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Biosensors, Volume 7, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A biosensor for 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) involving immobilization of the enzyme 3-hydroxybutyrate [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Fluorescence-Free Biosensor Methods in Detection of Food Pathogens with a Special Focus on Listeria monocytogenes
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040063
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food pathogens contaminate food products that allow their growth on the shelf and also under refrigerated conditions. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to lower the limit of detection (LOD) of the method used and to obtain the results within hours to few
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Food pathogens contaminate food products that allow their growth on the shelf and also under refrigerated conditions. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to lower the limit of detection (LOD) of the method used and to obtain the results within hours to few days. Biosensor methods exploit the available technologies to individuate and provide an approximate quantification of the bacteria present in a sample. The main bottleneck of these methods depends on the aspecific binding to the surfaces and on a change in sensitivity when bacteria are in a complex food matrix with respect to bacteria in a liquid food sample. In this review, we introduce surface plasmon resonance (SPR), new advancements in SPR techniques, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as fluorescence-free biosensing technologies for detection of L. monocytogenes in foods. The application of the two methods has facilitated L. monocytogenes detection with LOD of 1 log CFU/mL. Further advancements are envisaged through the combination of biosensor methods with immunoseparation of bacteria from larger volumes, application of lab-on-chip technologies, and EIS sensing methods for multiplex pathogen detection. Validation efforts are being conducted to demonstrate the robustness of detection, reproducibility and variability in multi-site installations. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Point-of-Care Diagnostics: Recent Advances and Trends
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040062
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in point-of-care diagnostics (POCD), which are a result of continuous developments in biosensors, microfluidic, bioanalytical platforms, assay formats, lab-on-a-chip technologies, and complementary technologies. This special issue targets the critical advances in POCD and provides guided insights and
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Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in point-of-care diagnostics (POCD), which are a result of continuous developments in biosensors, microfluidic, bioanalytical platforms, assay formats, lab-on-a-chip technologies, and complementary technologies. This special issue targets the critical advances in POCD and provides guided insights and directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Diagnostics)
Open AccessReview Fluorescent and Colorimetric Electrospun Nanofibers for Heavy-Metal Sensing
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040061
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2026 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The accumulation of heavy metals in the human body and/or in the environment can be highly deleterious for mankind, and currently, considerable efforts have been made to develop reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection. Among the detection methods, chemical sensors appear as
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The accumulation of heavy metals in the human body and/or in the environment can be highly deleterious for mankind, and currently, considerable efforts have been made to develop reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection. Among the detection methods, chemical sensors appear as a promising technology, with emphasis on systems employing optically active nanofibers. Such nanofibers can be obtained by the electrospinning technique, and further functionalized with optically active chromophores such as dyes, conjugated polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials and nanoparticles, in order to produce fluorescent and colorimetric nanofibers. In this review we survey recent investigations reporting the use of optically active electrospun nanofibers in sensors aiming at the specific detection of heavy metals using colorimetry and fluorescence methods. The examples given in this review article provide sufficient evidence of the potential of optically electrospun nanofibers as a valid approach to fabricate highly selective and sensitive optical sensors for fast and low-cost detection of heavy metals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based Optical Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Spontaneous Charge Generation in Flowing Albumin Solutions at 35 °C and 38 °C
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040060
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
The time dependence of a charge accumulation in a 10−15 M albumin solution, flowing through a measuring cell of an analytical flow system injector, had a nonlinear character under certain conditions, within a human physiological temperature range. Sharp charge increases depended on
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The time dependence of a charge accumulation in a 10−15 M albumin solution, flowing through a measuring cell of an analytical flow system injector, had a nonlinear character under certain conditions, within a human physiological temperature range. Sharp charge increases depended on albumin concentration. This effect must be taken into consideration when generating models that describe electrokinetic phenomena in flowing protein solutions and when developing analytical flow systems for the registration of biomolecules in low concentration ranges. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Cutting Edge Methods for Non-Invasive Disease Diagnosis Using E-Tongue and E-Nose Devices
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040059
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomimetic cross-reactive sensor arrays (B-CRSAs) have been used to detect and diagnose a wide variety of diseases including metabolic disorders, mental health diseases, and cancer by analyzing both vapor and liquid patient samples. Technological advancements over the past decade have made these systems
[...] Read more.
Biomimetic cross-reactive sensor arrays (B-CRSAs) have been used to detect and diagnose a wide variety of diseases including metabolic disorders, mental health diseases, and cancer by analyzing both vapor and liquid patient samples. Technological advancements over the past decade have made these systems selective, sensitive, and affordable. To date, devices for non-invasive and accurate disease diagnosis have seen rapid improvement, suggesting a feasible alternative to current standards for medical diagnostics. This review provides an overview of the most recent B-CRSAs for diagnostics (also referred to electronic noses and tongues in the literature) and an outlook for future technological development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An All-Glass Microfluidic Network with Integrated Amorphous Silicon Photosensors for on-Chip Monitoring of Enzymatic Biochemical Assay
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040058
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
A lab-on-chip system, integrating an all-glass microfluidics and on-chip optical detection, was developed and tested. The microfluidic network is etched in a glass substrate, which is then sealed with a glass cover by direct bonding. Thin film amorphous silicon photosensors have been fabricated
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A lab-on-chip system, integrating an all-glass microfluidics and on-chip optical detection, was developed and tested. The microfluidic network is etched in a glass substrate, which is then sealed with a glass cover by direct bonding. Thin film amorphous silicon photosensors have been fabricated on the sealed microfluidic substrate preventing the contamination of the micro-channels. The microfluidic network is then made accessible by opening inlets and outlets just prior to the use, ensuring the sterility of the device. The entire fabrication process relies on conventional photolithographic microfabrication techniques and is suitable for low-cost mass production of the device. The lab-on-chip system has been tested by implementing a chemiluminescent biochemical reaction. The inner channel walls of the microfluidic network are chemically functionalized with a layer of polymer brushes and horseradish peroxidase is immobilized into the coated channel. The results demonstrate the successful on-chip detection of hydrogen peroxide down to 18 μM by using luminol and 4-iodophenol as enhancer agent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of SH-SY5Y Cancer Cell Response to Treatment with Polyphenol Extracts Using FT-IR Spectroscopy
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040057
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 30 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Plant polyphenols are important components of human diet and a number of them are considered to possess chemo-preventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. They are recognized as naturally occurring antioxidants, but also as pro-oxidant, pro-apoptotic, or chromosomal aberrations inducers, depending on their concentration
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Plant polyphenols are important components of human diet and a number of them are considered to possess chemo-preventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. They are recognized as naturally occurring antioxidants, but also as pro-oxidant, pro-apoptotic, or chromosomal aberrations inducers, depending on their concentration and/or the stage of cell-cycle of the cells with which they interact. For these reasons, particular interest is devoted to knowing the total effects of polyphenols on the cell cycle and metabolism. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy thanks to its ability in analyzing cells at a molecular level can be particularly useful in investigating the biochemical changes induced in protein, nucleic acid, lipid, and carbohydrate content of cells by means of polyphenols administration. Spectroscopic analysis was performed on in vitro human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells that were exposed to different doses of a cherry derived polyphenol extract. The infrared spectra that were obtained from unexposed and exposed cells show significant differences that can be helpful in order to understand the cells-polyphenols interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Raman and IR Spectroscopic Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Simple Screening of Listeria monocytogenes Based on a Fluorescence Assay via a Laminated Lab-On-Paper Chip
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040056
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monitoring food safety is essential for protecting the health and safety of consumers. Conventional methods used are time consuming and laborious, requiring anywhere from three to seven days to obtain results. Thus, better monitoring methods are required. In this study, a laminated lab-on-paper
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Monitoring food safety is essential for protecting the health and safety of consumers. Conventional methods used are time consuming and laborious, requiring anywhere from three to seven days to obtain results. Thus, better monitoring methods are required. In this study, a laminated lab-on-paper chip was developed, and its use for the screening of ready-to-eat seafood was demonstrated. The assay on a chip was based on loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) of the hly gene of Listeria monocytogenes and fluorescence signal detection via SYBR GoldTM. Overall assay processes were completed in 4.5 h., (including 3.5 h. incubation for the bacteria enrichment, direct DNA amplification with no DNA extraction, and signal detection), without relying on standard laboratory facilities. Only positive samples induced fluorescence signals on chip upon illumination with UV light (λ = 460). The method has a limit of detection of 100 copies of L. monocytogenes DNA per 50 g of sample. No cross-reactivity was observed in samples contaminated with other bacteria. On-site monitoring of the seafood products using this chip revealed that one of 30 products from low sanitation vendors (3.33%) were contaminated, and these agreed with the results of PCR. The results demonstrated a benefit of this chip assay for practical on-site monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Radar-Based Smart Sensor for Unobtrusive Elderly Monitoring in Ambient Assisted Living Applications
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040055
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (15156 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuous in-home monitoring of older adults living alone aims to improve their quality of life and independence, by detecting early signs of illness and functional decline or emergency conditions. To meet requirements for technology acceptance by seniors (unobtrusiveness, non-intrusiveness, and privacy-preservation), this study
[...] Read more.
Continuous in-home monitoring of older adults living alone aims to improve their quality of life and independence, by detecting early signs of illness and functional decline or emergency conditions. To meet requirements for technology acceptance by seniors (unobtrusiveness, non-intrusiveness, and privacy-preservation), this study presents and discusses a new smart sensor system for the detection of abnormalities during daily activities, based on ultra-wideband radar providing rich, not privacy-sensitive, information useful for sensing both cardiorespiratory and body movements, regardless of ambient lighting conditions and physical obstructions (through-wall sensing). The radar sensing is a very promising technology, enabling the measurement of vital signs and body movements at a distance, and thus meeting both requirements of unobtrusiveness and accuracy. In particular, impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar has attracted considerable attention in recent years thanks to many properties that make it useful for assisted living purposes. The proposed sensing system, evaluated in meaningful assisted living scenarios by involving 30 participants, exhibited the ability to detect vital signs, to discriminate among dangerous situations and activities of daily living, and to accommodate individual physical characteristics and habits. The reported results show that vital signs can be detected also while carrying out daily activities or after a fall event (post-fall phase), with accuracy varying according to the level of movements, reaching up to 95% and 91% in detecting respiration and heart rates, respectively. Similarly, good results were achieved in fall detection by using the micro-motion signature and unsupervised learning, with sensitivity and specificity greater than 97% and 90%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Wearable Biosensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Gal-MµS Device to Evaluate Cell Migratory Response to Combined Galvano-Chemotactic Fields
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040054
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent
[...] Read more.
Electric fields have been studied extensively in biomedical engineering (BME) for numerous regenerative therapies. Recent studies have begun to examine the biological effects of electric fields in combination with other environmental cues, such as tissue-engineered extracellular matrices (ECM), chemical gradient profiles, and time-dependent temperature gradients. In the nervous system, cell migration driven by electrical fields, or galvanotaxis, has been most recently studied in transcranial direct stimulation (TCDS), spinal cord repair and tumor treating fields (TTF). The cell migratory response to galvano-combinatory fields, such as magnetic fields, chemical gradients, or heat shock, has only recently been explored. In the visual system, restoration of vision via cellular replacement therapies has been limited by low numbers of motile cells post-transplantation. Here, the combinatory application of electrical fields with other stimuli to direct cells within transplantable biomaterials and/or host tissues has been understudied. In this work, we developed the Gal-MµS device, a novel microfluidics device capable of examining cell migratory behavior in response to single and combinatory stimuli of electrical and chemical fields. The formation of steady-state, chemical concentration gradients and electrical fields within the Gal-MµS were modeled computationally and verified experimentally within devices fabricated via soft lithography. Further, we utilized real-time imaging within the device to capture cell trajectories in response to electric fields and chemical gradients, individually, as well as in combinatory fields of both. Our data demonstrated that neural cells migrated longer distances and with higher velocities in response to combined galvanic and chemical stimuli than to either field individually, implicating cooperative behavior. These results reveal a biological response to galvano-chemotactic fields that is only partially understood, as well as point towards novel migration-targeted treatments to improve cell-based regenerative therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Diagnostics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Central [CNS] and Peripheral [Gastric Tissue] Selective Monitoring of Somatostatin (SRIF) with Micro-Sensor and Voltammetry in Rats: Influence of Growth Factors (GH, EGF)
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040053
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Somatostatin (SRIF) is widely distributed throughout the body, and regulates the endocrine system via interactions with various hormones, including the pituitary growth hormone, the thyroid stimulating hormone and the majority of the hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. SRIF is present in the central
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Somatostatin (SRIF) is widely distributed throughout the body, and regulates the endocrine system via interactions with various hormones, including the pituitary growth hormone, the thyroid stimulating hormone and the majority of the hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. SRIF is present in the central nervous system (CNS), where it affects rates of neurotransmission, and is also reported to be active in the intestinal tract, with evidence that stressed rats present a significant decrease in antral somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI). Analysis of SRIF has mainly been carried out by means of radioimmunoassay methods. Here, we propose the use of an electrochemical method, such as voltammetry, applied with carbon-based sensors and, in particular, the combination of differential pulse voltammetry with treated carbon fiber micro electrodes (DPV-µCFE) to facilitate the analysis of such peptidergic electro active hormones in the rat striatum and gastric tissue; the effect of growth hormone (GH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), in particular, upon the SRIF signal has been studied in such tissues. Full article
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Open AccessReview Ramanomics: New Omics Disciplines Using Micro Raman Spectrometry with Biomolecular Component Analysis for Molecular Profiling of Biological Structures
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040052
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Modern instrumentation for Raman microspectroscopy and current techniques in analysis of spectral data provide new opportunities to study molecular interactions and dynamics at subcellular levels in biological systems. Implementation of biomolecular component analysis (BCA) to microRaman spectrometry provides basis for the emergence of
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Modern instrumentation for Raman microspectroscopy and current techniques in analysis of spectral data provide new opportunities to study molecular interactions and dynamics at subcellular levels in biological systems. Implementation of biomolecular component analysis (BCA) to microRaman spectrometry provides basis for the emergence of Ramanomics, a new biosensing discipline with unprecedented capabilities to measure concentrations of distinct biomolecular groups in live cells and organelles. Here we review the combined use of microRaman-BCA techniques to probe absolute concentrations of proteins, DNA, RNA and lipids in single organelles of live cells. Assessing biomolecular concentration profiles of organelles at the single cell level provides a physiologically relevant set of biomarkers for cellular heterogeneity. In addition, changes to an organelle’s biomolecular concentration profile during a cellular transformation, whether natural, drug induced or disease manifested, can provide molecular insight into the nature of the cellular process. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Raman and IR Spectroscopic Sensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Review on SERS of Bacteria
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040051
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5627 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used for chemical detection. Moreover, the inherent richness of the spectral data has made SERS attractive for use in detecting biological materials, including bacteria. This review discusses methods that have been used to obtain SERS
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Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been widely used for chemical detection. Moreover, the inherent richness of the spectral data has made SERS attractive for use in detecting biological materials, including bacteria. This review discusses methods that have been used to obtain SERS spectra of bacteria. The kinds of SERS substrates employed to obtain SERS spectra are discussed as well as how bacteria interact with silver and gold nanoparticles. The roll of capping agents on Ag/Au NPs in obtaining SERS spectra is examined as well as the interpretation of the spectral data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SERS-Based Sensors: Design and Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle An Electrochemical Enzyme Biosensor for 3-Hydroxybutyrate Detection Using Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified by Reduced Graphene Oxide and Thionine
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040050
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3589 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A biosensor for 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) involving immobilization of the enzyme 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase onto a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide (GO) and thionine (THI) is reported here. After addition of 3-hydroxybutyrate or the sample in the presence of NAD+ cofactor,
[...] Read more.
A biosensor for 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) involving immobilization of the enzyme 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase onto a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide (GO) and thionine (THI) is reported here. After addition of 3-hydroxybutyrate or the sample in the presence of NAD+ cofactor, the generated NADH could be detected amperometrically at 0.0 V vs. Ag pseudo reference electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a calibration plot for 3-HB was constructed showing a wide linear range between 0.010 and 0.400 mM 3-HB which covers the clinically relevant levels for diluted serum samples. In addition, a limit of detection of 1.0 µM, much lower than that reported using other biosensors, was achieved. The analytical usefulness of the developed biosensor was demonstrated via application to spiked serum samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical (Bio)sensors for Environmental and Food Analyses)
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Open AccessReview Strategies Using Bio-Layer Interferometry Biosensor Technology for Vaccine Research and Development
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040049
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 28 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bio-layer interferometry (BLI) real-time, label-free technology has greatly contributed to advances in vaccine research and development. BLI Octet platforms offer high-throughput, ease of use, reliability, and high precision analysis when compared with common labeling techniques. Many different strategies have been used to immobilize
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Bio-layer interferometry (BLI) real-time, label-free technology has greatly contributed to advances in vaccine research and development. BLI Octet platforms offer high-throughput, ease of use, reliability, and high precision analysis when compared with common labeling techniques. Many different strategies have been used to immobilize the pathogen or host molecules on BLI biosensors for real-time kinetics and affinity analysis, quantification, or high-throughput titer. These strategies can be used in multiple applications and shed light onto the structural and functional aspects molecules play during pathogen-host interactions. They also provide crucial information on how to achieve protection. This review summarizes some key BLI strategies used in human vaccine research and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-free Biosensing)
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Open AccessArticle Encapsulation-Stabilized, Europium Containing Nanoparticle as a Probe for Time-Resolved luminescence Detection of Cardiac Troponin I
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040048
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5061 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The use of a robust optical signaling probe with a high signal-to-noise ratio is important in the development of immunoassays. Lanthanide chelates are a promising material for this purpose, which provide time-resolved luminescence (TRL) due to their large Stokes shift and long luminescence
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The use of a robust optical signaling probe with a high signal-to-noise ratio is important in the development of immunoassays. Lanthanide chelates are a promising material for this purpose, which provide time-resolved luminescence (TRL) due to their large Stokes shift and long luminescence lifetime. From this, they have attracted considerable interest in the in vitro diagnostics field. However, the direct use of lanthanide chelates is limited because their luminescent signal can be easily affected by various quenchers. To overcome this drawback, strategies that rely on the entrapment of lanthanide chelates inside nanoparticles, thereby enabling the protection of the lanthanide chelate from water, have been reported. However, the poor stability of the lanthanide-entrapped nanoparticles results in a significant fluctuation in TRL signal intensity, and this still remains a challenging issue. To address this, we have developed a Lanthanide chelate-Encapsulated Silica Nano Particle (LESNP) as a new immunosensing probe. In this approach, the lanthanide chelate is covalently crosslinked within the silane monomer during the silica nanoparticle formation. The resulting LESNP is physically stable and retains TRL properties of the parent lanthanide chelate. Using the probe, a highly sensitive, sandwich-based TRL immunoassay for the cardiac troponin I was conducted, exhibiting a limit of detection of 48 pg/mL. On the basis of the features of the LESNP such as TRL signaling capability, stability, and the ease of biofunctionalization, we expect that the LESNP can be widely applied in the development of TRL-based immunosensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based Optical Biosensors)
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Open AccessArticle Electrospun Chitosan-Gelatin Biopolymer Composite Nanofibers for Horseradish Peroxidase Immobilization in a Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040047
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
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Abstract
A biosensor based on chitosan-gelatin composite biopolymers nanofibers is found to be effective for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase to detect hydrogen peroxide. The biopolymer nanofibers were fabricated by an electrospining technique. Upon optimization of synthesis parameters, biopolymers nanofibers, an average of 80
[...] Read more.
A biosensor based on chitosan-gelatin composite biopolymers nanofibers is found to be effective for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase to detect hydrogen peroxide. The biopolymer nanofibers were fabricated by an electrospining technique. Upon optimization of synthesis parameters, biopolymers nanofibers, an average of 80 nm in diameter, were obtained and were then modified on the working electrode surface. The effects of the concentration of enzyme, pH, and concentration of the buffer and the working potential on the current response of the nanofibers-modified electrode toward hydrogen peroxide were optimized to obtain the maximal current response. The results found that horseradish peroxidase immobilization on chitosan-gelatin composite biopolymer nanofibers had advantages of fast response, excellent reproducibility, high stability, and showed a linear response to hydrogen peroxide in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1.7 mM with a detection limit of 0.05 mM and exhibited high sensitivity of 44 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2. The developed system was evaluated for analysis of disinfectant samples and showed good agreement between the results obtained by the titration method without significant differences at the 0.05 significance level. The proposed strategy based on chitosan-gelatin composite biopolymer nanofibers for the immobilization of enzymes can be extended for the development of other enzyme-based biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials Based Optical Biosensors)
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Open AccessReview Development and Bioanalytical Applications of a White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy Label-Free Sensing Platform
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040046
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of a sensing platform based on white light reflectance spectroscopy (WLRS) is presented. The evolution of the system, from polymer film characterization and sensing of volatile organic compounds to biosensor for the label-free determination of either high (e.g., proteins) or low
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The development of a sensing platform based on white light reflectance spectroscopy (WLRS) is presented. The evolution of the system, from polymer film characterization and sensing of volatile organic compounds to biosensor for the label-free determination of either high (e.g., proteins) or low molecular weight analytes (e.g., pesticides), is described. At the same time, the passage from single to multi-analyte determinations, and from a laboratory prototype set-up to a compact device appropriate for on-site determination, is outlined. The improvements made on both the sensor and the optical set-up, and the concomitant advances in the analytical characteristics and the robustness of the assays performed with the different layouts, are also presented. Finally, the future perspectives of the system, aiming for the creation of a standalone instrument to be used by non-experts, will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Diagnostics)
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Open AccessArticle CFD Modeling of Chamber Filling in a Micro-Biosensor for Protein Detection
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040045
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the
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Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the main causes of human death around the globe. The mortality rate for patients infected with active TB goes beyond 50% when not diagnosed. Rapid and accurate diagnostics coupled with further prompt treatment of the disease is the cornerstone for controlling TB outbreaks. To reduce this burden, the existing gap between detection and treatment must be addressed, and dedicated diagnostic tools such as biosensors should be developed. A biosensor is a sensing micro-device that consists of a biological sensing element and a transducer part to produce signals in proportion to quantitative information about the binding event. The micro-biosensor cell considered in this investigation is designed to operate based on aptamers as recognition elements against Mycobacterium tuberculosis secreted protein MPT64, combined in a microfluidic-chamber with inlet and outlet connections. The microfluidic cell is a miniaturized platform with valuable advantages such as low cost of analysis with low reagent consumption, reduced sample volume, and shortened processing time with enhanced analytical capability. The main purpose of this study is to assess the flooding characteristics of the encapsulated microfluidic cell of an existing micro-biosensor using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques. The main challenge in the design of the microfluidic cell lies in the extraction of entrained air bubbles, which may remain after the filling process is completed, dramatically affecting the performance of the sensing element. In this work, a CFD model was developed on the platform ANSYS-CFX using the finite volume method to discretize the domain and solving the Navier–Stokes equations for both air and water in a Eulerian framework. Second-order space discretization scheme and second-order Euler Backward time discretization were used in the numerical treatment of the equations. For a given inlet–outlet diameter and dimensions of an in-house built cell chamber, different inlet liquid flow rates were explored to determine an appropriate flow condition to guarantee an effective venting of the air while filling the chamber. The numerical model depicted free surface waves as promoters of air entrainment that ultimately may explain the significant amount of air content in the chamber observed in preliminary tests after the filling process is completed. Results demonstrated that for the present design, against the intuition, the chamber must be filled with liquid at a modest flow rate to minimize free surface waviness during the flooding stage of the chamber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Point-of-Care Diagnostics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparison of Sensitivity and Quantitation between Microbead Dielectrophoresis-Based DNA Detection and Real-Time PCR
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040044
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we describe a microbead-based method using dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fast detection of DNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This electrical method measures the change in impedance caused by DEP-trapped microbeads to which biotinylated target DNA molecules are chemically
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In this study, we describe a microbead-based method using dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the fast detection of DNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This electrical method measures the change in impedance caused by DEP-trapped microbeads to which biotinylated target DNA molecules are chemically attached. Using this method, measurements can be obtained within 20 min. Currently, real-time PCR is among the most sensitive methods available for the detection of target DNA, and is often used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. We therefore compared the quantitation and sensitivity achieved by our method to those achieved with real-time PCR. We found that the microbead DEP-based method exhibited the same detection limit as real-time PCR, although its quantitative detection range was slightly narrower at 10–105 copies/reaction compared with 10–107 copies/reaction for real-time PCR. Whereas real-time PCR requires expensive and complex instruments, as well as expertise in primer design and experimental principles, our novel method is simple to use, inexpensive, and rapid. This method could potentially detect viral and other DNAs efficiently in combination with conventional PCR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Raman Computational and Experimental Studies of Dopamine Detection
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040043
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
A combined theoretical and experimental analysis of dopamine (DA) is presented in this work with the objective of achieving more accurate detection and monitoring of this neurotransmitter at very low concentrations, specific to physiological levels. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on silver nanoparticles was employed
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A combined theoretical and experimental analysis of dopamine (DA) is presented in this work with the objective of achieving more accurate detection and monitoring of this neurotransmitter at very low concentrations, specific to physiological levels. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on silver nanoparticles was employed for recording DA concentrations as low as 10−11 molar. Quantum chemical density functional calculations were carried out using Gaussian-09 analytical suite software. Relatively good agreement between the simulated and experimentally determined results indicates the presence of different DA molecular forms, such as uncharged DA±, anionic DA, and dopaminequinone. Disappearance of the strongest bands of dopamine around 750 cm−1 and 790 cm−1, which suggests its adsorption onto the metallic surface, is not only consistent with all of these DA configurations, but also provides additional information about the analyte’s redox process and voltammetric detection. On the other hand, occurrence of the abovementioned Raman lines could indicate the formation of multilayers of DA or its presence in a cationic DA+ form. Thus, through coordinated experiment and theory, valuable insights into changes observed in the vibrational signatures of this important neurotransmitter can be achieved for a better understanding of its detection at physiological levels, which is crucial if further optovoltammetric medical device development is envisioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Raman and IR Spectroscopic Sensing)
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Open AccessReview A Review on Passive and Integrated Near-Field Microwave Biosensors
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040042
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract
In this paper we review the advancement of passive and integrated microwave biosensors. The interaction of microwave with biological material is discussed in this paper. Passive microwave biosensors are microwave structures, which are fabricated on a substrate and are used for sensing biological
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In this paper we review the advancement of passive and integrated microwave biosensors. The interaction of microwave with biological material is discussed in this paper. Passive microwave biosensors are microwave structures, which are fabricated on a substrate and are used for sensing biological materials. On the other hand, integrated biosensors are microwave structures fabricated in standard semiconductor technology platform (CMOS or BiCMOS). The CMOS or BiCMOS sensor technology offers a more compact sensing approach which has the potential in the future for point of care testing systems. Various applications of the passive and the integrated sensors have been discussed in this review paper. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biosensor Technology Reveals the Disruption of the Endothelial Barrier Function and the Subsequent Death of Blood Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells to Sodium Azide and Its Gaseous Products
Biosensors 2017, 7(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios7040041
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Herein we demonstrate the sensitive nature of human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells to sodium azide and its gaseous product. Sodium azide is known to be acutely cytotoxic at low millimolar concentrations, hence its use as a biological preservative (e.g., in antibodies). Loss
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Herein we demonstrate the sensitive nature of human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells to sodium azide and its gaseous product. Sodium azide is known to be acutely cytotoxic at low millimolar concentrations, hence its use as a biological preservative (e.g., in antibodies). Loss of barrier integrity was noticed in experiments using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) biosensor technology, to measure endothelial barrier integrity continuously in real-time. Initially the effect of sodium azide was observed as an artefact where it was present in antibodies being employed in neutralisation experiments. This was confirmed where antibody clones that were azide-free did not mediate loss of barrier function. A delayed loss of barrier function in neighbouring wells implied the influence of a liberated gaseous product. ECIS technology demonstrated that the BBB endothelial cells had a lower level of direct sensitivity to sodium azide of ~3 µM. Evidence of gaseous toxicity was consistently observed at 30 µM and above, with disrupted barrier function and cell death in neighbouring wells. We highlight the ability of this cellular biosensor technology to reveal both the direct and gaseous toxicity mediated by sodium azide. The sensitivity and temporal dimension of ECIS technology was instrumental in these observations. These findings have substantial implications for the wide use of sodium azide in biological reagents, raising issues of their application in live-cell assays and with regard to the protection of the user. This research also has wider relevance highlighting the sensitivity of brain endothelial cells to a known mitochondrial disruptor. It is logical to hypothesise that BBB endothelial dysfunction due to mitochondrial dys-regulation could have an important but underappreciated role in a range of neurological diseases. Full article
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