Special Issue "Cosmetic Formulation Strategy: From Raw Materials to Packaging by Nanotechnology and Nanobiotechnology's Processes"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Pierfrancesco Morganti

Campania University, Department Mental/Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, Naples, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cosmetic chemists; biologists, material engineers; cosmetic marketers; pharmacists; experts in esthetic medicine, dermatologists, and plastic surgeons

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cosmetic Science is a highly diversified scientific field, where the different ingredients used to formulate a cosmetic product, with their various mechanisms of action, meet the complex biological systems of skin and its appendages and of mucous membranes. Thus, the cosmetic scientist needs not only to know the physicochemical characteristics and functionalities of the chemicals and natural ingredients used to formulate a certain cosmetic, but also to recognize or forecast the possible interactions occurring when these ingredients are emulsified or otherwise combined and blended. Moreover, the cosmetic scientist should have a deep knowledge of the skin and mucous membranes, as the formulated products are finally applied on these biological structures with the aim of "cleaning, perfuming, and changing their appearance to keep them in good conditions", according to the EU rules. All the selected ingredients need to be effective and skin-safe. For this purpose, a deep knowledge of the methodologies used to control the effectiveness and safety of both ingredients and final formulation have to be part of the chemist/biochemist learnings. Finally, the cosmetic formulator should be acquainted with the raw materials used to produce the primary and secondary packaging, in order to avoid the release of toxic compounds from the container into the content. Last but not least, it is necessary that both the primary and secondary packaging materials should be biodegradable and environmentally friendly. All this extended culture should be combined with a deep involvement in R&D investigation.

The cosmetic market growth is characterized by constantly innovative products and tools, as continuously requested by customers and consumers. For this reason, nanotechnology- and nanobiotechnology-based ingredients are becoming fundamental components of many cosmetic formulations. Because of the growing request of natural products, nanobiotechnology is the actual emergent field of nanotechnology. This is due to its ability to integrate biotechnology on the nanoscale interfacing with biological and natural systems. This Special cosmetic Issue has the aim to introduce the reader to the fascinating field of nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology in the cosmetic sector, whose application is increasingly necessary to produce innovative products, while trying also to solve the issues and meaning of the so-called natural and bio-cosmetics.

Prof. Dr. Pierfrancesco Morganti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Cosmetic ingredients
  • Nanotechnology
  • Nanobiotechnology
  • Natural polymers
  • Bio-nanocomposites
  • Natural raw materials
  • Natural cosmetics
  • Bio-cosmetics
  • Biodegradable packaging

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Composite Wound Dressing Based on Chitin/Chitosan Nanofibers: Processing and Biomedical Applications
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
An electrospinning technique was used for the preparation of a bilayered wound dressing consisting of a layer of aliphatic copolyamide nanofibers and a layer of composite nanofibers from chitosan and chitin nanofibrils filler. Processed dressings were compared with aliphatic copolyamide nanofiber-based wound dressings [...] Read more.
An electrospinning technique was used for the preparation of a bilayered wound dressing consisting of a layer of aliphatic copolyamide nanofibers and a layer of composite nanofibers from chitosan and chitin nanofibrils filler. Processed dressings were compared with aliphatic copolyamide nanofiber-based wound dressings and control groups. Experimental studies (in vivo treatment of third-degree burns with this dressing) demonstrated that almost complete (up to 97.8%) epithelialization of the wound surface had been achieved within 28 days. Planimetric assessment demonstrated a significant acceleration of the wound healing process. Histological analysis of scar tissue indicated the presence of a significant number of microvessels and a low number of infiltrate cells. In the target group, there were no deaths or purulent complications, whereas in the control group these occurred in 25% and 59.7% of cases, respectively—and, in the copolyamide group, 0% and 11%, respectively. The obtained data show the high efficiency of application of the developed composite chitosan‒copolyamide wound dressings for the treatment of burn wounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methylglyoxal, the Major Antibacterial Factor in Manuka Honey: An Alternative to Preserve Natural Cosmetics?
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
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Abstract
Microbial safety is an essential prerequisite of cosmetics, and preservatives are required to prevent product spoilage and damage to consumers’ health. Consumer concern about the safety of some cosmetic ingredients and the increasing demand for more natural beauty products has driven cosmetic industries [...] Read more.
Microbial safety is an essential prerequisite of cosmetics, and preservatives are required to prevent product spoilage and damage to consumers’ health. Consumer concern about the safety of some cosmetic ingredients and the increasing demand for more natural beauty products has driven cosmetic industries and formulators to find natural alternatives to replace synthetic preservatives currently used. In this study, methylglyoxal (MGO, the main factor responsible for the antimicrobial activity of manuka honey) was tested for antimicrobial activity against a panel of selected bacteria and mycetes by using conventional microbiological techniques (determination of M.I.C., time-kill assay), and its potential preservative in an O/W emulsion was investigated (challenge test). MGO showed a remarkable and fast antibacterial activity (M.I.C. values 0.150–0.310 mg/mL), while the inhibitory activity against fungi was less marked (M.I.C. values 1.25–10 mg/mL); chitosan has proven to be a synergist of antimicrobial effectiveness of MGO. Results of the challenge test showed that the addition of MGO to a cream formulation was efficient against microbial contamination. On the basis of our results, MGO appears to be a good candidate as a cosmetic preservative of natural origin; further studies are needed to confirm its applicability and its safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preparation of Innovative Skin Compatible Films to Release Polysaccharides for Biobased Beauty Masks
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
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Abstract
The preparation and selection of biobased materials compatible with skin is essential for producing innovative and highly eco-friendly beauty masks. The use of a commercial elastomeric poly(hydroxyalkanoate) and starch was fundamental to select materials for bioplastic films with the necessary resistance in wet [...] Read more.
The preparation and selection of biobased materials compatible with skin is essential for producing innovative and highly eco-friendly beauty masks. The use of a commercial elastomeric poly(hydroxyalkanoate) and starch was fundamental to select materials for bioplastic films with the necessary resistance in wet conditions, skin compatibility and capacity for a fast release of polysaccharides and similar active and functional molecules. Micrometric calcium carbonate was also used to control the stickiness of film during moulding. Starch release in water was investigated by gravimetric and infrared analyses. The compatibility with skin was investigated via two different in vitro tests based on human keratinocytes and human mesenchymal stromal cells. The materials were highly cytocompatible with skin, enabled immune modulation by keratinocytes and starch release in water up to 49% by weight in 30 min. These outcomes are a good starting point for boosting the production of biobased and biodegradable beauty masks, thus decreasing the impact onto environment of cosmetic products that are currently still mainly produced using petrol-based substrates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Safety Assessment of Nano-Hydroxyapatite as an Oral Care Ingredient according to the EU Cosmetics Regulation
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-NP) are incorporated in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes to treat dental sensitivity or to promote enamel remineralisation. Despite the good performance of HAP-NP in this application, it is important to ensure its safety for consumers. For that [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-NP) are incorporated in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes to treat dental sensitivity or to promote enamel remineralisation. Despite the good performance of HAP-NP in this application, it is important to ensure its safety for consumers. For that reason, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) evaluated the safety of HAP-NP as an oral care ingredient, but the issued opinion was not completely conclusive and the SCCS recommended that additional tests should be performed. Here, we used a commercially available human gingival epithelium (HGE) as a non-animal alternative and MTT cell viability, LDH activity, and IL-1alpha production were evaluated after 3.1% HAP-NP treatment for 10 min, 1 h, and 3 h. Moreover, the absorption of HAP-NP in the gingival tissue was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Finally, the dissolution behaviour of HAP-NP in simulated gastric fluid was also investigated. No deleterious effect was observed for HGE tissues incubated with HAP-NP for all time-points and parameters evaluated. Moreover, a complete dissolution of 3.1% HAP-NP in simulated gastric fluid was observed after 7.5 min at 37 °C. In conclusion, our results evidence the safety of HAP-NP for oral care products with the use of an in vitro replacement alternative for human gingival epithelium and a simulated gastric fluid assay. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Cosmetic Packaging to Save the Environment: Future Perspectives
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
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Abstract
Consumer awareness about the damages that plastic packaging waste cause to the environment, coupled with bio-economy and circular economy policies, are pushing plastic packaging versus the use of bio-based and biodegradable materials. In this contest, even cosmetic packaging is looking for sustainable solutions, [...] Read more.
Consumer awareness about the damages that plastic packaging waste cause to the environment, coupled with bio-economy and circular economy policies, are pushing plastic packaging versus the use of bio-based and biodegradable materials. In this contest, even cosmetic packaging is looking for sustainable solutions, and research is focusing on modifying bio-based and biodegradable polymers to meet the challenging requirements for cosmetic preservation, while maintaining sustainability and biodegradability. Several bio-based and biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid), polyhydroxyalkanoates, polysaccharides, etc., are available, and some first solutions for both rigid and flexible packaging are already present on the market, while many others are under study and optimization. A fruitful cooperation among researchers and industries will drive the cosmetic sector toward being more ecological and contributing to save our environment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A New Carrier for Advanced Cosmeceuticals
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
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Abstract
Cosmetic products are generally formulated as emulsions, ointments, solutions or powders containing active ingredients. According to EU legislation, a cosmetic product is “any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body with a [...] Read more.
Cosmetic products are generally formulated as emulsions, ointments, solutions or powders containing active ingredients. According to EU legislation, a cosmetic product is “any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning, perfuming them, changing their appearance, and/or correcting body odors and/or protecting them or keeping them in good conditions”. However, science advancement in both active carriers and ingredients has streamlined the process through which many cosmetic products by their delivery systems can induce modifications on the skin physiology. This is the reason why Reed and Kligman redefined these products as “cosmeceuticals”, which refers to the combination of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Until recently, the term of cosmeceuticals has not had legal significance. The so-called cosmeceuticals, in fact, may induce modifications on the skin physiology, modifying, for example, transepidermal water loss, keratinocytes cohesion and turnover, modulating the inflammatory cascade, and/or altering the surface microbiota by the activity of the preservatives content. For these reasons, they are claimed to have medical or drug-like benefits. Naturally, their effectiveness on minor skin disorders or mild skin abnormalities has to be shown by in vitro and in vivo studies. On the other hand, their formulations contain emulsifiers, preservatives, and other chemicals which, by their cumulative use, may provoke side effects, such as allergic and/or sensitization phenomena. Moreover, many ingredients and packaging for such products are not biodegradable. In this study, we would like to introduce an innovative category of cosmeceuticals made by biodegradable nonwoven tissues. These cosmeceutical tissues, produced through the use of natural fibers, may bind different active ingredients and therefore become effective as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, sun-protective, whitening, or anti-aging products, depending on the ingredient(s) used. Differently from the usual cosmetics, they do not contain preservatives, emulsifiers, colors, and other chemicals. They can be applied as dried tissue on wet skin, remaining in loco for around 30 min, slowly releasing the active ingredients entrapped into the fibers. It is interesting to underline that the tissue, acting as a carrier, has its own effectiveness via chitin and lignin polymers with an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. When hydrolyzed by the human microbiota enzymes, they give rise to ingredients used as cell nourishment or energy. This paper will review part of the scientific research results, supporting this new category of biodegradable cosmetic products known as facial mask sheets. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nanoemulsions as a Form of Perfumery Products
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 30 October 2018
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Abstract
Alcohol-based perfumes, e.g., eau de parfum, eau de toilette, eau de cologne or au fraiche, are the most common type of fragrance products available on the market. There are also alcohol-free fragrance products, mainly in the form of solid or oil perfume. From [...] Read more.
Alcohol-based perfumes, e.g., eau de parfum, eau de toilette, eau de cologne or au fraiche, are the most common type of fragrance products available on the market. There are also alcohol-free fragrance products, mainly in the form of solid or oil perfume. From the consumers’ point of view, such perfumery products are of interest; therefore, looking for new solutions is still interesting. Nanoemulsions are liquid, kinetically stable colloidal dispersions, consisting of an aqueous phase, an oil phase and a surfactant, with or without a co-surfactant. They are transparent, not greasy, easy to spray and spread. Additionally, they show capacity to protect fragrances from oxidation. The development of a water-based perfumes in the form of stable nanoemulsions containing fragrance compositions (in the range of 5–15%), stabilized by nonionic surfactants, allows to create safe products for a wider group of consumers, including children, adolescents and people with sensitive skin. In this article, an application of nanoemulsions as a potential form of perfumery products were described. Full article
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