simulink to reduce energy consumption and energy cost. Finally, six different cases are considered in simulation settings and for performance validation, one case is validated as real-time hardware experimentation. Full article
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Article
A Multiscale Fusion Lightweight Image-Splicing Tamper-Detection Model
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162621 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 378
Abstract
The easy availability and usability of photo-editing tools have increased the number of forgery attacks, primarily splicing attacks, thereby increasing cybercrimes. Because of an existing image-splicing tamper-detection algorithm based on deep learning with high model complexity and weak robustness, a multiscale fusion lightweight [...] Read more.
The easy availability and usability of photo-editing tools have increased the number of forgery attacks, primarily splicing attacks, thereby increasing cybercrimes. Because of an existing image-splicing tamper-detection algorithm based on deep learning with high model complexity and weak robustness, a multiscale fusion lightweight model for image-splicing tamper detection is proposed. For the above problems and to improve MobileNetV2, the structural block of the classification part of the original network structure was removed, the stride of the sixth largest structural block of the network was changed to 1, the dilated convolution was used instead of downsampling, and the features extracted from the second and third large structural blocks in the network were downsampled with maximal pooling; then, the constraint on the backbone network was increased by jumping connections. Combined with the pyramid pooling module, the acquired feature layers were divided into regions of different sizes for average pooling; then, all feature layers were fused. The experimental results show that it had a low number of parameters and required a small amount of computation, achieving 91.0% and 96.4% precision on CASIA and COLUMB, respectively, and 83.2% and 88.1% F-measure on CASIA and COLUMB, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cyber Security and Critical Infrastructures)
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Article
Dynamic Multi-View Coupled Graph Convolution Network for Urban Travel Demand Forecasting
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2620; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162620 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 337
Abstract
Accurate urban travel demand forecasting can help organize traffic flow, improve traffic utilization, reduce passenger waiting time, etc. It plays an important role in intelligent transportation systems. Most of the existing research methods construct static graphs from a single perspective or two perspectives, [...] Read more.
Accurate urban travel demand forecasting can help organize traffic flow, improve traffic utilization, reduce passenger waiting time, etc. It plays an important role in intelligent transportation systems. Most of the existing research methods construct static graphs from a single perspective or two perspectives, without considering the dynamic impact of time changes and various factors on traffic demand. Moreover, travel demand is also affected by regional functions such as weather, etc. To address these issues, we propose an urban travel demand prediction framework based on dynamic multi-view coupled graph convolution (DMV-GCN). Specifically, we dynamically construct demand similarity graphs based on node features to model the dynamic correlation of demand. Then we combine it with the predefined geographic similarity graph, functional similarity graph, and road similarity graph. We use coupled graph convolution network and gated recurrent units (GRU), to model the spatio-temporal correlation in traffic. We conduct extensive experiments over two large real-world datasets. The results verify the superior performance of our proposed approach for the urban travel demand forecasting task. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data Analysis Based Network)
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Article
A QoS Classifier Based on Machine Learning for Next-Generation Optical Communication
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162619 - 21 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 379
Abstract
Code classification is essential nowadays, as determining the transmission code at the receiver side is a challenge. A novel algorithm for fixed right shift (FRS) code may be employed in embedded next-generation optical fiber communication (OFC) systems. The code aims to provide various [...] Read more.
Code classification is essential nowadays, as determining the transmission code at the receiver side is a challenge. A novel algorithm for fixed right shift (FRS) code may be employed in embedded next-generation optical fiber communication (OFC) systems. The code aims to provide various quality of services (QoS): audio, video, and data. The Q-factor, bit error rate (BER), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are studied to be used as predictors for machine learning (ML) and used in the design of an embedded QoS classifier. The hypothesis test is used to prove the ML input data robustness. Pearson’s correlation and variance-inflation factor (VIF) are revealed, as they are typical detectors of a data multicollinearity problem. The hypothesis testing shows that the statistical properties for the samples of Q-factor, BER, and SNR are similar to the population dataset, with p-values of 0.98, 0.99, and 0.97, respectively. Pearson’s correlation matrix shows a highly positive correlation between Q-factor and SNR, with 0.9. The highest VIF value is 4.5, resulting in the Q-factor. In the end, the ML evaluation shows promising results as the decision tree (DT) and the random forest (RF) classifiers achieve 94% and 99% accuracy, respectively. Each case’s receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are revealed, showing that the RF outperforms the DT classification performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Embedded Computing)
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Article
Wavelet-Transform-Based Sparse Code Multiple Access for Power Line Communication
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162618 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 394
Abstract
This paper presents Discrete Wavelet Transformed Sparse Code Multiple Access (DWT-SCMA) in Power Line Communication (PLC) systems. In the present internet of things era, PLC provides an established infrastructure for low-cost and reliable indoor connectivity. PLC systems can benefit from the Sparse Code [...] Read more.
This paper presents Discrete Wavelet Transformed Sparse Code Multiple Access (DWT-SCMA) in Power Line Communication (PLC) systems. In the present internet of things era, PLC provides an established infrastructure for low-cost and reliable indoor connectivity. PLC systems can benefit from the Sparse Code Multiple Access (SCMA) technique, which allows multiple users to access a frequency slot simultaneously to maximize spectrum efficiency. However, interuser interference arises in SCMA when numerous users map their data to the same frequency resource; this, in turn, is likely to be enhanced by the noisy PLC channel. This article adopts the intriguing aspects of DWT to address the interference difficulties. A mathematical model of the proposed technique is also presented and compared with Fast Fourier Transformed SCMA (FFT-SCMA). In the PLC environment, DWT-SCMA is found to outperform FFT-SCMA. Full article
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Article
A Granulation Tissue Detection Model to Track Chronic Wound Healing in DM Foot Ulcers
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162617 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) foot ulcer is a chronic wound and is highly related to the mortality and morbidity of infection, and might induce sepsis and foot amputation, especially during the isolation stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Visual observation when changing dressings is the [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) foot ulcer is a chronic wound and is highly related to the mortality and morbidity of infection, and might induce sepsis and foot amputation, especially during the isolation stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Visual observation when changing dressings is the most common and traditional method of detecting wound healing. The formation of granulation tissues plays an important role in wound healing. In the complex pathophysiology of excess and unhealthy granulation induced by infection, oxygen supply may explain the wound healing process in DM patients with multiple complicated wounds. Thus, advanced and useful tools to observe the condition of wound healing are very important for DM patients with extremities ulcers. For this purpose, we developed an artificial intelligence (AI) detection model to identify the growth of granulation tissue of the wound bed. We recruited 100 patients to provide 219 images of wounds at different healing stages from 2 hospitals. This was performed to understand the wound images of inconsistent size, and to allow self-inspection on mobile devices, having limited computing resources. We segmented those images into 32 × 32 blocks and used a reduced ResNet-18 model to test them individually. Furthermore, we conducted a learning method of active learning to improve the efficiency of model training. Experimental results reveal that our model can identify the region of granulation tissue with an Intersection-over-Union (IOU) rate higher than 0.5 compared to the ground truth. Multiple cross-repetitive validations also confirm that the detection results of our model may serve as an auxiliary indicator for assessing the progress of wound healing. The preliminary findings may help to identify the granulation tissue of patients with DM foot ulcer, which may lead to better long-term home care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current limit of our model is an IOU of about 0.6. If more actual data are available, the IOU is expected to improve. We can continue to use the currently established active learning process for subsequent training. Full article
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Article
LSW-Net: A Learning Scattering Wavelet Network for Brain Tumor and Retinal Image Segmentation
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162616 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Convolutional network models have been widely used in image segmentation. However, there are many types of boundary contour features in medical images which seriously affect the stability and accuracy of image segmentation models, such as the ambiguity of tumors, the variability of lesions, [...] Read more.
Convolutional network models have been widely used in image segmentation. However, there are many types of boundary contour features in medical images which seriously affect the stability and accuracy of image segmentation models, such as the ambiguity of tumors, the variability of lesions, and the weak boundaries of fine blood vessels. In this paper, in order to solve these problems we first introduce the dual-tree complex wavelet scattering transform module, and then innovatively propose a learning scattering wavelet network model. In addition, a new improved active contour loss function is further constructed to deal with complex segmentation. Finally, the equilibrium coefficient of our model is discussed. Experiments on the BraTS2020 dataset show that the LSW-Net model has improved the Dice coefficient, accuracy, and sensitivity of the classic FCN, SegNet, and At-Unet models by at least 3.51%, 2.11%, and 0.46%, respectively. In addition, the LSW-Net model still has an advantage in the average measure of Dice coefficients compared with some advanced segmentation models. Experiments on the DRIVE dataset prove that our model outperforms the other 14 algorithms in both Dice coefficient and specificity measures. In particular, the sensitivity of our model provides a 3.39% improvement when compared with the Unet model, and the model’s effect is obvious. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Image Enhancement)
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Article
Multilevel Pyramid Network for Monocular Depth Estimation Based on Feature Refinement and Adaptive Fusion
by and
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162615 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 301
Abstract
As a traditional computer vision task, monocular depth estimation plays an essential role in novel view 3D reconstruction and augmented reality. Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based models have achieved good performance for this task. However, in the depth map recovered by some existing deep [...] Read more.
As a traditional computer vision task, monocular depth estimation plays an essential role in novel view 3D reconstruction and augmented reality. Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based models have achieved good performance for this task. However, in the depth map recovered by some existing deep learning-based methods, local details are still lost. To generate convincing depth maps with rich local details, this study proposes an efficient multilevel pyramid network for monocular depth estimation based on feature refinement and adaptive fusion. Specifically, a multilevel spatial feature generation scheme is developed to extract rich features from the spatial branch. Then, a feature refinement module that combines and enhances these multilevel contextual and spatial information is designed to derive detailed information. In addition, we design an adaptive fusion block for improving the capability of fully connected features. The performance evaluation results on public RGBD datasets indicate that the proposed approach can recover reasonable depth outputs with better details and outperform several depth recovery algorithms from a qualitative and quantitative perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Techniques)
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Article
Performance Analysis of Custom Dual-Finger 250 nm InP HBT Devices for Implementation of 255 GHz Amplifiers
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162614 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 244
Abstract
The performances of WR-3.4 monolithic amplifiers fabricated using dual-finger 6 µm InP HBT devices are investigated. While one amplifier uses the dual-finger devices formed by simply connecting two existing standard single-finger HBTs, the second amplifier uses newly formed devices that share a common [...] Read more.
The performances of WR-3.4 monolithic amplifiers fabricated using dual-finger 6 µm InP HBT devices are investigated. While one amplifier uses the dual-finger devices formed by simply connecting two existing standard single-finger HBTs, the second amplifier uses newly formed devices that share a common collector metal on a single merged device isolation area. The amplifiers using two types of devices based on the identical matching networks are fabricated for on-wafer probing tests. The custom merged-device amplifier shows clear performance advantages over the separate-device amplifier, showing a peak gain of 10.5 dB and the maximum output power of 5.2 dBm at 255 GHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave, Millimeter and Terahertz Wave Power Electronic Devices)
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Article
Virtual Training System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Teaching–Learning Processes
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2613; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162613 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The present work is focused on the development of a Virtual Environment as a test system for new advanced control algorithms for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The virtualized environment allows us to visualize the behavior of the UAV by including the mathematical model [...] Read more.
The present work is focused on the development of a Virtual Environment as a test system for new advanced control algorithms for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The virtualized environment allows us to visualize the behavior of the UAV by including the mathematical model of it. The mathematical structure of the kinematic and dynamic models is represented in a matrix form in order to be used in different control algorithms proposals. For the dynamic model, the constants are obtained experimentally, using a DJI Matrice 600 Pro UAV. All of this is conducted with the purpose of using the virtualized environment in educational processes in which, due to the excessive cost of the materials, it is not possible to acquire physical equipment; moreover, is it desired to avoid damaging them. Finally, the stability and robustness of the proposed controllers are determined to ensure analytically the compliance with the control criteria and its correct operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Educational Robotics)
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Article
Multimodal CT Image Synthesis Using Unsupervised Deep Generative Adversarial Networks for Stroke Lesion Segmentation
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162612 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Deep learning-based techniques can obtain high precision for multimodal stroke segmentation tasks. However, the performance often requires a large number of training examples. Additionally, existing data extension approaches for the segmentation are less efficient in creating much more realistic images. To overcome these [...] Read more.
Deep learning-based techniques can obtain high precision for multimodal stroke segmentation tasks. However, the performance often requires a large number of training examples. Additionally, existing data extension approaches for the segmentation are less efficient in creating much more realistic images. To overcome these limitations, an unsupervised adversarial data augmentation mechanism (UTC-GAN) is developed to synthesize multimodal computed tomography (CT) brain scans. In our approach, the CT samples generation and cross-modality translation differentiation are accomplished simultaneously by integrating a Siamesed auto-encoder architecture into the generative adversarial network. In addition, a Gaussian mixture translation module is further proposed, which incorporates a translation loss to learn an intrinsic mapping between the latent space and the multimodal translation function. Finally, qualitative and quantitative experiments show that UTC-GAN significantly improves the generation ability. The stroke dataset enriched by the proposed model also provides a superior improvement in segmentation accuracy, compared with the performance of current competing unsupervised models. Full article
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Article
Segmentation of Spectral Plant Images Using Generative Adversary Network Techniques
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2611; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162611 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
The spectral image analysis of complex analytic systems is usually performed in analytical chemistry. Signals associated with the key analytics present in an image scene are extracted during spectral image analysis. Accordingly, the first step in spectral image analysis is to segment the [...] Read more.
The spectral image analysis of complex analytic systems is usually performed in analytical chemistry. Signals associated with the key analytics present in an image scene are extracted during spectral image analysis. Accordingly, the first step in spectral image analysis is to segment the image in order to extract the applicable signals for analysis. In contrast, using traditional methods of image segmentation in chronometry makes it difficult to extract the relevant signals. None of the approaches incorporate contextual information present in an image scene; therefore, the classification is limited to thresholds or pixels only. An image translation pixel-to-pixel (p2p) method for segmenting spectral images using a generative adversary network (GAN) is presented in this paper. The p2p GAN forms two neuronal models. During the production and detection processes, the representation learns how to segment ethereal images precisely. For the evaluation of the results, a partial discriminate analysis of the least-squares method was used to classify the images based on thresholds and pixels. From the experimental results, it was determined that the GAN-based p2p segmentation performs the best segmentation with an overall accuracy of 0.98 ± 0.06. This result shows that image processing techniques using deep learning contribute to enhanced spectral image processing. The outcomes of this research demonstrated the effectiveness of image-processing techniques that use deep learning to enhance spectral-image processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Image Processing)
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Article
A Novel Adaptive PID Controller Design for a PEM Fuel Cell Using Stochastic Gradient Descent with Momentum Enhanced by Whale Optimizer
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2610; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162610 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
This paper presents an adaptive PID using stochastic gradient descent with momentum (SGDM) for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power system. PEMFC is a nonlinear system that encounters external disturbances such as inlet gas pressures and temperature variations, for which an [...] Read more.
This paper presents an adaptive PID using stochastic gradient descent with momentum (SGDM) for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power system. PEMFC is a nonlinear system that encounters external disturbances such as inlet gas pressures and temperature variations, for which an adaptive control law should be designed. The SGDM algorithm is employed to minimize the cost function and adapt the PID parameters according to the perturbation changes. The whale optimization algorithm (WOA) was chosen to enhance the adaptive rates in the offline mode. The proposed controller is compared with PID stochastic gradient descent (PIDSGD) and PID Ziegler Nichols tuning (PID-ZN). The control strategies’ robustnesses are tested under a variety of temperatures and loads. Unlike the PIDSGD and PID-ZN controllers, the PIDSGDM controller can attain the required control performance, such as fast convergence and high robustness. Simulation results using Matlab/Simulink have been studied and illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Full article
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Article
“Follower of the Reference Point”: Platform Utility-Oriented Incentive Mechanism in Crowdsensing
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2609; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162609 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 235
Abstract
Crowdsensing uses the sensing units of many participants with idle resources to collect data. Since the budget of the platform is limited, it is crucial to design a mechanism to motivate participants to lower their bids. Current incentive mechanisms assume that participants’ gains [...] Read more.
Crowdsensing uses the sensing units of many participants with idle resources to collect data. Since the budget of the platform is limited, it is crucial to design a mechanism to motivate participants to lower their bids. Current incentive mechanisms assume that participants’ gains and losses are absolute, but behavioral economics shows that a certain reference point determines participants’ gains and losses. Reference dependence theory shows that the reference reward given by a platform and the reward obtained before will greatly affect the decision-making of the participant. Therefore, this paper proposes a participants’ decision-making mechanism based on the reference dependence theory. We set a reference point to reduce the participants’ bids, improving the platform’s utility. At the same time, risk preference reversal theory shows that participants evaluate the benefits based on the relative value of the rewards rather than the absolute value. Therefore, this paper proposes a winner selection mechanism based on the risk preference reversal theory. Theoretical analysis and simulations demonstrate that this paper’s incentive mechanism can guarantee the platform’s utility and improve the task completion rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Social Network and Application in IoT System)
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Article
Air Combat Maneuver Strategy Algorithm Based on Two-Layer Game Decision-Making and Distributed Double Game Trees MCTS under Uncertain Information
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2608; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162608 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 291
Abstract
In this paper, a model for maneuver decisions in air combat is established based on position situation information, the performance of the fighter, the threat of combat intention, and the multi-fighter collaboration effect. Additionally, a two-layer game decision algorithm based on the double [...] Read more.
In this paper, a model for maneuver decisions in air combat is established based on position situation information, the performance of the fighter, the threat of combat intention, and the multi-fighter collaboration effect. Additionally, a two-layer game decision algorithm based on the double game tree distributed Monte Carlo search strategy is proposed, and the operational rules of interval numbers and possibility degree comparison rules are adopted to solve the designed method. The experiment results show that the model and algorithm are effective in their intended purpose. The two-layer game decision-making and distributed double game tree MCTS can precut the huge game tree strategy space and quickly identify the optimal air combat game decision scheme, which improves the efficiency of strategy searches. By compared experiments, it was found that the proposed algorithm can improve the performance of air combat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems & Control Engineering)
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Article
Wi-CAL: A Cross-Scene Human Motion Recognition Method Based on Domain Adaptation in a Wi-Fi Environment
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162607 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 272
Abstract
In recent years, research on Wi-Fi sensing technology has developed rapidly. This technology automatically senses human activities through commercial Wi-Fi devices, such as lying down, falling, walking, waving, sitting down, and standing up. Because the movement of human parts affects the transmission of [...] Read more.
In recent years, research on Wi-Fi sensing technology has developed rapidly. This technology automatically senses human activities through commercial Wi-Fi devices, such as lying down, falling, walking, waving, sitting down, and standing up. Because the movement of human parts affects the transmission of Wi-Fi signals, resulting in changes in CSI. In the context of indoor monitoring of human health through daily behavior, we propose Wi-CAL. More precisely, CSI fingerprints were collected at six events in two indoor locations, and data enhancement technology Dynamic Time Warping Barycentric Averaging (DBA) was used to expand the data. Then the feature weighting algorithm and convolution layer are combined to select the most representative CSI data features of human action. Finally, a classification model suitable for multiple scenes was obtained by blending the softmax classifier and CORrelation ALignment (CORAL) loss. Experiments are carried out on public data sets and the data sets before and after the expansion collected in this paper. Through comparative experiments, it can be seen that our method can achieve good recognition performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Activity Recognition and Machine Learning)
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Article
FOSSBot: An Open Source and Open Design Educational Robot
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2606; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162606 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 259
Abstract
In the last few years, the interest in the use of robots in STEM education has risen. However, their main drawback is the high cost, which makes it almost impossible for schools to have one robot per student. Another drawback is the proprietary [...] Read more.
In the last few years, the interest in the use of robots in STEM education has risen. However, their main drawback is the high cost, which makes it almost impossible for schools to have one robot per student. Another drawback is the proprietary nature of commercial solutions, which limits the ability to expand or adapt the robot to educational needs. Different robot kit versions, which have different electronics and programming interfaces and target different age groups, make the decision of educators on which robot to use in STEM education even more complicated. In this work, we propose a new low-cost 3D-printable and unified software-based solution that can cover the needs of all age groups, from kindergarten children to university students. The solution is driven by open source and open hardware ideas, with which, we believe we will help educators in their work. We provide detail on the 3D-printable robot parts and its list of electronics that allow for a wide range of educational activities to be supported, and explain its flexible software stack that supports four different operating modes. The modes cover the needs of users that do not know or want to program the robot, users that prefer block-based programming and less or more experienced programmers who want to take full control of the robot. The robot implements the principles of continuous integration and deployment and allows for easy updates to the latest software version through its web-based administration panel. Though, in its first steps of development and testing, the proposed robot has a huge potential, due to its open nature and the community of students, researchers and educators, that potential has kept growing. A pilot at selected schools, a performance evaluation of various technical aspects and a comparison with state-of-the-art platforms will soon follow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Educational Robotics)
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Article
Tag Estimation Method for ALOHA RFID System Based on Machine Learning Classifiers
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162605 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 298
Abstract
In the last two decades, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has attained prominent performance improvement and has been recognized as one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT) concepts. In parallel, extensive employment of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms in diverse [...] Read more.
In the last two decades, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has attained prominent performance improvement and has been recognized as one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT) concepts. In parallel, extensive employment of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms in diverse IoT areas has led to numerous advantages that increase successful utilization in different scenarios. The work presented in this paper provides a use-case feasibility analysis of the implementation of ML algorithms for the estimation of ALOHA-based frame size in the RIFD Gen2 system. Findings presented in this research indicate that the examined ML algorithms can be deployed on modern state-of-the-art resource-constrained microcontrollers enhancing system throughput. In addition, such utilization can cope with latency since the execution time is sufficient to meet protocol needs. Full article
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Article
DAVE: Deep Learning-Based Asymmetric Virtual Environment for Immersive Experiential Metaverse Content
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2604; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162604 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 364
Abstract
In this study, we design an interface optimized for the platform by adopting deep learning in an asymmetric virtual environment where virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) users participate together. We also propose a novel experience environment called deep learning-based asymmetric virtual [...] Read more.
In this study, we design an interface optimized for the platform by adopting deep learning in an asymmetric virtual environment where virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) users participate together. We also propose a novel experience environment called deep learning-based asymmetric virtual environment (DAVE) for immersive experiential metaverse content. First, VR users use their real hands to intuitively interact with the virtual environment and objects. A gesture interface is designed based on deep learning to directly link gestures to actions. AR users interact with virtual scenes, objects, and VR users via a touch-based input method in a mobile platform environment. A text interface is designed using deep learning to directly link handwritten text to actions. This study aims to propose a novel asymmetric virtual environment via an intuitive, easy, and fast interactive interface design as well as to create metaverse content for an experience environment and a survey experiment. This survey experiment is conducted with users to statistically analyze and investigate user interface satisfaction, user experience, and user presence in the experience environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Extended Reality)
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