Special Issue "Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria"

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Novel Antimicrobial Agents".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 22969

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will focus on novel strategies against pathogenic bacteria. The discovery of antibiotics is considered a turning point in medical history, but it slowed down the research on alternative therapeutic strategies against pathogenic bacteria such as those based on bacteriophages or host-targeted antimicrobials. Moreover, highly profitable compounds (e.g., anticancer drugs) have been at the center of attention for the biomedical industry over the last four decades, making the rate at which new antibiotics are discovered insufficient to cope with the rise of antimicrobial resistance. Because bacterial pathogens will inevitably become resistant to any antibiotic, a combinatorial therapy with alternative strategies may extend their useful life. In addition, identifying new therapeutic strategies against bacterial pathogens and studying their mechanism of action may lead to a better understanding of host–pathogen interactions, which may allow the identification of new targets for the development of even more effective therapeutic strategies than the ones currently available.

Dr. Michal Letek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bacteriophages
  • host-targeted antimicrobials
  • bacteriocins
  • antimicrobial peptides
  • phage lysins
  • fecal transplantation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Dibasic Derivatives of Phenylcarbamic Acid as Prospective Antibacterial Agents Interacting with Cytoplasmic Membrane
Antibiotics 2020, 9(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9020064 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
1-[2-[({[2-/3-(Alkoxy)phenyl]amino}carbonyl)oxy]-3-(dipropylammonio)propyl]pyrrolidinium/azepan- ium oxalates or dichlorides (alkoxy = butoxy to heptyloxy) were recently described as very promising antimycobacterial agents. These compounds were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 (reference and control strains), three methicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus [...] Read more.
1-[2-[({[2-/3-(Alkoxy)phenyl]amino}carbonyl)oxy]-3-(dipropylammonio)propyl]pyrrolidinium/azepan- ium oxalates or dichlorides (alkoxy = butoxy to heptyloxy) were recently described as very promising antimycobacterial agents. These compounds were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 (reference and control strains), three methicillin-resistant isolates of S. aureus, and three isolates of vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. 1-[3-(Dipropylammonio)-2-({[3-(pentyloxy-/hexyloxy-/heptyloxy)phenyl]carbamoyl}oxy)propyl]pyrrolidinium dichlorides showed high activity against staphylococci and enterococci comparable with or higher than that of used controls (clinically used antibiotics and antiseptics). The screening of the cytotoxicity of the compounds as well as the used controls was performed using human monocytic leukemia cells. IC50 values of the most effective compounds ranged from ca. 3.5 to 6.3 µM, thus, it can be stated that the antimicrobial effect is closely connected with their cytotoxicity. The antibacterial activity is based on the surface activity of the compounds that are influenced by the length of their alkoxy side chain, the size of the azacyclic system, and hydro-lipophilic properties, as proven by in vitro experiments and chemometric principal component analyses. Synergistic studies showed the increased activity of oxacillin, gentamicin, and vancomycin, which could be explained by the direct activity of the compounds against the bacterial cell wall. All these compounds demonstrate excellent antibiofilm activity, when they inhibit and disrupt the biofilm of S. aureus in concentrations close to minimum inhibitory concentrations against planktonic cells. Expected interactions of the compounds with the cytoplasmic membrane are proven by in vitro crystal violet uptake assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
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Article
Gut Bacteria of Water Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator) Are a Potential Source of Antibacterial Compound(s)
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040164 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2843
Abstract
For the past few decades, there has been limited progress in the development of novel antibacterials. Previously, we postulated that the gut microbiota of animals residing in polluted environments are a forthcoming supply of antibacterials. Among various species, the water monitor lizard is [...] Read more.
For the past few decades, there has been limited progress in the development of novel antibacterials. Previously, we postulated that the gut microbiota of animals residing in polluted environments are a forthcoming supply of antibacterials. Among various species, the water monitor lizard is an interesting species that feeds on organic waste and the carcass of wild animals. Gut microbiota of the water monitor lizard were sequestered, identified and cultivated in RPMI-1640 to produce conditioned medium (CM). Next, the antimicrobial properties of CM were evaluated versus a selection of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli K1, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus). CM were partially characterized by heat inactivation at 95°C for 10 min and tested against P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes. CM were also tested against immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells lines. The results demonstrated that gut microbiota isolated from water monitor lizard produced molecules with remarkable bactericidal activities. To determine the identity of the active molecules, CM were subjected to Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Several molecules were identified belonging to the classes of flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, polyhydroxy alkaloids, polyacetylenes, bisphenols, amides, oxylipin and pyrazine derivatives with known broad-spectrum antimicrobial, anti-tumour, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic attributes. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of these molecules could lead us to develop effective therapeutic antibacterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
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Article
Development of a High Throughput Screen for the Identification of Inhibitors of Peptidoglycan O-Acetyltransferases, New Potential Antibacterial Targets
Antibiotics 2019, 8(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020065 - 27 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
The O-acetylation of peptidoglycan occurs in many Gram-negative and most Gram-positive pathogens and this modification to the essential wall polymer controls the lytic activity of the autolysins, particularly the lytic transglycosylases, and inhibits that of the lysozymes of innate immunity systems. As [...] Read more.
The O-acetylation of peptidoglycan occurs in many Gram-negative and most Gram-positive pathogens and this modification to the essential wall polymer controls the lytic activity of the autolysins, particularly the lytic transglycosylases, and inhibits that of the lysozymes of innate immunity systems. As such, the peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferases PatA/B and OatA are recognized as virulence factors. In this study, we present the high throughput screening of small compound libraries to identify the first known inhibitors of these enzymes. The fluorometric screening assay developed involved monitoring the respective O-acetyltransferases as esterases using 4-methylumbelliferylacetate as substrate. Pilot screens of 3921 compounds validated the usefulness of the HTS protocol. A number of potential inhibitors were identified amongst a total of 145,000 low molecular-weight compounds, some of which were common to both enzymes, while others were unique to each. After eliminating a number of false positives in secondary screens, dose response curves confirmed the apparent specificity of a benzothiazolyl-pyrazolo-pyridine as an inhibitor of Neisseria gonorrhoeae PatB, and several coumarin-based compounds as inhibitors of both this PatB and OatA from Staphylococcus aureus. The benzothiazolyl-pyrazolo-pyridine was determined to be a non-competitive inhibitor of PatB with a Ki of 126 µM. At 177 µg/mL and close to its solubility limit, this compound caused a 90% reduction in growth of N. gonorrhoeae, while growth of Escherichia coli, a bacterium that lacks PatB and, hence, does not produce O-acetylated peptidoglycan, was unaffected. These data provide preliminary proof of concept that peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferases would serve as useful antibacterial targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
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Review

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Review
Looking beyond Typical Treatments for Atypical Mycobacteria
Antibiotics 2020, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9010018 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3140
Abstract
The genus Mycobacterium comprises not only the deadliest of bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but several other pathogenic species, including M. avium and M. abscessus. The incidence of infections caused by atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been steadily increasing, and is [...] Read more.
The genus Mycobacterium comprises not only the deadliest of bacterial pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but several other pathogenic species, including M. avium and M. abscessus. The incidence of infections caused by atypical or nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been steadily increasing, and is associated with a panoply of diseases, including pulmonary, soft-tissue, or disseminated infections. The treatment for NTM disease is particularly challenging, due to its long duration, to variability in bacterial susceptibility profiles, and to the lack of evidence-based guidelines. Treatment usually consists of a combination of at least three drugs taken from months to years, often leading to severe secondary effects and a high chance of relapse. Therefore, new treatment approaches are clearly needed. In this review, we identify the main limitations of current treatments and discuss different alternatives that have been put forward in recent years, with an emphasis on less conventional therapeutics, such as antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages, iron chelators, or host-directed therapies. We also review new forms of the use of old drugs, including the repurposing of non-antibacterial molecules and the incorporation of antimicrobials into ionic liquids. We aim to stimulate advancements in testing these therapies in relevant models, in order to provide clinicians and patients with useful new tools with which to treat these devastating diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
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Review
The Use of Nanomedicine for Targeted Therapy against Bacterial Infections
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040260 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2443
Abstract
The emergence of drug resistance combined with limited success in the discovery of newer and effective antimicrobial chemotherapeutics poses a significant challenge to human and animal health. Nanoparticles may be an approach for effective drug development and delivery against infections caused by multi-drug [...] Read more.
The emergence of drug resistance combined with limited success in the discovery of newer and effective antimicrobial chemotherapeutics poses a significant challenge to human and animal health. Nanoparticles may be an approach for effective drug development and delivery against infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria. Here we discuss nanoparticles therapeutics and nano-drug delivery against bacterial infections. The therapeutic efficacy of numerous kinds of nanoparticles including nanoantibiotics conjugates, small molecules capped nanoparticles, polymers stabilized nanoparticles, and biomolecules functionalized nanoparticles has been discussed. Moreover, nanoparticles-based drug delivery systems against bacterial infections have been described. Furthermore, the fundamental limitation of biocompatibility and biosafety of nanoparticles is also conferred. Finally, we propose potential future strategies of nanomaterials as antibacterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
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Review
Dissecting the Antimicrobial Composition of Honey
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040251 - 05 Dec 2019
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 5723
Abstract
Honey is a complex sweet food stuff with well-established antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. It has been used for millennia in a variety of applications, but the most noteworthy include the treatment of surface wounds, burns and inflammation. A variety of substances in honey [...] Read more.
Honey is a complex sweet food stuff with well-established antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. It has been used for millennia in a variety of applications, but the most noteworthy include the treatment of surface wounds, burns and inflammation. A variety of substances in honey have been suggested as the key component to its antimicrobial potential; polyphenolic compounds, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and bee-defensin 1. These components vary greatly across honey samples due to botanical origin, geographical location and secretions from the bee. The use of medical grade honey in the treatment of surface wounds and burns has been seen to improve the healing process, reduce healing time, reduce scarring and prevent microbial contamination. Therefore, if medical grade honeys were to be included in clinical treatment, it would reduce the demand for antibiotic usage. In this review, we outline the constituents of honey and how they affect antibiotic potential in a clinical setting. By identifying the key components, we facilitate the development of an optimally antimicrobial honey by either synthetic or semisynthetic production methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
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Review
Host-Targeted Therapeutics against Multidrug Resistant Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040241 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2270
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades and replicates within many types of human cells. S. aureus has shown to rapidly overcome traditional antibiotherapy by developing multidrug resistance. Furthermore, intracellular S. aureus is protected from the last-resort antibiotics—vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid—as [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades and replicates within many types of human cells. S. aureus has shown to rapidly overcome traditional antibiotherapy by developing multidrug resistance. Furthermore, intracellular S. aureus is protected from the last-resort antibiotics—vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid—as they are unable to achieve plasma concentrations sufficient for intracellular killing. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel anti-infective therapies against S. aureus infections. Here, we review the current state of the field and highlight the exploitation of host-directed approaches as a promising strategy going forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
Review
Harnessing the Potential of Killers and Altruists within the Microbial Community: A Possible Alternative to Antibiotic Therapy?
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040230 - 21 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2650
Abstract
In the context of a post-antibiotic era, the phenomenon of microbial allolysis, which is defined as the partial killing of bacterial population induced by other cells of the same species, may take on greater significance. This phenomenon was revealed in some bacterial species [...] Read more.
In the context of a post-antibiotic era, the phenomenon of microbial allolysis, which is defined as the partial killing of bacterial population induced by other cells of the same species, may take on greater significance. This phenomenon was revealed in some bacterial species such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis, and has been suspected to occur in some other species or genera, such as enterococci. The mechanisms of this phenomenon, as well as its role in the life of microbial populations still form part of ongoing research. Herein, we describe recent developments in allolysis in the context of its practical benefits as a form of cell death that may give rise to developing new strategies for manipulating the life and death of bacterial communities. We highlight how such findings may be viewed with importance and potential within the fields of medicine, biotechnology, and pharmacology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
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