Next Issue
Volume 6, June
Previous Issue
Volume 6, December

Table of Contents

Biosensors, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2016) – 10 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Sensing of Salivary Glucose Using Nano-Structured Biosensors
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010010 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5264
Abstract
The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to [...] Read more.
The anxiety and pain associated with frequent finger pricking has always been troublesome for diabetics measuring blood glucose (BG) in their daily lives. For this reason, a reliable glucose monitoring system that allows noninvasive measurements is highly desirable. Our main objective is to develop a biosensor that can detect low-level glucose in saliva (physiological range 0.5–20 mg/dL). Salivary glucose (SG) sensors were built using a layer-by-layer self-assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan, gold nanoparticles, and glucose oxidase onto a screen-printed platinum electrode. An electrochemical method was utilized for the quantitative detection of glucose in both buffer solution and saliva samples. A standard spectrophotometric technique was used as a reference method to validate the glucose content of each sample. The disposable glucose sensors have a detection limit of 0.41 mg/dL, a sensitivity of 0.24 μA·s·dL·mg−1, a linear range of 0.5–20 mg/dL in buffer solution, and a response time of 30 s. A study of 10 healthy subjects was conducted, and SG levels between 1.1 to 10.1 mg/dL were successfully detected. The results revealed that the noninvasive SG monitoring could be an alternative for diabetes self-management at home. This paper is not intended to replace regular BG tests, but to study SG itself as an indicator for the quality of diabetes care. It can potentially help patients control and monitor their health conditions, enabling them to comply with prescribed treatments for diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Lab-on-Chip Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multi-Wire Tri-Gate Silicon Nanowires Reaching Milli-pH Unit Resolution in One Micron Square Footprint
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010009 - 15 Mar 2016
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3413
Abstract
The signal-to-noise ratio of planar ISFET pH sensors deteriorates when reducing the area occupied by the device, thus hampering the scalability of on-chip analytical systems which detect the DNA polymerase through pH measurements. Top-down nano-sized tri-gate transistors, such as silicon nanowires, are designed [...] Read more.
The signal-to-noise ratio of planar ISFET pH sensors deteriorates when reducing the area occupied by the device, thus hampering the scalability of on-chip analytical systems which detect the DNA polymerase through pH measurements. Top-down nano-sized tri-gate transistors, such as silicon nanowires, are designed for high performance solid-state circuits thanks to their superior properties of voltage-to-current transduction, which can be advantageously exploited for pH sensing. A systematic study is carried out on rectangular-shaped nanowires developed in a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible technology, showing that reducing the width of the devices below a few hundreds of nanometers leads to higher charge sensitivity. Moreover, devices composed of several wires in parallel further increase the exposed surface per unit footprint area, thus maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. This technology allows a sub milli-pH unit resolution with a sensor footprint of about 1 µm2, exceeding the performance of previously reported studies on silicon nanowires by two orders of magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Field-Effect Transistor Biosensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010008 - 14 Mar 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3593
Abstract
Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, [...] Read more.
Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro- and Nano-Bio-Interfaces)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Comparison of Electrochemical Immunosensors and Aptasensors for Detection of Small Organic Molecules in Environment, Food Safety, Clinical and Public Security
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010007 - 29 Feb 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4187
Abstract
We review here the most frequently reported targets among the electrochemical immunosensors and aptasensors: antibiotics, bisphenol A, cocaine, ochratoxin A and estradiol. In each case, the immobilization procedures are described as well as the transduction schemes and the limits of detection. It is [...] Read more.
We review here the most frequently reported targets among the electrochemical immunosensors and aptasensors: antibiotics, bisphenol A, cocaine, ochratoxin A and estradiol. In each case, the immobilization procedures are described as well as the transduction schemes and the limits of detection. It is shown that limits of detections are generally two to three orders of magnitude lower for immunosensors than for aptasensors, due to the highest affinities of antibodies. No significant progresses have been made to improve these affinities, but transduction schemes were improved instead, which lead to a regular improvement of the limit of detections corresponding to ca. five orders of magnitude over these last 10 years. These progresses depend on the target, however. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Affinity Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Protein-Flavonoid Interaction Studies by a Taylor Dispersion Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Technique: A Novel Method to Assess Biomolecular Interactions
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010006 - 25 Feb 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3478
Abstract
Flavonoids are common polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. These pigments have important pharmacological relevance because emerging research suggests possible anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties as well other beneficial health effects. These compounds are relatively hydrophobic molecules, suggesting the role of blood [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are common polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. These pigments have important pharmacological relevance because emerging research suggests possible anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties as well other beneficial health effects. These compounds are relatively hydrophobic molecules, suggesting the role of blood transport proteins in their delivery to tissues. In this study, we assess the binding interactions of four flavonoids (kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, and resveratrol) with human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in the blood, and with glutathione S-transferase pi isoform-1 (GSTP1), an enzyme with well-characterized hydrophobic binding sites that plays an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics with reduced glutathione, using a novel Taylor dispersion surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. For the first time, HSA sites revealed a high-affinity binding site for flavonoid interactions. Out of the four flavonoids that we examined, quercetin and kaempferol showed the strongest equilibrium binding affinities (KD) of 63 ± 0.03 nM and 37 ± 0.07 nM, respectively. GSTP1 displayed lower affinities in the micromolar range towards all of the flavonoids tested. The interactions of flavonoids with HSA and GSTP1 were studied successfully using this novel SPR assay method. The new method is compatible with both kinetic and equilibrium analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Affinity Sensors)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Developing Biosensors in Developing Countries: South Africa as a Case Study
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010005 - 02 Feb 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4161
Abstract
A mini-review of the reported biosensor research occurring in South Africa evidences a strong emphasis on electrochemical sensor research, guided by the opportunities this transduction platform holds for low-cost and robust sensing of numerous targets. Many of the reported publications centre on fundamental [...] Read more.
A mini-review of the reported biosensor research occurring in South Africa evidences a strong emphasis on electrochemical sensor research, guided by the opportunities this transduction platform holds for low-cost and robust sensing of numerous targets. Many of the reported publications centre on fundamental research into the signal transduction method, using model biorecognition elements, in line with international trends. Other research in this field is spread across several areas including: the application of nanotechnology; the identification and validation of biomarkers; development and testing of biorecognition agents (antibodies and aptamers) and design of electro-catalysts, most notably metallophthalocyanine. Biosensor targets commonly featured were pesticides and metals. Areas of regional import to sub-Saharan Africa, such as HIV/AIDs and tuberculosis diagnosis, are also apparent in a review of the available literature. Irrespective of the targets, the challenge to the effective deployment of such sensors remains shaped by social and economic realities such that the requirements thereof are for low-cost and universally easy to operate devices for field settings. While it is difficult to disentangle the intertwined roles of national policy, grant funding availability and, certainly, of global trends in shaping areas of emphasis in research, most notable is the strong role that nanotechnology, and to a certain extent biotechnology, plays in research regarding biosensor construction. Stronger emphasis on collaboration between scientists in theoretical modelling, nanomaterials application and or relevant stakeholders in the specific field (e.g., food or health monitoring) and researchers in biosensor design may help evolve focused research efforts towards development and deployment of low-cost biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Cost Biosensors for Developing Countries)
Open AccessArticle
Variation in Gas and Volatile Compound Emissions from Human Urine as It Ages, Measured by an Electronic Nose
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010004 - 25 Jan 2016
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One [...] Read more.
The medical profession is becoming ever more interested in the use of gas-phase biomarkers for disease identification and monitoring. This is due in part to its rapid analysis time and low test cost, which makes it attractive for many different clinical arenas. One technology that is showing promise for analyzing these gas-phase biomarkers is the electronic nose—an instrument designed to replicate the biological olfactory system. Of the possible biological media available to “sniff”, urine is becoming ever more important as it is easy to collect and to store for batch testing. However, this raises the question of sample storage shelf-life, even at −80 °C. Here we investigated the effect of storage time (years) on stability and reproducibility of total gas/vapour emissions from urine samples. Urine samples from 87 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus were collected over a four-year period and stored at −80 °C. These samples were then analyzed using FAIMS (field-asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry—a type of electronic nose). It was discovered that gas emissions (concentration and diversity) reduced over time. However, there was less variation in the initial nine months of storage with greater uniformity and stability of concentrations together with tighter clustering of the total number of chemicals released. This suggests that nine months could be considered a general guide to a sample shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors in Environmental Studies)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Biosensors in 2015
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010003 - 22 Jan 2016
Viewed by 2272
Abstract
The editors of Biosensors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cancer-Cells on Chip for Label-Free Detection of Secreted Molecules
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010002 - 15 Jan 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3792
Abstract
In the present report, we are making the proof of concept of cell small populations (from 1 to 100 cells) spotting, culture and secretion detection on a gold surface. In order to keep the cells in a hydrated environment during the robotized micropipetting [...] Read more.
In the present report, we are making the proof of concept of cell small populations (from 1 to 100 cells) spotting, culture and secretion detection on a gold surface. In order to keep the cells in a hydrated environment during the robotized micropipetting and to address different cell lines on a single chip, a biocompatible alginate polymer was used. This approach enables the encapsulation of the cell in a very small volume (30 nL), directly on the substrate and permits a precise control of the number of cells in each alginate bead. After 24 h of culture, the adherent cells are ready for surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) experimentation. To enable the detection of secreted proteins, various antibodies are immobilized in an organized manner on a SPRi sensor and permitted the multiplex detection of different proteins secreted by the different cultured cell lines. Evidence of the real-time detection will be presented for Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) secreted by prostate cancer cells following induction by dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Different kinetics for the two secreted proteins were then demonstrated and precisely determined using the chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Organ on Chip: Challenges and Advances)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometer Based Biosensors for Aflatoxin M1 Detection
Biosensors 2016, 6(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios6010001 - 06 Jan 2016
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 3853
Abstract
In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab′). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 104 rad/RIU, leading to a Limit [...] Read more.
In this work, we present a study of Aflatoxin M1 detection by photonic biosensors based on Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometer (aMZI) functionalized with antibodies fragments (Fab′). We measured a best volumetric sensitivity of 104 rad/RIU, leading to a Limit of Detection below 5 × 10−7 RIU. On sensors functionalized with Fab′, we performed specific and non-specific sensing measurements at various toxin concentrations. Reproducibility of the measurements and re-usability of the sensor were also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop