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Cosmetics, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Anti-aging Effects of Select Botanicals: Scientific Evidence and Current Trends
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
As skin ages, there is a decline in physiologic function. These changes are induced by both intrinsic (chronologic) and extrinsic (predominately UV-induced) factors. Botanicals offer potential benefits to combat some of the signs of aging. Here, we review select botanicals and the scientific
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As skin ages, there is a decline in physiologic function. These changes are induced by both intrinsic (chronologic) and extrinsic (predominately UV-induced) factors. Botanicals offer potential benefits to combat some of the signs of aging. Here, we review select botanicals and the scientific evidence behind their anti-aging claims. Botanicals may offer anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, moisturizing, UV-protective, and other effects. A multitude of botanicals are listed as ingredients in popular cosmetics and cosmeceuticals, but only a select few are discussed here. These were chosen based on the availability of scientific data, personal interest of the authors, and perceived “popularity” of current cosmetic and cosmeceutical products. The botanicals reviewed here include argan oil, coconut oil, crocin, feverfew, green tea, marigold, pomegranate, and soy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Inflammation in Skin Aging)
Open AccessArticle Safety Assessment of Nano-Hydroxyapatite as an Oral Care Ingredient according to the EU Cosmetics Regulation
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-NP) are incorporated in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes to treat dental sensitivity or to promote enamel remineralisation. Despite the good performance of HAP-NP in this application, it is important to ensure its safety for consumers. For that
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Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-NP) are incorporated in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes to treat dental sensitivity or to promote enamel remineralisation. Despite the good performance of HAP-NP in this application, it is important to ensure its safety for consumers. For that reason, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) evaluated the safety of HAP-NP as an oral care ingredient, but the issued opinion was not completely conclusive and the SCCS recommended that additional tests should be performed. Here, we used a commercially available human gingival epithelium (HGE) as a non-animal alternative and MTT cell viability, LDH activity, and IL-1alpha production were evaluated after 3.1% HAP-NP treatment for 10 min, 1 h, and 3 h. Moreover, the absorption of HAP-NP in the gingival tissue was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Finally, the dissolution behaviour of HAP-NP in simulated gastric fluid was also investigated. No deleterious effect was observed for HGE tissues incubated with HAP-NP for all time-points and parameters evaluated. Moreover, a complete dissolution of 3.1% HAP-NP in simulated gastric fluid was observed after 7.5 min at 37 °C. In conclusion, our results evidence the safety of HAP-NP for oral care products with the use of an in vitro replacement alternative for human gingival epithelium and a simulated gastric fluid assay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Capacitive Imaging for Skin Characterizations and Solvent Penetration Measurements
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Capacitive contact imaging has shown potential in measuring skin properties including hydration, micro relief analysis, as well as solvent penetration measurements. Through calibration, we can also measure the absolute permittivity of the skin, and from absolute permittivity we then work out the absolute
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Capacitive contact imaging has shown potential in measuring skin properties including hydration, micro relief analysis, as well as solvent penetration measurements. Through calibration, we can also measure the absolute permittivity of the skin, and from absolute permittivity we then work out the absolute water content and absolute solvent content in skin. This paper presents our latest study of capacitive contact imaging for skin characterizations and vivo skin solvent penetration. The results show that with capacitive contact imaging, it is possible not only to assess the skin damaging, but also potentially possible to differentiate different types of skin damages. The results also show that with capacitive contact imaging, it is also possible to measure the solvent penetration through skin and to quantify the solvent concentration within skin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Caffeic Acid-layered Double Hydroxide Hybrid: A New Raw Material for Cosmetic Applications
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Bioactive ingredients from natural sources possess well-known positive effects in cosmetic applications. Among them, phenolic acids have emerged with very interesting potential. Caffeic acid (CAF) is one of the most promising active compounds because it possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral and anti-wrinkle effects. In
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Bioactive ingredients from natural sources possess well-known positive effects in cosmetic applications. Among them, phenolic acids have emerged with very interesting potential. Caffeic acid (CAF) is one of the most promising active compounds because it possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral and anti-wrinkle effects. In order to increase its local bioavailability in topical applications, the vehiculation of caffeic acid can lead to a new raw material of cosmetic interest. For this purpose, clay minerals possess excellent properties, such as low or null toxicity and good biocompatibility. Clays are able to host a wide range of active ingredients in the interlayer region, using a green process known as intercalation reaction. The hosting of cosmetic actives into the layered structure of anionic clays allows the preparation of new materials with enhanced stability towards oxidation and photodegradation, better local bioavailability, and easier workability. In this paper, the successful vehiculation of caffeic acid into anionic clay is presented. The obtained hybrid is very promising for the cosmetic market because of its higher bioavailability and prolonged antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Use of Plants in Skin-Care Products, Cosmetics and Fragrances: Past and Present
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
This work discusses the way people have used plants over time (basically since Ancient Egypt) to care for their physical aspect, and also how natural resources (especially plants) are currently used in personal-care products. Many plant species are ancient. This paper also shows
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This work discusses the way people have used plants over time (basically since Ancient Egypt) to care for their physical aspect, and also how natural resources (especially plants) are currently used in personal-care products. Many plant species are ancient. This paper also shows examples of plants used for personal care which are investigated with new scientific advances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-aging Properties of Natural Compounds)
Open AccessArticle Utility of the Teslar Facial Massager for Skin Elasticity and the Mechanism of its Effects
Received: 1 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
The Teslar is a facial massager that emits a weak electric current, where users have reported a beneficial effect on skin elasticity with continued use. Accordingly, we conducted a clinical utility study and a comprehensive gene analysis, with cultured human fibroblasts to investigate
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The Teslar is a facial massager that emits a weak electric current, where users have reported a beneficial effect on skin elasticity with continued use. Accordingly, we conducted a clinical utility study and a comprehensive gene analysis, with cultured human fibroblasts to investigate the utility and mechanism of this treatment. In this clinical utility study, we found significant improvement in skin elasticity in Teslar treatments, compared to controls after two weeks of treatment. In cell experiments, we found that adenosine triphosphate synthesis and collagen contraction were promoted in fibroblasts cultured in type I collagen gel, following Teslar treatment. We considered that Teslar treatment exerted a structurally regenerative effect on the dermal matrix, based on the results of GeneChip® Expression Analysis. In particular, we demonstrated that Teslar treatment promotes type I collagen mRNA expression and fibulin-5/DANCE (Developmental arteries and neural crest EGF (epidermal growth factor)-like) mRNA expression and protein levels, which are reduced with aging. We also found increases in LTBP-3 (Latent TGF-β binding protein-3) and CSPG4 (Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4) mRNA expression levels. Based on these results, we considered that Teslar treatment promoted dermal regeneration and recovery of skin elasticity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cosmetic Formulation Based on an Açai Extract
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Açai berry extract is known for its high content in polyphenols and thus is a promising ingredient for cosmetic antiaging formulations; (2) Methods: In this study, the açai extract was firstly evaluated for its total phenol content (Folin Ciocalteau essay) and
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(1) Background: Açai berry extract is known for its high content in polyphenols and thus is a promising ingredient for cosmetic antiaging formulations; (2) Methods: In this study, the açai extract was firstly evaluated for its total phenol content (Folin Ciocalteau essay) and antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity—DPPH; radical cation scavenging capacity—ABTS; ferric reducing antioxidant capacity—FRAP). Next, the açai extract was included in an O/W formulation and again was evaluated for its polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. The formulation was tested for general characteristics, physicochemical properties and microbial stability. The proliferative effect on human immortalized fibroblasts was evaluated by the MTT essay, while TAC assay served to confirm that fibroblasts are protected from UV irradiation. The irritant potential was verified on 20 volunteers. The study concluded with the assessment of the sensorial characteristics of the cosmetic formulation; (3) Results: The pure açai extract exhibited high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, and these characteristics were preserved in the O/W formulation as well. The O/W cosmetic formulation proved to be stable under accelerated and normal conditions, and the preservatives were successful in challenging the resistance against microbial contamination. The mean irritant potential was zero in all volunteers, and the cosmetic formulation showed a good sensorial profile; (4) Conclusions: Açai extract is an interesting ingredient for cosmetic antiaging formulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and food)
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Open AccessReview Analysis of Dyes in Cosmetics: Challenges and Recent Developments
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
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Abstract
Colour plays a decisive role in the marketing of a cosmetic product. Among thousands of substances used to colour, synthetic dyes are the most widespread in the industry. Their potential secondary effects on human health and different regulatory requirements for their use between
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Colour plays a decisive role in the marketing of a cosmetic product. Among thousands of substances used to colour, synthetic dyes are the most widespread in the industry. Their potential secondary effects on human health and different regulatory requirements for their use between the main world markets make analytical control necessary to guarantee the safety of a cosmetic product. However, methodologies for the determination of dyes in cosmetics are scarce with respect to those reported for other cosmetic ingredients such as preservatives or ultraviolet UV filters. In addition, most of the existing methods just consider a part of the total of dyes regulated. On the other hand, many methods have been developed for matrices different than cosmetics such as foodstuff, beverages or wastewater. The current paper reviews the recent developments in analytical methodologies for the control of synthetic dyes in cosmetics proposed in the international scientific literature in the last 10 years (2008–2018). A trend towards the use of miniaturized extraction techniques is evidenced. Due to the hydrophilic nature of dyes, liquid chromatography is the most usual choice in combination with absorbance detectors and, more recently, with mass spectrometry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytoprotection of Antioxidant Biocompounds from Grape Pomace: Further Exfoliant Phytoactive Ingredients for Cosmetic Products
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the safety of grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L.) obtained from the winemaking process as an antioxidant raw material for cosmetic formulations. Grape pomace was dried and submitted to extraction with solvents.
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The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the safety of grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L.) obtained from the winemaking process as an antioxidant raw material for cosmetic formulations. Grape pomace was dried and submitted to extraction with solvents. The extracts were filtered and freeze-dried. The extraction carried out with 75% acetone-water showed a better yield (1.9 g·g−1). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the presence of ellagic acid as an active biocompound in the extracts. The Total phenolic content of freeze-dried extracts reached 69.83 ± 1.02 mg for 75% acetone-water system. Antioxidant activity determined by the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method revealed there was no statistical difference between the extract (EC50 6.9 ± 0.21) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (EC50 7.6 ± 0.71). Results of cytotoxicity showed that extracts from grape pomace were safe, even at the highest concentration tested (200 mg·mL−1) against the 3T3 cell line. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that there were no morphological cell changes of cells treated. Cytoprotection of cells towards the oxidation promoted by the peroxide solution was observed in the lowest concentration tested (0.73 mg·mL−1). Grape pomace from the winemaking process revealed a significant antioxidant activity attributed to its biocompounds. The safety and efficacy of extracts of grape pomace as raw material for cosmetic formulations was proposed through cell culture assays. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Stilbene-Like Compound That Reduces Melanin through Inhibiting Melanocyte Differentiation and Proliferation without Inhibiting Tyrosinase
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Cosmetic practices that use skin-lightening agents to obtain desired skin tones or treat pigment abnormalities have been popular worldwide. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of these agents are still largely unknown. Here we identified a family of compounds, with the lead compound
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Cosmetic practices that use skin-lightening agents to obtain desired skin tones or treat pigment abnormalities have been popular worldwide. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of these agents are still largely unknown. Here we identified a family of compounds, with the lead compound named A11, that exhibited strong pigment reduction in developing zebrafish embryos. The pigment inhibition lasted for several days and is effective both before and after melanogenesis. By comparison with several known skin-lightening compounds, A11 appeared to be more potent and caused slower pigment recovery after withdrawal. A11, however, did not inhibit tyrosinase or cause apoptosis in melanocytes. We further found that A11 suppressed proliferation in melanocytes and reduced the number of differentiated melanocytes by activating MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and Akt. Finally, A11 also caused melanin reduction in mammalian melanocytes. Together, A11 might be a potent skin-lightening agent with novel mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Green and Rapid Analytical Method for the Determination of Hydroxyethoxyphenyl Butanone in Cosmetic Products by Liquid Chromatography
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
An analytical method for the determination of hydroxyethoxyphenyl butanone, which is used as an alternative preservative in cosmetic products, has been developed and validated for the first time. The method is based on a simple ultrasound-assisted lixiviation of the analyte from the cosmetic
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An analytical method for the determination of hydroxyethoxyphenyl butanone, which is used as an alternative preservative in cosmetic products, has been developed and validated for the first time. The method is based on a simple ultrasound-assisted lixiviation of the analyte from the cosmetic matrix followed by liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection. Under optimized conditions, the method limit of detection and limit of quantification values were 30 and 90 µg·g−1, respectively. The method was validated with good recovery values (86–103%) and precision values (RSD 0.2–4.7%). Finally, the proposed analytical method was successfully applied to 7 commercially available cosmetic samples including both lipophilic and hydrophilic matrices, such as moisturizing cream, sunscreen, shampoo, liquid hand soap, and make-up. Additionally, a laboratory-made cosmetic cream containing the target analyte was prepared and analyzed. The good analytical figures of merit of the proposed method, in addition to its environmentally-friendly characteristics, demonstrate its usefulness to perform the quality control of cosmetic products to ensure the safety of consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of Antidandruff Shampoo from the Fermented Product of Ocimum sanctum Linn.
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate Malassezia furfur inhibitory activity of the fermented product from Ocimum sanctum and develop an antidandruff shampoo. The fermented product was obtained by the fermentation process of the aerial part of O. sanctum. Total soluble protein was detected
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This study aimed to investigate Malassezia furfur inhibitory activity of the fermented product from Ocimum sanctum and develop an antidandruff shampoo. The fermented product was obtained by the fermentation process of the aerial part of O. sanctum. Total soluble protein was detected in the fermented product with the amount of 65.32 ± 0.14 mg/100 mL, whereas there was no organic acid. The inhibitory activity against four strains of M. furfur (No. 133, 656, 6000, and 7966) of the fermented product and shampoos containing the fermented product were investigated by broth dilution and agar diffusion method, respectively. The fermented product possessed high antifungal activity with the minimum inhibitory concentrations for 50% (MIC50) of M. furfur 133, 656, 6000, and 7966 of 0.125, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.125 mg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, the antifungal activity against M. furfur 656 was comparable to that of ketoconazole. Shampoo formulation C, which was the best formulation in terms of characteristics and stability, obtained a high level of satisfaction scores in terms of hair smoothness, hair shine, ease in combing, frizz reduction, and triboelectric reduction while brushing. Additionally, the shampoo containing 2% (w/w) of the fermented product of O. sanctum also possessed inhibitory activity against M. furfur 133, 656, 6000, and 7966 with inhibition zones of 13.2 ± 1.6, 12.8 ± 1.1, 18.7 ± 0.3, and 17.0 ± 1.1 mm respectively. Therefore, this shampoo was suggested for use as an antidandruff shampoo. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication The Effect of Select Personal Care Ingredients and Simple Formulations on the Attachment of Bacteria on Polystyrene
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
The human body is covered with bacteria that are required for health and wellbeing. Additionally, there are pathogenic bacteria that are unwanted. It is therefore important to understand how personal care ingredients interact with these bacteria. To help understand these interactions, a high-throughput
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The human body is covered with bacteria that are required for health and wellbeing. Additionally, there are pathogenic bacteria that are unwanted. It is therefore important to understand how personal care ingredients interact with these bacteria. To help understand these interactions, a high-throughput assay was developed to study the effect of personal care ingredients on attachment. Seventeen personal care ingredients were assayed singly and in simple alcohol based formulations. Three of the ingredients decreased the attachment of both bacteria tested by 90% singly and in formulation. Personal care ingredients singly and in simple formulations can prevent the attachment of bacteria. Further research is needed to better understand how personal care ingredients affect bacterial attachment and how these effects can be used to create new hygiene products for consumers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Aging Effects of Monomethylsilanetriol and Maltodextrin-Stabilized Orthosilicic Acid on Nails, Skin and Hair
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 25 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
Chemical form of silicon determines its absorption and bioavailability: particulate and polymerized forms exhibit minimal oral bioavailability, while monomers (maltodextrin-stabilized orthosilicic acid, M-OSA) and organic compounds (monomethylsilanetriol, MMST) may hypothetically be highly absorbed. This study aimed to investigate the dermatological effects of oral
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Chemical form of silicon determines its absorption and bioavailability: particulate and polymerized forms exhibit minimal oral bioavailability, while monomers (maltodextrin-stabilized orthosilicic acid, M-OSA) and organic compounds (monomethylsilanetriol, MMST) may hypothetically be highly absorbed. This study aimed to investigate the dermatological effects of oral ingestion of silicon, either solid (M-OSA–SiliciuMax® Powder) or liquid (MMST, SiliciuMax® Liquid) on the skin, hair and nails of healthy volunteers, through a clinical trial (Registry number 2,032,724. Full protocol at Plataforma Brasil website). Patients were randomized to receive 5 mg of elemental Si, either M-OSA or MMST (group 1 and 2, n = 17 each) or placebo (group 3, n = 17) twice a day for 150 days. Clinical and patients’ subjective evaluations were conducted. Multispectral face imaging and hair mineral analysis were also performed. Use of M-OSA and MMST provided significant (p < 0.05) betterment of facial wrinkles and UV spots. Changes were also observed at the end of the study in skin texture and length of eyelashes. Hair aluminum levels decrease with the treatments. Self-reported questionnaire indicated good satisfaction with both M-OSA and MMST. Continuous use of both M-OSA and MMST can provide improvements on skin parameters, as well as act as a detox agent for aluminum. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Moisturizing Effect of Camellia assamica Seed Oil and Its Development into Microemulsion
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
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Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the fatty acid content, and antioxidant and moisturizing effect of Camellia assamica seed oil (CA). Additionally, microemulsions containing CA were also developed for topical use. The antioxidant activity of CA and two commercial Camellia oleifera
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The present study aimed to investigate the fatty acid content, and antioxidant and moisturizing effect of Camellia assamica seed oil (CA). Additionally, microemulsions containing CA were also developed for topical use. The antioxidant activity of CA and two commercial Camellia oleifera seed oils were investigated by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy radical (DPPH) assay and lipid peroxidation by ferric thiocyanate method. Moreover, the in vitro skin moisturizing effect was investigated on stillborn piglet skin by using a Corneometer®. CA microemulsions were developed and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, rheometer, and heating-cooling stability tests. The results revealed that the major fatty acid components of CA were cis-9-oleic acid, cis-9,12-linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. CA had a significantly higher lipid peroxidation inhibition and DPPH scavenging capacity compared to the commercial oils (p < 0.05). Lipid peroxidation inhibition of CA was 39.2% ± 0.6% at 37.5 mg/mL and the IC50 value of DPPH assay was 70.8 ± 27.1 mg/mL. The skin moisture content after applying CA, commercial oils, and tocopheryl acetate were significantly higher than untreated skin (p < 0.05) and the moisturizing efficacy increased with time. Interestingly, radical scavenging and antioxidant effect of CA microemulsions were significantly higher than the native oil even after the stability test (p < 0.05). In conclusion, incorporating CA into microemulsion increased its antioxidant activity indicating that it would be beneficial as a cosmeceutical application for anti-aging. Full article
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