Transmit and Receive Techniques for Next Generation Massive MIMO Systems

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2022) | Viewed by 24281

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Instituto de Telecomunicações (IT) and Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática (DETI), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: cooperative communications; massive MIMO; millimeter wave communications; interference management; precoding and equalizer design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Instituto de Telecomunicações and DETI, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
Interests: cooperative communications; heterogeneous systems; interference cancelation; millimeter wave communications; MIMO communication; physical layer security
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade Nova, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
2. Instituto de Telecomunicações, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Interests: wireless communications; wireless systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The key enabling mobile technologies towards beyond 5G and 6G include a massive number of antennas, higher frequency bands, and massive levels of cooperation among network nodes. Massive MIMO approaches depend on the considered frequency. For millimeter wave bands, a massive number of antennas can be packed on transmit and receive terminals. Thus, this combination offers more degrees of freedom to efficiently design the systems, but it also leads to more correlated channels, and due to the hardware limitations, it is not practical to have one fully dedicated radio frequency chain for each transmit and receive antenna. Therefore, the conventional beamforming techniques designed for fully digital systems cannot be used, and thus, new efficient transmit and receive beamforming schemes must be exploited. For lower frequency bands (sub-6GHz), the antennas can be distributed over a geographical area, for example, the cell-free massive MIMO concept. In this technology, several geographically distributed access-points are connected through the backhaul to a central processing unit to serve a much smaller number of users. However, several issues must be studied and solved in the design of practical and efficient distributed massive MIMO systems, since traditional solutions cannot be used.  

In this Special Issue, we are interested in high-quality submissions that mainly highlight emerging centralized and distributed massive MIMO approaches for future wireless networks. Topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:  

  • Low-complexity millimeter wave and massive MIMO architectures (e.g., hybrid);
  • Analog–digital transmit and receive beamforming;
  • Cooperative cell-free massive schemes;
  • Distributed and centralized transmit and receive schemes;
  • Channel modeling, estimation, and tracking for massive MIMO systems;
  • Physical layer security in the context of massive MIMO systems;
  • Reconfigurable and large intelligent surfaces;
  • Energy-harvesting techniques for massive MIMO systems;
  • SWIPT techniques in massive MIMO systems;
  • NOMA schemes for massive MIMO and millimeter wave systems.

Prof. Dr. Adão Silva
Dr. Daniel Castanheira
Prof. Dr. Rui Dinis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Massive MIMO
  • Millimeter wave
  • Hybrid beamforming
  • Coordination and cooperation
  • Energy harvesting
  • Cell free
  • Interference cancellation
  • Physical layer security

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 1452 KiB  
Article
Spectral Efficiency of Precoded 5G-NR in Single and Multi-User Scenarios under Imperfect Channel Knowledge: A Comprehensive Guide for Implementation
by David Alejandro Urquiza Villalonga, Hatem OdetAlla, M. Julia Fernández-Getino García and Adam Flizikowski
Electronics 2022, 11(24), 4237; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11244237 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
Digital precoding techniques have been widely applied in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) which is crucial in 5G New Radio (NR). Therefore, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has developed codebook-based MIMO precoding strategies to achieve a good trade-off [...] Read more.
Digital precoding techniques have been widely applied in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) which is crucial in 5G New Radio (NR). Therefore, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has developed codebook-based MIMO precoding strategies to achieve a good trade-off between performance, complexity, and signal overhead. This paper aims to evaluate the performance bounds in SE achieved by the 5G-NR precoding matrices in single-user (SU) and multi-user (MU) MIMO systems, namely Type I and Type II, respectively. The implementation of these codebooks is covered providing a comprehensive guide with a detailed analysis. The performance of the 5G-NR precoder is compared with theoretical precoding techniques such as singular value decomposition (SVD) and block-diagonalization to quantify the margin of improvement of the standardized methods. Several configurations of antenna arrays, number of antenna ports, and parallel data streams are considered for simulations. Moreover, the effect of channel estimation errors on the system performance is analyzed in both SU and MU-MIMO cases. For a realistic framework, the SE values are obtained for a practical deployment based on a clustered delay line (CDL) channel model. These results provide valuable insights for system designers about the implementation and performance of the 5G-NR precoding matrices. Full article
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12 pages, 1304 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis Antenna Diversity Technique with Wavelet Transform Using Array Gain for Millimeter Wave Communication System
by Nagma Parveen, Khaizuran Abdullah, Md Rafiqul Islam and Muhammad Aashed Khan Abbasi
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162626 - 22 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
Utilizing antenna diversity techniques has become a well-known approach to improve the performance of wireless communication systems. Multiple antenna arrays with half-length spacing, such as a uniform linear array (ULA), have been taken into consideration. Since 60 GHz is an unlicensed frequency band [...] Read more.
Utilizing antenna diversity techniques has become a well-known approach to improve the performance of wireless communication systems. Multiple antenna arrays with half-length spacing, such as a uniform linear array (ULA), have been taken into consideration. Since 60 GHz is an unlicensed frequency band and ideal for local propagation, it is where the technology is being used. The transmitter and receiver both accomplish QAM modulation and demodulation. The performance in terms of bit error rate (BER) was tested in MATLAB simulation software for all antenna diversity scenarios: the single input and single output (SISO) DWT, multiple input and single output (MISO) DWT, single input and multiple output (SIMO) DWT, and multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) DWT. The MIMO DWT was shown to be the best of them. The performance of MIMO OFDM using various wavelets was also simulated, and the performance of the Haar wavelet transform was 2 dB better than that of the other wavelet transform. Compared to simulation results, the analytical results showed good agreement with little discrepancy. Full article
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12 pages, 6570 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Precoding Based on a Switching Network in Millimeter Wave MIMO Systems
by Hongbin Yi, Xizhang Wei and Yanqun Tang
Electronics 2022, 11(16), 2541; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11162541 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Aiming at the algorithm difficult optimization of the fully-connected hybrid precoding structure and the complex hardware implementation in millimeter wave multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, this paper proposes a novel hybrid precoding structure based on a switching network (SNHBP). The structure enables the dynamic [...] Read more.
Aiming at the algorithm difficult optimization of the fully-connected hybrid precoding structure and the complex hardware implementation in millimeter wave multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, this paper proposes a novel hybrid precoding structure based on a switching network (SNHBP). The structure enables the dynamic grouping of the sub-arrays in three ways by switching the network, which can greatly reduce the hardware complexity, simplify the optimization algorithm, and avoid the performance degradation defect caused by a partially-connected structure. Through simulation of different antenna sizes and different numbers of RF chains, experimental results show that SNHBP can approach the performance of the full digital precoder. Under the condition of more than 2 RF chains, the difference between the unit structure and the full digital precoding is less than 0.13 dB. The spectral efficiency of the low-precision phase optimization algorithm is better than that of the partially-connected structure when the quantization bit of the phase shifter is 3. The feasibility of the three dynamic grouping schemes is verified, which is more beneficial to engineering implementation than the fully-connected structure. Full article
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16 pages, 3675 KiB  
Article
Bi-Objective Power Optimization of Radio Stripe Uplink Communications
by Filipe Conceição, Marco Gomes, Vitor Silva, Rui Dinis and Carlos Henggeler Antunes
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060876 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
The radio stripe (RS) system is a practical implementation of cell-free mMIMO, in which a set of multi-antenna access points (APs) serves at the same time-frequency resources the user equipment (UE) in the network. The APs are sequentially connected in a stripe, sharing [...] Read more.
The radio stripe (RS) system is a practical implementation of cell-free mMIMO, in which a set of multi-antenna access points (APs) serves at the same time-frequency resources the user equipment (UE) in the network. The APs are sequentially connected in a stripe, sharing the same fronthaul link to the central processing unit. This work considers an uplink power optimization problem that aims to enhance the network spectral efficiency (SE) by considering two metrics—the max–min fairness and the max–sum rate. We employ a meta-heuristic based on the differential evolution algorithm to solve the bi-objective optimization problem. The SE performances of the full power along with the single-objective and multiple-objective scenarios are analyzed and compared for the optimal sequential linear processing detection scheme. The bi-objective approach is able to unveil the trade-offs to identify solution balancing the SE distribution resulting from the optimization of the max–min fairness and the max–sum rate objective functions. Full article
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26 pages, 20153 KiB  
Article
Performance Analysis of Massive MIMO-OFDM System Incorporated with Various Transforms for Image Communication in 5G Systems
by Lavish Kansal, Salah Berra, Mohamed Mounir, Rajan Miglani, Rui Dinis and Khaled Rabie
Electronics 2022, 11(4), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11040621 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4451
Abstract
Modern-day applications of fifth-generation (5G) and sixth-generation (6G) systems require fast, efficient, and robust transmission of multimedia information over wireless communication medium for both mobile and fixed users. The hybrid amalgamation of massive multiple input multiple output (mMIMO) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing [...] Read more.
Modern-day applications of fifth-generation (5G) and sixth-generation (6G) systems require fast, efficient, and robust transmission of multimedia information over wireless communication medium for both mobile and fixed users. The hybrid amalgamation of massive multiple input multiple output (mMIMO) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) proves to be an impressive methodology for fulfilling the needs of 5G and 6G users. In this paper, the performance of the hybrid combination of massive MIMO and OFDM schemes augmented with fast Fourier transform (FFT), fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) or discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is evaluated to study their potential for reliable image communication. The analysis is carried over the Rayleigh fading channels and M-ary phase-shift keying (M-PSK) modulation schemes. The parameters used in our analysis to assess the outcome of proposed versions of OFDM-mMIMO include signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) vs. peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and SNR vs. structural similarity index measure (SSIM) at the receiver. Our results indicate that massive MIMO systems incorporating FrFT and DWT can lead to higher PSNR and SSIM values for a given SNR and number of users, when compared with in contrast to FFT-based massive MIMO-OFDM systems under the same conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 4209 KiB  
Article
Printed Closely Spaced Antennas Loaded by Linear Stubs in a MIMO Style for Portable Wireless Electronic Devices
by Aqeel Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Saeed Khan, Syed Aftab Naqvi, Bilal Ijaz, Muhammad Asif, Esraa Mousa Ali, Salahuddin Khan, Ali Lalbakhsh, Mohammad Alibakhshikenari and Ernesto Limiti
Electronics 2021, 10(22), 2848; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10222848 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
An easy-to-manufacture and efficient four-port-printed Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna operating across an ultra-wideband (UWB) region (2.9–13.6 GHz) is proposed and investigated here. The phenomenon of the polarization diversity is used to improve the isolation between MIMO antenna elements by deploying four [...] Read more.
An easy-to-manufacture and efficient four-port-printed Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna operating across an ultra-wideband (UWB) region (2.9–13.6 GHz) is proposed and investigated here. The phenomenon of the polarization diversity is used to improve the isolation between MIMO antenna elements by deploying four orthogonal antenna elements. The proposed printed antenna (40 × 40 × 1.524 mm3) is made compact by optimizing the circular-shaped radiating components via vertical stubs on top of the initial design to maximally reduce unwanted interaction while placing them together in proximity. The measurements of the prototype MIMO antennas corroborate the simulation performance. The findings are compared to the recent relevant works presented in the literature to show that the proposed antenna is suitable for UWB MIMO applications. The proposed printed UWB MIMO antenna could be a good fit for compact portable wireless electronic devices. Full article
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19 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Two-Step Multiuser Equalization for Hybrid mmWave Massive MIMO GFDM Systems
by Joumana Kassam, Manar Miri, Roberto Magueta, Daniel Castanheira, Pedro Pedrosa, Adão Silva, Rui Dinis and Atílio Gameiro
Electronics 2020, 9(8), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9081220 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
Although millimeter-wave (mmWave) and massive multiple input multiple output (mMIMO) can be considered as promising technologies for future mobile communications (beyond 5G or 6G), some hardware limitations limit their applicability. The hybrid analog-digital architecture has been introduced as a possible solution to avoid [...] Read more.
Although millimeter-wave (mmWave) and massive multiple input multiple output (mMIMO) can be considered as promising technologies for future mobile communications (beyond 5G or 6G), some hardware limitations limit their applicability. The hybrid analog-digital architecture has been introduced as a possible solution to avoid such issues. In this paper, we propose a two-step hybrid multi-user (MU) equalizer combined with low complexity hybrid precoder for wideband mmWave mMIMO systems, as well as a semi-analytical approach to evaluate its performance. The new digital non-orthogonal multi carrier modulation scheme generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) is considered owing to its efficient performance in terms of achieving higher spectral efficiency, better control of out-of-band (OOB) emissions, and lower peak to average power ratio (PAPR) when compared with the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) access technique. First, a low complexity analog precoder is applied on the transmitter side. Then, at the base station (BS), the analog coefficients of the hybrid equalizer are obtained by minimizing the mean square error (MSE) between the hybrid approach and the full digital counterpart. For the digital part, zero-forcing (ZF) is used to cancel the MU interference not mitigated by the analog part. The performance results show that the performance gap of the proposed hybrid scheme to the full digital counterpart reduces as the number of radio frequency (RF) chains increases. Moreover, the theoretical curves almost overlap with the simulated ones, which show that the semi-analytical approach is quite accurate. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 1382 KiB  
Review
A Review on Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems
by Joumana Kassam, Daniel Castanheira, Adão Silva, Rui Dinis and Atílio Gameiro
Electronics 2023, 12(4), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12041001 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6516
Abstract
Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF mMIMO) can be considered as a potential physical layer technology for future wireless networks since it can benefit from all the advantages of distributed antenna systems (DASs) and network MIMOs, such as macro-diversity gain, high channel capacity, and [...] Read more.
Cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (CF mMIMO) can be considered as a potential physical layer technology for future wireless networks since it can benefit from all the advantages of distributed antenna systems (DASs) and network MIMOs, such as macro-diversity gain, high channel capacity, and link reliability. CF mMIMO systems offer remarkable spatial degrees of freedom and array gains to mitigate the inherent inter-cell interference (ICI) of cellular networks. In such networks, several distributed access points (APs) together with precoding/detection processing can serve many users while sharing the same time-frequency resources. Each AP can be equipped with single or multiple antennas, and hence, can provide a consistently adequate service to all users regardless of their locations in the network. This paper presents a detailed overview of the current state-of-the-art on CF systems. First, it performs a literature review of the conventional CF and scalable user-centric (UC) CF mMIMO systems in terms of the limited capacity of the fronthaul links and the connection between APs and user equipments (UEs). As beyond networks will rely on higher frequency bands, it is of paramount importance to discuss the impact of beamforming techniques that are being investigated. Finally, some of the CF promising enabling technologies are presented to emphasize the main applications in these networks. Full article
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