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Antibiotics, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 38 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Biofilms play an important role in infectious diseases. It has been estimated that 60% to 70% of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Antibiotics Prescription and Assessment of Prescribed Daily Dose in Outpatients from Mexico City
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010038 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 663
Abstract
Pharmacoepidemiological research about antibiotics is supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), but data regarding antibiotic prevalence based on actual prescriptions and dosing patterns are insufficient. The aims were: (i) To estimate the prevalence and prescribed daily dose (PDD) of antibiotics in outpatients [...] Read more.
Pharmacoepidemiological research about antibiotics is supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), but data regarding antibiotic prevalence based on actual prescriptions and dosing patterns are insufficient. The aims were: (i) To estimate the prevalence and prescribed daily dose (PDD) of antibiotics in outpatients from Mexico City and (ii) to compare the PDD against the defined daily dose (DDD), as established by the WHO. The study included 685 prescriptions of antibiotics selected randomly from five geographical zones of Mexico City. Drug, dose, frequency, and duration of treatment were obtained from each prescription. PDD values of each antibiotic drug were calculated as the average of the daily doses. Sub-use and overuse were determined by the ratio PDD/DDD for each prescription. The most prescribed antibiotics to outpatients from Mexico City included six pharmacological groups: quinolones (28%), penicillins (23%), cephalosporins (17%), macrolides (10%), lincosamides (9%), and sulfonamides (4%). Both overuse and sub-use were high (55% and 63%, respectively). In conclusion, most of the antibiotics with a high prevalence of prescription also had a high rate of either sub-use or overuse, with prescribed doses that significantly differ with their corresponding DDD. The dosing variation has important clinical implications since it denotes low prescription control. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Molecular Diversity of Mytilin-Like Defense Peptides in Mytilidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia)
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010037 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 673
Abstract
The CS-αβ architecture is a structural scaffold shared by a high number of small, cationic, cysteine-rich defense peptides, found in nearly all the major branches of the tree of life. Although several CS-αβ peptides involved in innate immune response have been described so [...] Read more.
The CS-αβ architecture is a structural scaffold shared by a high number of small, cationic, cysteine-rich defense peptides, found in nearly all the major branches of the tree of life. Although several CS-αβ peptides involved in innate immune response have been described so far in bivalve mollusks, a clear-cut definition of their molecular diversity is still lacking, leaving the evolutionary relationship among defensins, mytilins, myticins and other structurally similar antimicrobial peptides still unclear. In this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic screening of the genomes and transcriptomes available for marine mussels (Mytilida), redefining the distribution of mytilin-like CS-αβ peptides, which in spite of limited primary sequence similarity maintain in all cases a well-conserved backbone, stabilized by four disulfide bonds. Variations in the size of the alpha-helix and the two antiparallel beta strand region, as well as the positioning of the cysteine residues involved in the formation of the C1–C5 disulfide bond might allow a certain degree of structural flexibility, whose functional implications remain to be investigated. The identification of mytilins in Trichomya and Perna spp. revealed that many additional CS-αβ AMPs remain to be formally described and functionally characterized in Mytilidae, and suggest that a more robust scheme should be used for the future classification of such peptides with respect with their evolutionary origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Antimicrobials)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity of Colloidal Silver against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010036 - 19 Jan 2020
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, new alternative therapies are needed. Silver was used to treat bacterial infections since antiquity due to its known antimicrobial properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of colloidal silver (CS) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) [...] Read more.
Due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, new alternative therapies are needed. Silver was used to treat bacterial infections since antiquity due to its known antimicrobial properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of colloidal silver (CS) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 270 strains (Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 45), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 25), Escherichia coli (n = 79), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 58)], Staphylococcus aureus (n = 34), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 14), and Enterococcus species (n = 15)) were used. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CS was determined for all strains by using microdilution assay, and time–kill curve assays of representative reference and MDR strains of these bacteria were performed. Membrane permeation and bacterial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were determined in presence of CS. CS MIC90 was 4–8 mg/L for all strains. CS was bactericidal, during 24 h, at 1× and 2× MIC against Gram-negative bacteria, and at 2× MIC against Gram-positive bacteria, and it did not affect their membrane permeabilization. Furthermore, we found that CS significantly increased the ROS production in Gram-negative with respect to Gram-positive bacteria at 24 h of incubation. Altogether, these results suggest that CS could be an effective treatment for infections caused by MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drugs Repurposing for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Early Intervention with Antibiotics and Maternal Fecal Microbiota on Transcriptomic Profiling Ileal Mucusa in Neonatal Pigs
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010035 - 18 Jan 2020
Viewed by 655
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of early intervention with antibiotics and maternal fecal microbiota on ileal morphology and barrier function, and transcriptomic profiling in neonatal piglets. Piglets in the amoxicillin (AM), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and control (CO) groups were orally [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of early intervention with antibiotics and maternal fecal microbiota on ileal morphology and barrier function, and transcriptomic profiling in neonatal piglets. Piglets in the amoxicillin (AM), fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and control (CO) groups were orally administrated with amoxicillin solution (6.94 mg/mL), maternal fecal microbiota suspension [>109 colony forming unit (CFU)/mL], and physiological saline, respectively. Compared with the CO group, early intervention with AM or FMT significantly decreased ileal crypt depth on day 7 and altered gene expression profiles in ileum on days 7 and 21, and especially promoted the expression of chemokines (CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL11) involved in the toll-like receptor signaling pathway on day 21. FMT changed major immune activities from B cell immunity on day 7 to T cell immunity on day 21 in the ileum. On the other hand, both AM and FMT predominantly downregulated the gene expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In summary, both early interventions modulated intestinal barrier function and immune system in the ileum with a low impact on ileal morphology and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanisms of Antibiotic Action)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibiotic Residues and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Pig Slurry Used to Fertilize Agricultural Fields
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010034 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Pig manure may contain antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant bacteria or pathogens, which may reach the environment upon fertilization. During this study, 69 antibiotic residues belonging to 12 classes were quantified in 89 pig slurry samples. These samples were also studied for the presence of [...] Read more.
Pig manure may contain antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant bacteria or pathogens, which may reach the environment upon fertilization. During this study, 69 antibiotic residues belonging to 12 classes were quantified in 89 pig slurry samples. These samples were also studied for the presence of Salmonella and for E. coli resistant to meropenem, colistin, ciprofloxacin, or cefotaxim. The obtained isolates were further tested for antibacterial susceptibility. No antibiotic residues were detected in four samples, whereas in the other samples, up to 12 antibiotics were found. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues were doxycycline, sulfadiazine, and lincomycin. Doxycycline was found in the highest concentration with a mean of 1476 µg/kg manure (range: 18–13632 µg/kg). Tylosin and oxytetracycline were found with mean concentrations of 784 µg/kg (range: 17–5599 µg/kg) and 482 µg/kg (range: 11–3865 µg/kg), respectively. Lincomycin, had a mean concentration of 177 µg/kg manure (range: 9–3154 µg/kg). All other 18 antibiotic residues were found with mean concentrations of less than 100 µg/kg manure. Fifty-one slurry samples harbored Salmonella; 35% of the Salmonella isolates were sensitive to a panel of 14 antibiotics, whereas the other 65% were resistant up to five antibiotics. For E. coli, 52 manure samples contained E. coli isolates which were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 22 resistant to cefotaxime. All ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime-resistant isolates were multi-resistant, with resistance up to nine and eight antibiotics, respectively. This research indicates that pig slurry used for fertilization often contains antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Activity of a Scorpion Defensin BmKDfsin3 against Hepatitis C Virus
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010033 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide health problem which can cause chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There is still no vaccine to prevent HCV infection. Currently, the clinical treatment of HCV infection mainly relies on the use [...] Read more.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide health problem which can cause chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There is still no vaccine to prevent HCV infection. Currently, the clinical treatment of HCV infection mainly relies on the use of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) which are expensive and have side effects. Here, BmKDfsin3, a scorpion defensin from the venom of Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, is found to dose-dependently inhibit HCV infection at noncytotoxic concentrations and affect viral attachment and post-entry in HCV life cycle. Further experimental results show that BmKDfsin3 not only suppresses p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation of HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells, but also inhibits p38 activation of Huh7.5.1 cells stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BmKDfsin3 is also revealed to enter into cells. Using an upstream MyD88 dimerization inhibitor ST2345 or kinase IRAK-1/4 inhibitor I, the inhibition of p38 activation represses HCV replication in vitro. Taken together, a scorpion defensin BmKDfsin3 inhibits HCV replication, related to regulated p38 MAPK activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Peptides)
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Open AccessReview
Bacteriocins, Potent Antimicrobial Peptides and the Fight against Multi Drug Resistant Species: Resistance Is Futile?
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010032 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 829
Abstract
Despite highly specialized international interventions and policies in place today, the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacterial species continue to occur globally, threatening the longevity of antibiotics in the medical sector. In particular, problematic nosocomial infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens [...] Read more.
Despite highly specialized international interventions and policies in place today, the rapid emergence and dissemination of resistant bacterial species continue to occur globally, threatening the longevity of antibiotics in the medical sector. In particular, problematic nosocomial infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens present as a major burden to both patients and healthcare systems, with annual mortality rates incrementally rising. Bacteriocins, peptidic toxins produced by bacteria, offer promising potential as substitutes or conjugates to current therapeutic compounds. These non-toxic peptides exhibit significant potency against certain bacteria (including multidrug-resistant species), while producer strains remain insusceptible to the bactericidal peptides. The selectivity and safety profile of bacteriocins have been highlighted as superior advantages over traditional antibiotics; however, many aspects regarding their efficacy are still unknown. Although active at low concentrations, bacteriocins typically have low in vivo stability, being susceptible to degradation by proteolytic enzymes. Another major drawback lies in the feasibility of large-scale production, with these key features collectively limiting their current clinical application. Though such limitations require extensive research, the concept of expanding bacteriocins from food preservation to human health opens many fascinating doors, including novel drug delivery systems and anticancer treatment applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Environment)
Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Corynebacterium Species Isolated from Clinical Samples in Romania
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010031 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 704
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most important public health issues. Besides classical multidrug resistance species associated with medical care involved in superficial or invasive infections, there are strains less commonly associated with hospital or outpatient setting’s infections. Non-diphtheria Corynebacterium spp. could produce [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most important public health issues. Besides classical multidrug resistance species associated with medical care involved in superficial or invasive infections, there are strains less commonly associated with hospital or outpatient setting’s infections. Non-diphtheria Corynebacterium spp. could produce infections in patients with or without immune-compromised status. The aim of our study was to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents to Corynebacterium spp. from clinical samples collected from Romanian hospitalized individuals and outpatients. Twenty Corynebacterium strains were isolated and identified as Corynebacterium striatum (n = 7), Corynebacterium amycolatum (n = 7), C. urealyticum (n = 3), Corynebacterium afermentans (n = 2), and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (n = 1). All isolates have been tested for antibiotic susceptibility by standardized disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests. Seventeen isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance phenotypes. The molecular support responsible for high resistance to quinolones for ten of these strains was determined by the detection of point mutation in the gene sequence gyrA. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Antibiotics in 2019
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010030 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 678
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from the Algerian Endemic Origanum glandulosum Desf. against Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogenic E. coli Isolates
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010029 - 15 Jan 2020
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Antibiotics are becoming ineffective against resistant bacteria. The use of essential oils (EOs) may constitute an alternative solution to fight against multidrug-resistant bacteria. This study aims to determine the chemical composition of EOs from five populations of the endemic Algerian Origanum glandulosum Desf. [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are becoming ineffective against resistant bacteria. The use of essential oils (EOs) may constitute an alternative solution to fight against multidrug-resistant bacteria. This study aims to determine the chemical composition of EOs from five populations of the endemic Algerian Origanum glandulosum Desf. and to investigate their potential antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant uropathogenic E. coli strains. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and their composition was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method against eight E. coli strains (six uropathogenic resistant and two referenced susceptible strains). Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBC) were obtained by the broth microdilution method. The main EO components were thymol (15.2–56.4%), carvacrol (2.8–59.6%), γ-terpinene (9.9–21.8%) and p-cymene (8.5–13.9%). The antibacterial tests showed that all the EOs were active against all the strains, including the multidrug-resistant strains. The EO from the Bordj location, which contained the highest amount of carvacrol (59.6%), showed the highest antibacterial activity (inhibition diameters from 12 to 24.5 mm at a dilution of 1/10). To our knowledge, this is the first description of the activity of O. glandulosum EOs against resistant uropathogenic strains. Our study suggests that O. glandulosum EO could be used in some clinical situations to treat or prevent infections (e.g., urinary tract infections) with multidrug-resistant strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts and Essential Oils)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of α-Bisabolol and Its β-Cyclodextrin Complex as TetK and NorA Efflux Pump Inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus Strains
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010028 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 688
Abstract
Efflux pumps are proteins present in the plasma membrane of bacteria, which transport antibiotics and other compounds into the extracellular medium, conferring resistance. The discovery of natural efflux pump inhibitors is a promising alternative. α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene isolated from several plants such [...] Read more.
Efflux pumps are proteins present in the plasma membrane of bacteria, which transport antibiotics and other compounds into the extracellular medium, conferring resistance. The discovery of natural efflux pump inhibitors is a promising alternative. α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene isolated from several plants such as Matricaria chamomilla L. and has important properties such as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Currently, the formation of inclusion complexes with β-Cyclodextrin has been used for improving the physicochemical characteristics of the host molecule. This study evaluated the effect of α-Bisabolol, in isolation and in complexation with β-Cyclodextrin, as TetK and NorA efflux pump inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Subsequently, inhibitory activity over the pumps was observed by an MIC reduction for the antibiotics, by using subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8) in combination with tetracycline and norfloxacin. The MIC of the compounds was ≥1024 μg/mL. α-Bisabolol potentiated the action of tetracycline and reduced the MIC of norfloxacin to a clinically relevant concentration. The complexed substance showed synergism however, the effect of the isolated α-Bisabolol was superior to the complex. These results indicate α-Bisabolol is a potential substance to be used as an efflux pump inhibitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Essential Oil of Croton ceanothifolius Baill. Potentiates the Effect of Antibiotics against Multiresistant Bacteria
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010027 - 14 Jan 2020
Viewed by 759
Abstract
This study is a pioneer in reporting the antibacterial properties of the species Croton ceanothifolius Baill. The genus Croton belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae composed of numerous species with documented biological activities. However, the pharmacological properties of C. ceanothifolius remain poorly understood. The [...] Read more.
This study is a pioneer in reporting the antibacterial properties of the species Croton ceanothifolius Baill. The genus Croton belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae composed of numerous species with documented biological activities. However, the pharmacological properties of C. ceanothifolius remain poorly understood. The leaves of this plant were submitted to hydrodistillation for essential oil (CcEO) extraction and the phytochemical characterization of the oil was performed by GC/MS. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the CcEO was determined for the evaluation of antibacterial activity against multiresistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. The antibiotic-modulating activity of the oil, in combination with antibiotics, was also evaluated. The combination of the CcEO with penicillin, norfloxacin, and gentamicin presented a synergistic effect. This effect was more significant for the association with antibiotics of the quinolone and aminoglycoside classes against Escherichia coli. The association of oil with gentamicin showed better results with regard to the Gram-positive strain. The association of the oil with norfloxacin against P. aeruginosa also showed synergism, but the association with penicillin did not change the effect of this antibiotic. Thus, it is concluded that C. ceanothifolius essential oil selectively potentiates the action of antibiotics against multiresistant strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Plant Extracts and Phytochemicals)
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Open AccessArticle
Trends in Primary Antibiotic Resistance in H. pylori Strains Isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2019
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010026 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Background and aims: the increasing prevalence of strains resistant to antimicrobial agents is a critical issue for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. This study aimed to evaluate, in Italian naïve patients, H. pylori antibiotic resistance trends and their potential predictive factors during [...] Read more.
Background and aims: the increasing prevalence of strains resistant to antimicrobial agents is a critical issue for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. This study aimed to evaluate, in Italian naïve patients, H. pylori antibiotic resistance trends and their potential predictive factors during the last decade. Methods: consecutive Italian naïve H. pylori positive patients, referred from General Practitioners to our Unit from January 2009 to January 2019 to perform an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE), were considered. Each patient underwent 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) and UGIE with multiple biopsies to perform rapid urease test (RUT), culture/susceptibility test (vs. clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin), and histopathological examination. H. pylori status was assessed through CRM (composite reference method: at least two tests positive or only culture positive). Results: between 2009 and 2014, 1763 patients were diagnosed as H. pylori positive, 907 were naïve with antibiogram available. Between 2015 and 2019, 1415 patients were diagnosed as H. pylori positive, antibiotic susceptibility test was available in 739 naïve patients. H. pylori primary antibiotic resistance rates in the first and second five-year period were, respectively, clarithromycin 30.2% (95% CI 27.2–33.3), 37.8% (95% CI 34.2–41.4); metronidazole 33.3% (95% CI 30.2–36.5), 33.6% (95% CI 30.2–37.1); levofloxacin 25.6% (95% CI 22.8–28.5), 33.8% (95% CI 37.4–47.4), double resistance clarithromycin-metronidazole 18.9% (95% CI 16.4–21.6), 20.7% (95% CI 17.8–23.8). The increase of the resistance rates to clarithromycin and levofloxacin in naïve patients was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Although eradication rates for sequential therapy in the 10 years considered were 93.4% (95% CI 92–94.6) and 87.5% (95% CI 85.7–89) at per-protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, respectively, they showed a significant decrease in the second five-year period. Conclusions: this data highlights an increase in primary H. pylori antibiotic resistance and strongly suggests the importance of drug susceptibility testing also in naïve patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Conjugation of Penicillin-G with Silver(I) Ions Expands Its Antimicrobial Activity against Gram Negative Bacteria
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010025 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Conjugation of penicillin G (PenH) with silver(I) ions forms a new CoMeD (conjugate of metal with a drug) with formula [Ag(pen)(CH3OH)]2 (PenAg). PenAg was characterized by a plethora of physical and spectroscopic techniques, which include in [...] Read more.
Conjugation of penicillin G (PenH) with silver(I) ions forms a new CoMeD (conjugate of metal with a drug) with formula [Ag(pen)(CH3OH)]2 (PenAg). PenAg was characterized by a plethora of physical and spectroscopic techniques, which include in the solid state m.p.; elemental analysis; X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy (SEM); energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX); FT-IR; and in solution: attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR-ATR), UV–Vis, 1H NMR, and atomic absorption (AA). The structure of PenAg was determined by NMR spectroscopy. Silver(I) ions coordinate to the carboxylic group of PenH, while secondary intra-molecular interactions are developed through (i) the nitrogen atom of the amide group in MeOD-d4 or (ii) the sulfur atom in the thietane ring in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO-d6. The antibacterial activities of PenAg and the sodium salt of penicillin (PenNa) (the formulation which is clinically used) against Gram positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)) and Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeuroginosa PAO1)) bacteria were evaluated by the means of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and inhibition zone (IZ). PenAg inhibits the growth of the Gram negative bacterial strain P. aeuroginosa with a MIC value of 23.00 ± 2.29 μM, in contrast to PenNa, which shows no such activity (>2 mM). The corresponding antimicrobial activities of PenAg against the Gram positive bacteria S. epidermidis and S. aureus are even better than those of PenNa. Moreover, PenAg exhibits no in vivo toxicity against Artemia salina at concentration up to 300 μΜ. The wide therapeutic window and the low toxicity, make PenAg a possible candidate for the development of a new antibiotic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Antimicrobial Agents)
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Open AccessReview
Development and Challenges of Antimicrobial Peptides for Therapeutic Applications
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010024 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1358
Abstract
More than 3000 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been discovered, seven of which have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Now commercialized, these seven peptides have mostly been utilized for topical medications, though some have been injected into the body [...] Read more.
More than 3000 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been discovered, seven of which have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Now commercialized, these seven peptides have mostly been utilized for topical medications, though some have been injected into the body to treat severe bacterial infections. To understand the translational potential for AMPs, we analyzed FDA-approved drugs in the FDA drug database. We examined their physicochemical properties, secondary structures, and mechanisms of action, and compared them with the peptides in the AMP database. All FDA-approved AMPs were discovered in Gram-positive soil bacteria, and 98% of known AMPs also come from natural sources (skin secretions of frogs and toxins from different species). However, AMPs can have undesirable properties as drugs, including instability and toxicity. Thus, the design and construction of effective AMPs require an understanding of the mechanisms of known peptides and their effects on the human body. This review provides an overview to guide the development of AMPs that can potentially be used as antimicrobial drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Utility of Antimicrobial Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle
Designed Antimicrobial Peptides for Topical Treatment of Antibiotic Resistant Acne Vulgaris
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010023 - 13 Jan 2020
Viewed by 850
Abstract
Acne vulgaris, caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Cutibacterium acnes, is a prevalent dermatologic condition with substantial cutaneous and psychological morbidity. Mild acne is treated with topical antibiotics with more severe inflammatory forms requiring the prolonged use of oral antibiotics, resulting in antimicrobial [...] Read more.
Acne vulgaris, caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Cutibacterium acnes, is a prevalent dermatologic condition with substantial cutaneous and psychological morbidity. Mild acne is treated with topical antibiotics with more severe inflammatory forms requiring the prolonged use of oral antibiotics, resulting in antimicrobial resistance development. Innovative treatment alternatives, providing complete microbicidal eradication with minimal safety issues and limited susceptibility to microbial resistance, are fervently sought. Designed antimicrobial peptides (dAMPs) are engineered analogs of naturally occurring AMPs that possess a reduced likelihood of developing bacterial resistance. Seven novel dAMP sequences were screened for in vitro bactericidal effectiveness against antibiotic resistant C. acnes clinical isolates. Five peptides (RP444, RP551, RP554, RP556, and RP557) exhibited potent in vitro antibacterial activity. The Therapeutic Index, a measure of specificity for killing multidrug resistant C. acnes over mammalian cells, was determined using bioluminescent human keratinocytes. The Therapeutic Index was highest for the disulfide dAMP, RP556, with a value of 130. The lead dAMP candidate RP556, was further evaluated in a multidrug-resistant C. acnes intradermal murine infection model. A topical application of 5 mg/mL RP556 (0.5%) eliminated infection. If these preclinical results are translated clinically, dAMPs may become a viable topical monotherapy for the treatment of recalcitrant acne infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Peptides)
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Different Antibiotic Regimens on Bacterial Resistance: A Systematic Review
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010022 - 08 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Background and objectives: Infections caused by resistant bacteria are a growing public health problem that is linked to many different causes, among them the antibiotics’ incorrect use plays an important role. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the most dangerous behaviors are [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Infections caused by resistant bacteria are a growing public health problem that is linked to many different causes, among them the antibiotics’ incorrect use plays an important role. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the most dangerous behaviors are the early interruption of antibiotic therapy and the use of molecules without appropriate prescription. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess if antibiotic prescription with different regimens is connected to the onset of bacterial resistance. Methods: The authors performed an electronic and manual literature search on four databases (Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials) from their inception to 15 June 2019. The date of the last search was 27 November 2019. Any article comparing cultural or genic analysis of resistance in patients that took antibiotics with at least two different regimens was included. No language restrictions were applied. Risk of bias for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration’s tool whereas case-control and cohort studies were evaluated through the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Results: The initial search resulted in a total of 1744 titles. After careful evaluation of all results, only three studies satisfied the outcome of the present review. From the qualitative analysis of data, it emerges that even if antibiotics are administered for a shorter period than the conventional one the species that inhabit the oral cavity can adapt quickly and express genes of antibiotic resistance. Additional evidence from this analysis is that not only does the proportion of resistant bacteria increase in the oral cavity, but also in more distant districts such as the intestine. Conclusions: Despite the great number of studies retrieved by electronic databases only few studies investigated the target of this review. The reason for this evidence is that it is not ethical to investigate and compare different antibiotic regimens, shorter or longer than the appropriate one. This evidence is applicable both to prophylactic administrations and to those aimed at treating infections. Besides this, the WHO affirms that, in the absence of infective complications, the prescription of antibiotic after every type of surgical intervention cannot be admitted and that studies dealing with antibiotic regimens that do not comply with drug’s pharmacodynamics characteristics cannot be ethically admitted. PROSPERO acknowledgement of receipt [149149]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Antimicrobials in Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
Host-Directed Therapy as a Novel Treatment Strategy to Overcome Tuberculosis: Targeting Immune Modulation
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010021 - 07 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries, presenting a major threat to the public health. The currently recommended long term treatment regimen with multiple antibiotics is associated with poor patient compliance, which in turn, [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries, presenting a major threat to the public health. The currently recommended long term treatment regimen with multiple antibiotics is associated with poor patient compliance, which in turn, may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The low global treatment efficacy of MDR-TB has highlighted the necessity to develop novel treatment options. Host-directed therapy (HDT) together with current standard anti-TB treatments, has gained considerable interest, as HDT targets novel host immune mechanisms. These immune mechanisms would otherwise bypass the antibiotic bactericidal targets to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which may be mutated to cause antibiotic resistance. Additionally, host-directed therapies against TB have been shown to be associated with reduced lung pathology and improved disease outcome, most likely via the modulation of host immune responses. This review will provide an update of host-directed therapies and their mechanism(s) of action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics against Tuberculosis)
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Open AccessReview
Biosynthesis of Galactan in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a Viable TB Drug Target?
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010020 - 06 Jan 2020
Viewed by 874
Abstract
While target-based drug design has proved successful in several therapeutic areas, this approach has not yet provided compelling outcomes in the field of antibacterial agents. This statement remains especially true for the development of novel therapeutic interventions against tuberculosis, an infectious disease that [...] Read more.
While target-based drug design has proved successful in several therapeutic areas, this approach has not yet provided compelling outcomes in the field of antibacterial agents. This statement remains especially true for the development of novel therapeutic interventions against tuberculosis, an infectious disease that is among the top ten leading causes of death globally. Mycobacterial galactan is an important component of the protective cell wall core of the tuberculosis pathogen and it could provide a promising target for the design of new drugs. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on galactan biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including landmark findings that led to the discovery and understanding of three key enzymes in this pathway: UDP-galactose mutase, and galactofuranosyl transferases GlfT1 and GlfT2. Moreover, we recapitulate the efforts aimed at their inhibition. The predicted common transition states of the three enzymes provide the lucrative possibility of multitargeting in pharmaceutical development, a favourable property in the mitigation of drug resistance. We believe that a tight interplay between target-based computational approaches and experimental methods will result in the development of original inhibitors that could serve as the basis of a new generation of drugs against tuberculosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics against Tuberculosis)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Assessment of Software to Detect and Assist Prescribers with Antimicrobial Drug Interactions: Are all of them Created Equal?
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010019 - 04 Jan 2020
Viewed by 789
Abstract
Background: Detecting and managing antimicrobial drug interactions (ADIs) is one of the facets of prudent antimicrobial prescribing. Our aim is to compare the capability of several electronic drug–drug interaction (DDI) checkers to detect and report ADIs. Methods: Six electronic DDI checking platforms were [...] Read more.
Background: Detecting and managing antimicrobial drug interactions (ADIs) is one of the facets of prudent antimicrobial prescribing. Our aim is to compare the capability of several electronic drug–drug interaction (DDI) checkers to detect and report ADIs. Methods: Six electronic DDI checking platforms were evaluated: Drugs.com®, Medscape®, Epocrates®, Medimecum®, iDoctus®, and Guía IF®. Lexicomp® Drug Interactions was selected as the gold standard. Ten ADIs addressing different mechanisms were evaluated with every electronic DDI checker. For each ADI, we assessed five dimensions and calculated an overall performance score (maximum possible score: 10 points). The explored dimensions were sensitivity (capability to detect ADI), clinical effect (type and severity), mechanism of interaction, recommended action(s), and documentation (quality of evidence and availability of references). Results: The electronic DDI checkers did not detect a significant proportion of the ADI assessed. The overall performance score ranged between 4.4 (Medimecum) and 8.8 (Drugs.com). Drugs.com was the highest ranked platform in four out of five dimensions (sensitivity, effect, mechanism, and recommended action). Conclusions: There is significant variability in the performance of the available platforms in detecting and assessing ADI. Although some ADI checkers have proven to be very accurate, others missed almost half of the explored interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antibiotics Use and Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Open AccessReview
Looking beyond Typical Treatments for Atypical Mycobacteria
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010018 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The genus Mycobacterium comprises not only the deadliest of bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but several other pathogenic species, including M. avium and M. abscessus. The incidence of infections caused by atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been steadily increasing, and is [...] Read more.
The genus Mycobacterium comprises not only the deadliest of bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but several other pathogenic species, including M. avium and M. abscessus. The incidence of infections caused by atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been steadily increasing, and is associated with a panoply of diseases, including pulmonary, soft-tissue, or disseminated infections. The treatment for NTM disease is particularly challenging, due to its long duration, to variability in bacterial susceptibility profiles, and to the lack of evidence-based guidelines. Treatment usually consists of a combination of at least three drugs taken from months to years, often leading to severe secondary effects and a high chance of relapse. Therefore, new treatment approaches are clearly needed. In this review, we identify the main limitations of current treatments and discuss different alternatives that have been put forward in recent years, with an emphasis on less conventional therapeutics, such as antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages, iron chelators, or host-directed therapies. We also review new forms of the use of old drugs, including the repurposing of non-antibacterial molecules and the incorporation of antimicrobials into ionic liquids. We aim to stimulate advancements in testing these therapies in relevant models, in order to provide clinicians and patients with useful new tools with which to treat these devastating diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
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Open AccessReview
More Than a Pore: A Current Perspective on the In Vivo Mode of Action of the Lipopeptide Antibiotic Daptomycin
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010017 - 03 Jan 2020
Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, which was discovered in 1987 and entered the market in 2003. To date, it serves as last resort antibiotic to treat complicated skin infections, bacteremia, and right-sided endocarditis caused by Gram-positive pathogens, most prominently methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [...] Read more.
Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, which was discovered in 1987 and entered the market in 2003. To date, it serves as last resort antibiotic to treat complicated skin infections, bacteremia, and right-sided endocarditis caused by Gram-positive pathogens, most prominently methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Daptomycin was the last representative of a novel antibiotic class that was introduced to the clinic. It is also one of the few membrane-active compounds that can be applied systemically. While membrane-active antibiotics have long been limited to topical applications and were generally excluded from systemic drug development, they promise slower resistance development than many classical drugs that target single proteins. The success of daptomycin together with the emergence of more and more multi-resistant superbugs attracted renewed interest in this compound class. Studying daptomycin as a pioneering systemic membrane-active compound might help to pave the way for future membrane-targeting antibiotics. However, more than 30 years after its discovery, the exact mechanism of action of daptomycin is still debated. In particular, there is a prominent discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the mechanism of daptomycin against Gram-positive bacteria and try to offer explanations for these conflicting observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle
Extraintestinal Clostridioides difficile Infections: Epidemiology in a University Hospital in Hungary and Review of the Literature
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010016 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Extraintestinal manifestations of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) are very uncommon, and according to the literature, poor outcomes and a high mortality have been observed among affected individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of extraintestinal infections caused by [...] Read more.
Extraintestinal manifestations of Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) are very uncommon, and according to the literature, poor outcomes and a high mortality have been observed among affected individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence rate of extraintestinal infections caused by C. difficile (ECD) in a tertiary-care university hospital in Hungary. During a 10-year study period, the microbiology laboratory isolated 4129 individual strains of C. difficile; among these, the majority were either from diarrheal fecal samples or from colonic material and only n = 24 (0.58%) were from extraintestinal sources. The 24 extraintestinal C. difficile isolates were recovered from 22 patients (female-to-male ratio: 1, average age: 55.4 years). The isolates in n = 8 patients were obtained from abdominal infections, e.g., appendicitis, rectal abscess or Crohn’s disease. These extraintestinal cases occurred without concomitant diarrhea. In all, but two cases C. difficile was obtained as a part of a polymicrobial flora. Our isolates were frequently toxigenic and mostly belonged to PCR ribotype 027. Resistance to metronidazole, vancomycin, clindamycin and rifampin were 0%, 0%, 20.5% and 9.7%, respectively. The increasing amount of reports of C. difficile extraintestinal infections should be noted, as these infections are characterized by a poor outcome and high mortality rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: From the Bench to Patients)
Open AccessArticle
Clonal Diversity, Biofilm Formation, and Antimicrobial Resistance among Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strains from Cystic Fibrosis and Non-Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010015 - 02 Jan 2020
Viewed by 856
Abstract
The intrinsic antibiotic resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, along with its ability to form biofilm both on abiotic surfaces and host tissues, dramatically affects the efficacy of the antibiotic therapy. In this work, 85 S. maltophilia strains isolated in several hospital of central [...] Read more.
The intrinsic antibiotic resistance of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, along with its ability to form biofilm both on abiotic surfaces and host tissues, dramatically affects the efficacy of the antibiotic therapy. In this work, 85 S. maltophilia strains isolated in several hospital of central Italy and from several clinical settings were evaluated for their genetic relatedness (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PFGE), biofilm formation (by microtiter plate assay), and planktonic antibiotic resistance (by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion technique). The S. maltophilia population showed a high genetic heterogeneity: 64 different PFGE types were identified, equally distributed in cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF strains, and some consisted of multiple strains. Most of the strains (88.2%) were able to form biofilm, although non-CF strains were significantly more efficient than CF strains. CF strains produced lower biofilm amounts than non-CF strains, both those from respiratory tracts and blood. Non-CF PFGE types 3 and 27 consisted of strong-producers only. Cotrimoxazole and levofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics, being active respectively against 81.2% and 72.9% of strains. CF strains were significantly more resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam compared to non-CF strains (90% versus 53.3%), regardless of sample type. Among respiratory strains, cotrimoxazole was more active against non-CF than CF strains (susceptibility rates: 86.7% versus 75%). The multidrug resistant phenotype was significantly more prevalent in CF than non-CF strains (90% versus 66.7%). Overall, the multidrug-resistance level was negatively associated with efficiency in biofilm formation. Our results showed, for the first time, that in S. maltophilia both classical planktonic drug resistance and the ability of biofilm formation might favor its dissemination in the hospital setting. Biofilm formation might in fact act as a survival mechanism for susceptible bacteria, suggesting that clinical isolates should be routinely assayed for biofilm formation in diagnostic laboratories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Infections — Time Bomb in Antibiotic Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation by Flow Cytometry of Escherichia coli Viability in Lettuce after Disinfection
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010014 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 878
Abstract
Foodborne outbreaks due to the consumption of ready-to-eat vegetables have increased worldwide, with Escherichia coli (E. coli) being one of the main sources responsible. Viable but nonculturable bacteria (VBNC) retain virulence even after some disinfection procedures and constitute a huge problem [...] Read more.
Foodborne outbreaks due to the consumption of ready-to-eat vegetables have increased worldwide, with Escherichia coli (E. coli) being one of the main sources responsible. Viable but nonculturable bacteria (VBNC) retain virulence even after some disinfection procedures and constitute a huge problem to public health due to their non-detectability through conventional microbiological techniques. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a promising tool in food microbiology as it enables the distinction of the different physiological states of bacteria after disinfection procedures within a short time. In this study, samples of lettuce inoculated with E. coli were subject to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite at free chlorine concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg·L−1 or with 35% peracetic acid at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg·L−1. The efficiency of these disinfectants on the viability of E. coli in lettuce was evaluated by flow cytometry with LIVE/DEAD stains. Results from this study suggest that FCM can effectively monitor cell viability. However, peracetic acid is more effective than sodium hypochlorite as, at half the concentration, it is enough to kill 100% of bacteria and always induces a lower percentage of VBNC. Finally, we can conclude that the recommended levels of chemical disinfectants for fresh fruit and vegetables are adequate when applied in lettuce. More importantly, it is possible to ensure that all cells of E. coli are dead and that there are no VBNC cells even with lower concentrations of those chemicals. These results can serve as guidance for lettuce disinfection, improving quality and the safety of consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial-Resistance of Food-Borne Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle
In the Right Light: Photodynamic Inactivation of Microorganisms Using a LED-Based Illumination Device Tailored for the Antimicrobial Application
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010013 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 976
Abstract
Drug-resistant bacteria threaten the health of people world-wide and cause high costs to their health systems. According to Scientific American, the number of regrettable fatalities due to the bacteria that are resistant to conventional antibiotics will sum up to 300 million until 2050 [...] Read more.
Drug-resistant bacteria threaten the health of people world-wide and cause high costs to their health systems. According to Scientific American, the number of regrettable fatalities due to the bacteria that are resistant to conventional antibiotics will sum up to 300 million until 2050 if the problem is not tackled immediately. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) has proven effective against microorganisms irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatment, but for the translation into clinical practice, economic, homogenous and powerful light sources holding approval as medical devices are needed. In this study we present two novel light emitting diode (LED)-based lamps (Repuls7PDI-red and Repuls7PDI-blue) tailored for application in PDI and demonstrate their photodynamic efficiency upon using either methylene blue (MB), a photoactive compound widely used in PDI, or Sodium Magnesium Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll, which holds approval as food additive E140, against bacteria and fungi. Gram+ Staphylococcus aureus, Gram− Escherichia coli and the yeast Candida albicans serve as model systems. Repuls7PDI-red emits a wavelength of 635 nm and an intensity of 27.6 ± 2.4 mW·cm−2 at a distance of 13.5 cm between the light source and the target, while the Repuls7PDI-blue allows an exposure at 433 nm (within the range of violet light) (6.4 ± 0.5 mW·cm−2 at 13.5 cm). Methylene blue was photoactivated with the Repuls7PDI-red at 635 nm (25.6 J·cm−2) and allows for photokilling of E. coli by more than 6 log10 steps at a concentration of 10 µM MB. Using equal parameters, more than 99.99999% of S. aureus (20 µM MB) and 99.99% of C. albicans (50 µM MB) were killed. If blue light (Repuls7PDI-blue, 433 nm, 6.6 J·cm2) is used to trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a photoinactivation of S. aureus (5 µM CHL, CFU reduction > 7 log10) and C. albicans (>7 log10) below the detection limit is achieved. PDI based on CHL (10 µM) using red light activation reduces the number of viable S. aureus by more than 6 log10. Our data prove that both LED-based light sources are applicable for Photodynamic Inactivation. Their easy-to-use concept, high light output and well-defined wavelength might facilitate the translation of PDI into clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in the Inactivation of Microorganisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Helicobacter pylori Infection and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases: The Role of Virulent Strains
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010012 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 973
Abstract
Aim: To verify a possible association between overall H. pylori and CagA+ H. pylori infection and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). Methods: Consecutive patients with AITDs admitted to one single centre of Endocrinology during one solar year were examined. The diagnoses were Hashimoto thyroiditis [...] Read more.
Aim: To verify a possible association between overall H. pylori and CagA+ H. pylori infection and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs). Methods: Consecutive patients with AITDs admitted to one single centre of Endocrinology during one solar year were examined. The diagnoses were Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) in 76, Graves’ Disease (GD) in 39, and aspecific thyroiditis (AT) in 44 patients. Controls were 136 individuals without AITDs. Median values of fT3, fT4, anti-thyreoglobulin (Tg) antibodies, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in patients were compared with those in controls. H. pylori infection and CagA status were determined serologically. Structural homology of some thyroid proteins with H. pylori antigens was investigated. Results: H. pylori infection prevalence was significantly increased in GD (66.6%) and HT (64.4%) patients, vs. 29.4% of controls and 34.0% of AT. CagA seropositivity was significantly more frequent in GD (46.1%) and HT (46.9%) infected patients, vs. infected controls (20%). fT3 and fT4 median values were significantly decreased in infected CagA+ GD patients vs. uninfected GD patients. IL-1β median values were increased in patients respect to controls, independently of the clinical form of AITD. Median values of IL-6, TNF-α and anti-Tg autoantibodies in CagA infected patients were significantly higher than those measured in infected CagA− and uninfected patients and in infected CagA+ controls. The examined thyroid proteins shared putative conserved domains with numerous bacterial antigens. Conclusions: Overall H. pylori and CagA+ H. pylori infection were associated with GD and HT, putatively through an increased inflammatory status and molecular mimicry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Antibiotic Susceptibility)
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Open AccessReview
Commercial Local Pharmacotherapeutics and Adjunctive Agents for Nonsurgical Treatment of Periodontitis: A Contemporary Review of Clinical Efficacies and Challenges
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010011 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 899
Abstract
Periodontal infections tend to be site-specific, mostly confined to the periodontal pocket. With the surge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the trend is shifting towards other therapeutic modalities, especially locally delivered approaches that include other pharmacotherapeutic drugs and medical devices. This narrative review aimed to [...] Read more.
Periodontal infections tend to be site-specific, mostly confined to the periodontal pocket. With the surge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the trend is shifting towards other therapeutic modalities, especially locally delivered approaches that include other pharmacotherapeutic drugs and medical devices. This narrative review aimed to provide insights into the clinical efficacy of local drug delivery and adjunctive agents used in nonsurgical management of periodontitis. Electronic (PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE) and bibliographic searches of past systematic reviews were carried out to identify previous publications on the topic. Only relevant literature and randomized controlled trials published in English were selected. In addition, a literature review was developed based on the selected articles. Experimental drugs or agents were excluded. This review highlights the clinically proven and commercially available therapeutic agents related to the management of periodontal disease with comparisons of their clinical efficacies and challenges. A vast array of commercial local pharmacotherapeutic agents had been clinically tested, but the methodologies and clinical results varied within and between each agent used, causing difficulty in drawing conclusions and providing support to the superiority of one agent over another. Considering the benefit–cost ratio with the modest clinical results, the long-term usefulness of these agents remains debatable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Antimicrobials in Dentistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Simple Carbohydrate Derivatives Diminish the Formation of Biofilm of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010010 - 30 Dec 2019
Viewed by 949
Abstract
The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans relies on cell morphological transitions to develop biofilm and invade the host. In the current study, we developed new regulatory molecules, which inhibit the morphological transition of C. albicans from yeast-form cells to cells forming hyphae. [...] Read more.
The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans relies on cell morphological transitions to develop biofilm and invade the host. In the current study, we developed new regulatory molecules, which inhibit the morphological transition of C. albicans from yeast-form cells to cells forming hyphae. These compounds, benzyl α-l-fucopyranoside and benzyl β-d-xylopyranoside, inhibit the hyphae formation and adhesion of C. albicans to a polystyrene surface, resulting in a reduced biofilm formation. The addition of cAMP to cells treated with α-l-fucopyranoside restored the yeast-hyphae switch and the biofilm level to that of the untreated control. In the β-d-xylopyranoside treated cells, the biofilm level was only partially restored by the addition of cAMP, and these cells remained mainly as yeast-form cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Novel Antimicrobial Agents)
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Open AccessReview
The Usefulness of Microalgae Compounds for Preventing Biofilm Infections
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010009 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1151
Abstract
Biofilms play an important role in infectious diseases. It has been estimated that most medical infections are due to bacterial biofilms, and about 60–70% of nosocomial infections are also caused by the formation of a biofilm. Historically, microalgae are an important source of [...] Read more.
Biofilms play an important role in infectious diseases. It has been estimated that most medical infections are due to bacterial biofilms, and about 60–70% of nosocomial infections are also caused by the formation of a biofilm. Historically, microalgae are an important source of bioactive compounds, having novel structures and potential biological functions that make them attractive for different industries such as food, animal feed, aquaculture, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical. Several studies have described compounds produced by microalgae and cyanobacteria species with antimicrobial activity. However, studies on the antibiofilm activity of extracts and/or molecules produced by these microorganisms are scarce. Quorum-sensing inhibitor and anti-adherent agents have, among others, been isolated from microalgae and cyanobacteria species. The use of tools such as nanotechnology increase their power of action and can be used for preventing and treating biofilm-related infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Infections — Time Bomb in Antibiotic Therapy)
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