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Host-Directed Therapy as a Novel Treatment Strategy to Overcome Tuberculosis: Targeting Immune Modulation

1
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet, 141 52 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka 1213, Bangladesh
3
Biomedical Center, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
4
Infectious Disease Clinic, the Immunodeficiency Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 52 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010021
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 25 December 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2020 / Published: 7 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics against Tuberculosis)
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries, presenting a major threat to the public health. The currently recommended long term treatment regimen with multiple antibiotics is associated with poor patient compliance, which in turn, may contribute to the emergence of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The low global treatment efficacy of MDR-TB has highlighted the necessity to develop novel treatment options. Host-directed therapy (HDT) together with current standard anti-TB treatments, has gained considerable interest, as HDT targets novel host immune mechanisms. These immune mechanisms would otherwise bypass the antibiotic bactericidal targets to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which may be mutated to cause antibiotic resistance. Additionally, host-directed therapies against TB have been shown to be associated with reduced lung pathology and improved disease outcome, most likely via the modulation of host immune responses. This review will provide an update of host-directed therapies and their mechanism(s) of action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; host-directed therapy; drug resistance; immune response; autophagy; innate immunity; antimicrobial peptides Mycobacterium tuberculosis; host-directed therapy; drug resistance; immune response; autophagy; innate immunity; antimicrobial peptides
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, S.; Raqib, R.; Guðmundsson, G.H.; Bergman, P.; Agerberth, B.; Rekha, R.S. Host-Directed Therapy as a Novel Treatment Strategy to Overcome Tuberculosis: Targeting Immune Modulation. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 21.

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