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Nanomaterials, Volume 8, Issue 10 (October 2018)

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Open AccessArticle From Hollow to Solid Carbon Spheres: Time-Dependent Facile Synthesis
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100861 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Here, we report a facile route for obtaining carbon spheres with fully tunable shell thickness. Using a hard template in chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hollow carbon spheres, solid carbon spheres, and intermediate structures can be obtained with optimized process time. The resulting carbon
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Here, we report a facile route for obtaining carbon spheres with fully tunable shell thickness. Using a hard template in chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hollow carbon spheres, solid carbon spheres, and intermediate structures can be obtained with optimized process time. The resulting carbon spheres with particle diameters of ~400 nm, as well as a controllable shell thickness from 0 to 70 nm, had high Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area (up to 344.8 m2·g−1) and pore volume (up to 0.248 cm3·g−1). The sphere formation mechanism is also proposed. This simple and reproducible technique can deliver carbon materials for various applications, e.g., energy storage and conversion, adsorption, catalytic, biomedical, and environmental applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial and Bioactive Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants by PCL/TiO2 Nanocomposite Coatings
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100860 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Surface modification of biomedical implants is an established strategy to improve tissue regeneration, osseointegration and also to minimize the bacterial accumulation. In the present study, electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/titania (PCL/TiO2) nanocomposite coatings were developed on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates for an improved
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Surface modification of biomedical implants is an established strategy to improve tissue regeneration, osseointegration and also to minimize the bacterial accumulation. In the present study, electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/titania (PCL/TiO2) nanocomposite coatings were developed on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates for an improved biological and antibacterial properties for bone tissue engineering. TiO2 nanoparticles in various amounts (2, 5, and 7 wt %) were incorporated into a biodegradable PCL matrix to form a homogeneous solution. Further, PCL/TiO2 coatings on cpTi were obtained by electrospinning of PCL/TiO2 solution onto the substrate. The resulted coatings were structurally characterized and inspected by employing scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Given the potential biological applications of PCL/TiO2 coated cpTi substrates, the apatite-forming capacity was examined by immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) for upto 21 days. Biocompatibility has been evaluated through adhesion/proliferation of hFOB osteoblast cell lines and cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity of PCL/TiO2 nanocomposites has been tested using UV light against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus). The resulting surface displays good bioactive properties against osteoblast cell lines with increased viability of 40% at day 3 and superior antibacterial property against S.aureus with a significant reduction of bacteria to almost 76%. Surface modification by PCL/TiO2 nanocomposites makes a viable approach for improving dual properties, i.e., biological and antibacterial properties on titanium implants which might be used to prevent implant-associated infections and promoting cell attachment of orthopedic devices at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasonic Irradiation Coupled with Microwave Treatment for Eco-friendly Process of Isolating Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100859 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
The isolation of crystalline regions from fibers cellulose via the hydrolysis route generally requires corrosive chemicals, high-energy demands, and long reaction times, resulting in high economic costs and environmental impact. From this basis, this work seeks to develop environment-friendly processes for the production
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The isolation of crystalline regions from fibers cellulose via the hydrolysis route generally requires corrosive chemicals, high-energy demands, and long reaction times, resulting in high economic costs and environmental impact. From this basis, this work seeks to develop environment-friendly processes for the production of Bacterial Cellulose Nanocrystals (BC-NC). To overcome the aforementioned issues, this study proposes a fast, highly-efficient and eco-friendly method for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from Bacterial Cellulose, BC. A two-step processes is considered: (1) partial depolymerization of Bacterial Cellulose (DP-BC) under ultrasonic conditions; (2) extraction of crystalline regions (BC-NC) by treatment with diluted HCl catalyzed by metal chlorides (MnCl2 and FeCl3.6H2O) under microwave irradiation. The effect of ultrasonic time and reactant and catalyst concentrations on the index crystallinity (CrI), chemical structure, thermal properties, and surface morphology of DP-BC and BC-NC were evaluated. The results indicated that the ultrasonic treatment induced depolymerization of BC characterized by an increase of the CrI. The microwave assisted by MnCl2-catalyzed mild acid hydrolysis enhanced the removal of the amorphous regions, yielding BC-NC. A chemical structure analysis demonstrated that the chemical structures of DP-BC and BC-NC remained unchanged after the ultrasonic treatment and MnCl2-catalyzed acid hydrolysis process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Dispersion of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Stabilized by Humic Acid in Sustainable Cement Composites
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100858 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are promising nanoreinforcing materials for cement-based composites due to their superior material properties. Dispersion of MWCNTs is key for achieving the most effective way of enhancing efficiency, which is challenging in an alkaline cementitious environment. In this study, humic
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Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are promising nanoreinforcing materials for cement-based composites due to their superior material properties. Dispersion of MWCNTs is key for achieving the most effective way of enhancing efficiency, which is challenging in an alkaline cementitious environment. In this study, humic acid (HA) was used to stabilize the degree of dispersion of MWCNTs in an alkaline environment. The efficiency of HA in stabilizing MWCNT dispersion in cement composites was characterized using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The influences of HA on the workability and mechanical properties of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) reinforced with MWCNTs were evaluated, and the results revealed that the addition of HA can improve the stability of MWCNT dispersion in an alkaline environment. A concentration of 0.12 wt.% HA/S added to MWCNT suspensions was found to perform the best for improving the dispersion of MWCNTs. The addition of HA results in a decreased workability of the OPC pastes but has little influence on the strength performance. HA can affect the mechanical properties of OPC reinforced with MWCNTs by influencing the dispersion degree of the MWCNTs. An optimum range of HA (0.05–0.10 wt.%) is required to achieve the optimum reinforcing efficiency of MWCNTs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antagonistic Effect of Azoxystrobin Poly (Lactic Acid) Microspheres with Controllable Particle Size on Colletotrichum higginsianum Sacc
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100857 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Size-controlled azoxystrobin-poly (lactic acid) microspheres (MS) were prepared by an oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation approach. The hydrated mean particle sizes of the MS1, MS2, and MS3 aqueous dispersions were 130.9 nm, 353.4 nm, and 3078.0 nm, respectively. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency
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Size-controlled azoxystrobin-poly (lactic acid) microspheres (MS) were prepared by an oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation approach. The hydrated mean particle sizes of the MS1, MS2, and MS3 aqueous dispersions were 130.9 nm, 353.4 nm, and 3078.0 nm, respectively. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of the azoxystrobin microspheres had a positive relationship with particle size. However, the release rate and percentage of cumulative release were inversely related to particle size. The smaller-sized microspheres had a greater potential to access the target mitochondria. As a result, the more severe oxidative damage of Colletotrichum higginsianum Sacc and higher antagonistic activity were induced by the smaller particle size of azoxystrobin microspheres. The 50% lethal concentrations against Colletotrichum higginsianum Sacc of MS1, MS2, and MS3 were 2.0386 μg/mL, 12.7246 μg/mL, and 21.2905 μg/mL, respectively. These findings reveal that particle size is a critical factor in increasing the bioavailability of insoluble fungicide. Full article
Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics Simulation on B3-GaN Thin Films under Nanoindentation
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 856; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100856
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
The B3-GaN thin film was investigated by performing large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of nanoindentation. Its plastic behavior and the corresponding mechanism were studied. Based on the analysis on indentation curve, dislocation density, and orientation dependence, it was found that the indentation depths
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The B3-GaN thin film was investigated by performing large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of nanoindentation. Its plastic behavior and the corresponding mechanism were studied. Based on the analysis on indentation curve, dislocation density, and orientation dependence, it was found that the indentation depths of inceptive plasticity on (001), (110), and (111) planes were consistent with the Schmid law. The microstructure evolutions during the nanoindentation under different conditions were focused, and two formation mechanisms of prismatic loop were proposed. The “lasso”-like mechanism was similar to that in the previous research, where a shear loop can translate into a prismatic loop by cross-slip; and the extended “lasso”-like mechanism was not found to be reported. Our simulation showed that the two screw components of a shear loop will glide on another loop until they encounter each other and eventually produce a prismatic dislocation loop. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Synthesis of Hydrophobic Magnetite Nanoparticles Coated with Plant Extract and Their Application as Petroleum Oil Spill Collectors
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100855
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
In this study, an easy, rapid and eco-friendly method was used successfully to synthesize the magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs). In order to fine-tune the synthesized MNPs for the collection of heavy crude oil spills, the particles’ surface was modified with green hydrophobic biocomponents that
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In this study, an easy, rapid and eco-friendly method was used successfully to synthesize the magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs). In order to fine-tune the synthesized MNPs for the collection of heavy crude oil spills, the particles’ surface was modified with green hydrophobic biocomponents that were extracted from Anthemis pseudocotula (AP). The surface modified reaction carried with that of the MNPs in the presence of n-hexane extract (APH) resulted in the formation of APH-MNPs, while in the presence of chloroform extract (APC), resulted in APC-MNPs formation. The as-formed MNPs were thoroughly characterized using transmittance electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and thermogravimetric analysis. The efficiency of the surface-modified MNPs for the collection of oil spills in the presence of an external magnetic field was evaluated by taking different ratios of MNPs:crude oil. From the analysis of the results, we found that the APH-MNPs particles have higher efficiency in the collection of heavy crude oil than the corresponding APC-MNPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dopamine Assisted One-Step Pyrolysis of Glucose for the Preparation of Porous Carbon with A High Surface Area
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100854
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Herein, a facile dopamine assisted one-pot synthesis approach is proposed for the preparation of porous carbon with a specific surface area (SSA) up to 2593 m2/g through the direct pyrolysis of a mixture of glucose, NH4Cl, and dopamine hydrochloride
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Herein, a facile dopamine assisted one-pot synthesis approach is proposed for the preparation of porous carbon with a specific surface area (SSA) up to 2593 m2/g through the direct pyrolysis of a mixture of glucose, NH4Cl, and dopamine hydrochloride (DAH). The glucose is adopted as the carbon source and foaming agent, NH4Cl is used as the blowing agent, and DAH is served as collaborative carbon precursor as well as the nitrogen source for the first time. The effect of dopamine on the component, structure, and SSA of the as-prepared porous carbon materials are systematically studied. The moderate addition of dopamine, which influences the condensation and polymerization of glucose, matches better with ammonium salt decomposition. The SSA of porous carbon increases first and then decreases with the increasing amount of dopamine. In our case, the porous carbon produced with 5 wt% dopamine (PC-5) achieves the maximum SSA of up to 2593 m2/g. Accordingly, it also shows the greatest electrochemical performance. The PC-5 shows a capacitance of 96.7 F/g calculated from the discharge curve at 1 A/g. It also has a good capacitive rate capacity, the specific capacitance can still maintain 80%, even at a high current density of 10 A/g. Moreover, PC-5 exhibits a good cycling stability of 98.1% capacitive retention after 1000 cycles. The proposed method may show promising prospects for preparing porous carbon materials as advanced energy storage materials, storage, and catalyst supports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Porous Carbon based 3D Architectures)
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Open AccessArticle Stereoselective Double Reduction of 3-Methyl-2-cyclohexenone, by Use of Palladium and Platinum Nanoparticles, in Tandem with Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100853
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
The combination of metal nanoparticles (Pd or Pt NPs) with NAD-dependent thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (TADH) resulted in the one-flask catalytic double reduction of 3-methyl-2-cyclohexenone to 3-(1S,3S)-methylcyclohexanol. In this article, some assumptions about the interactions between a chemocatalyst and a biocatalyst have been proposed.
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The combination of metal nanoparticles (Pd or Pt NPs) with NAD-dependent thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (TADH) resulted in the one-flask catalytic double reduction of 3-methyl-2-cyclohexenone to 3-(1S,3S)-methylcyclohexanol. In this article, some assumptions about the interactions between a chemocatalyst and a biocatalyst have been proposed. It was demonstrated that the size of the NPs was the critical parameter for the mutual inhibition: the bigger the NPs, the more harmful for the enzyme they were, even if the NPs themselves were only moderately inactivated. Conversely, the smaller the NPs, the more minimal the TADH denaturation, although they were dramatically inhibited. Resuming, the chemocatalysts were very sensitive to deactivation, which was not related to the amount of enzyme used, while the inhibition of the biocatalyst can be strongly reduced by minimizing the NPs/TADH ratio used to catalyze the reaction. Among some methods to avoid direct binding of NPs with TADH, we found that using large Pd NPs and protecting their surfaces with a silica shell, the overall yield of 3-(1S,3S)-methylcyclohexanol was maximized (36%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Biocatalyst)
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Open AccessArticle Designed Functional Dispersion for Insulin Protection from Pepsin Degradation and Skeletal Muscle Cell Proliferation: In Silico and In Vitro Study
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100852
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes with polyethylene glycol (PEGylated SWCNTs) are a promising nanomaterial that recently has emerged as the most attractive “cargo” to deliver chemicals, peptides, DNA and RNAs into cells. Insulin therapy is a recommended therapy to treat diabetes mellitus despite its
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Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes with polyethylene glycol (PEGylated SWCNTs) are a promising nanomaterial that recently has emerged as the most attractive “cargo” to deliver chemicals, peptides, DNA and RNAs into cells. Insulin therapy is a recommended therapy to treat diabetes mellitus despite its side effects. Recently, functional dispersion made up of bioactive peptides, bioactive compounds and functionalized carbon nanomaterials such as PEGylated SWCNTs have proved to possess promising applications in nanomedicine. In the present study, molecular modeling simulations are utilized to assist in designing insulin hormone-PEGylated SWCNT composites, also called functional dispersion; to achieve this experimentally, an ultrasonication tool was utilized. Enzymatic degradation assay revealed that the designed functional dispersion protects about 70% of free insulin from pepsin. In addition, sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, the quantification of insulin and glucose levels in differentiated skeletal muscle cell supernatants, reveals that functional dispersion regulates glucose and insulin levels to promote skeletal muscle cell proliferation. These findings offer new perspectives for designed functional dispersion, as potential pharmaceutical preparations to improve insulin therapy and promote skeletal muscle cell health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macromolecules and Nanomaterials: Their Impact on Nanomedicine)
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Open AccessReview Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Gas Sensing Applications: The Role of Theoretical Calculations
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100851
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have attracted a large amount of attention regarding gas sensing applications, because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and unique chemical or physical gas adsorption capabilities. As an important research method, theoretical calculations have been massively applied in predicting the potentially
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Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have attracted a large amount of attention regarding gas sensing applications, because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and unique chemical or physical gas adsorption capabilities. As an important research method, theoretical calculations have been massively applied in predicting the potentially excellent gas sensing properties of these 2D nanomaterials. In this review, we discuss the contributions of theoretical calculations in the study of the gas sensing properties of 2D nanomaterials. Firstly, we elaborate on the gas sensing mechanisms of 2D layered nanomaterials, such as the traditional charge transfer mechanism, and a standard for distinguishing between physical and chemical adsorption, from the perspective of theoretical calculations. Then, we describe how to conduct a theoretical analysis to explain or predict the gas sensing properties of 2D nanomaterials. Thirdly, we discuss three important methods that have been applied in order to improve the gas sensing properties, that is, defect functionalization (vacancy, edge, grain boundary, and doping), heterojunctions, and electric fields. Among these strategies, theoretical calculations play a very important role in explaining the mechanisms underlying the enhanced gas sensing properties. Finally, we summarize both the advantages and limitations of the theoretical calculations, and present perspectives for further research on the 2D nanomaterials-based gas sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Semiconductor Nanomaterials for Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Magnetic Nanoparticles Create Hot Spots in Polymer Matrix for Controlled Drug Release
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 850; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100850
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Herein, original magnetic drug delivery nanomaterials for cancer therapy are developed and compared, with the purpose to show active control over drug release by using an alternative magnetic field (AMF). The rationale is to combine polymers and superparamagnetic nanoparticles to trigger such drug
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Herein, original magnetic drug delivery nanomaterials for cancer therapy are developed and compared, with the purpose to show active control over drug release by using an alternative magnetic field (AMF). The rationale is to combine polymers and superparamagnetic nanoparticles to trigger such drug release under AMF. Two magnetic nanosystems are thus presented: magnetic nanogels made of thermosensitive and biocompatible polymers and core-shell nanoparticles with a magnetic core and a molecularly imprinted polymer as shell. Both encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and the DOX controlled release was investigated in vitro and in cells under AMF excitation. It confirms that the local heat profile at the vicinity of the iron oxide core can be used for the DOX controlled release. It also shows that both nanosystems help delivering more DOX inside the cells compared to internalization of free DOX. Finally, the DOX intracellular release could be remotely triggered under AMF, in athermal conditions, thus enhancing DOX cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biological Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Boron Nitride as a Novel Support for Highly Stable Palladium Nanocatalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 849; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100849
Received: 24 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The ability to prepare controllable nanocatalysts is of great interest for many chemical industries. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vapor phase technique enabling the synthesis of conformal thin films and nanoparticles (NPs) on high surface area supports and has become an attractive
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The ability to prepare controllable nanocatalysts is of great interest for many chemical industries. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a vapor phase technique enabling the synthesis of conformal thin films and nanoparticles (NPs) on high surface area supports and has become an attractive new route to tailor supported metallic NPs. Virtually all the studies reported, focused on Pd NPs deposited on carbon and oxide surfaces. It is, however, important to focus on emerging catalyst supports such as boron nitride materials, which apart from possessing high thermal and chemical stability, also hold great promises for nanocatalysis applications. Herein, the synthesis of Pd NPs on boron nitride (BN) film substrates is demonstrated entirely by ALD for the first time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that stoichiometric BN formed as the main phase, with a small amount of BNxOy, and that the Pd particles synthesized were metallic. Using extensive transmission electron microscopy analysis, we study the evolution of the highly dispersed NPs as a function of the number of ALD cycles, and the thermal stability of the ALD-prepared Pd/BN catalysts up to 750 °C. The growth and coalescence mechanisms observed are discussed and compared with Pd NPs grown on other surfaces. The results show that the nanostructures of the BN/Pd NPs were relatively stable up to 500 °C. Consequent merging has been observed when annealing the samples at 750 °C, as the NPs’ average diameter increased from 8.3 ± 1.2 nm to 31 ± 4 nm. The results presented open up exciting new opportunities in the field of catalysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Rebuilding the Strain Hardening at a Large Strain in Twinned Au Nanowires
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100848
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 14 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
Metallic nanowires usually exhibit ultrahigh strength but low tensile ductility, owing to their limited strain hardening capability. Here, our larger scale molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that we could rebuild the highly desirable strain hardening behavior at a large strain (0.21 to 0.31) in
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Metallic nanowires usually exhibit ultrahigh strength but low tensile ductility, owing to their limited strain hardening capability. Here, our larger scale molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that we could rebuild the highly desirable strain hardening behavior at a large strain (0.21 to 0.31) in twinned Au nanowires by changing twin orientation, which strongly contrasts with the strain hardening at the incipient plastic deformation in low stacking-fault energy metals nanowires. Because of this strain hardening, an improved ductility is achieved. With the change of twin orientation, a competing effect between partial dislocation propagation and twin migration is observed in nanowires with slant twin boundaries. When twin migration gains the upper hand, the strain hardening occurs. Otherwise, the strain softening occurs. As the twin orientation increases from 0° to 90°, the dominating deformation mechanism shifts from slip-twin boundary interaction to dislocation slip, twin migration, and slip transmission in sequence. Our work could not only deepen our understanding of the mechanical behavior and deformation mechanism of twinned Au nanowires, but also provide new insights into enhancing the strength and ductility of nanowires by engineering the nanoscale twins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Temoporfin-in-Cyclodextrin-in-Liposome—A New Approach for Anticancer Drug Delivery: The Optimization of Composition
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100847
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Abstract
The main goal of this study was to use hybrid delivery system for effective transportation of temoporfin (meta-tetrakis(3-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin, mTHPC) to target tissue. We suggested to couple two independent delivery systems (liposomes and inclusion complexes) to achieve drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposome (DCL) nanoconstructs. We further
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The main goal of this study was to use hybrid delivery system for effective transportation of temoporfin (meta-tetrakis(3-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin, mTHPC) to target tissue. We suggested to couple two independent delivery systems (liposomes and inclusion complexes) to achieve drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposome (DCL) nanoconstructs. We further optimized the composition of DCLs, aiming to alter in a more favorable way a distribution of temoporfin in tumor tissue. We have prepared DCLs with different compositions varying the concentration of mTHPC and the type of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives (Hydroxypropyl-, Methyl- and Trimethyl-β-CD). DCLs were prepared by thin-hydration technique and mTHPC/β-CD complexes were added at hydration step. The size was about 135 nm with the surface charge of (−38 mV). We have demonstrated that DCLs are stable and almost all mTHPC is bound to β-CDs in the inner aqueous liposome core. Among all tested DCLs, trimethyl-β-CD-based DCL demonstrated a homogenous accumulation of mTHPC across tumor spheroid volume, thus supposing optimal mTHPC distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Photothermal/Photodynamic Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical Characterization of FRET-Labelled Chitosan Nanocapsules and Model Degradation Studies
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100846
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Sub-micron o/w emulsions coated with chitosan have been used for drug delivery, quorum sensing inhibition, and vaccine development. To study interactions with biological systems, nanocapsules have been fluorescently labelled in previous works, but it is often difficult to distinguish the released label from
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Sub-micron o/w emulsions coated with chitosan have been used for drug delivery, quorum sensing inhibition, and vaccine development. To study interactions with biological systems, nanocapsules have been fluorescently labelled in previous works, but it is often difficult to distinguish the released label from intact nanocapsules. In this study, we present advanced-labelling strategies based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) measurements for chitosan-coated nanocapsules and investigate their dissolution and degradation. We used FRET measurements of nanocapsules loaded with equimolar concentrations of two fluorescent dyes in their oily core and correlated them with dynamic light scattering (DLS) count rate measurement and absorbance measurements during their disintegration by dissolution. Using count rate measurements, we also investigated the enzymatic degradation of nanocapsules using pancreatin and how protein corona formation influences their degradation. Of note, nanocapsules dissolved in ethanol, while FRET decreased simultaneously with count rate, and absorbance was caused by nanocapsule turbidity, indicating increased distance between dye molecules after their release. Nanocapsules were degradable by pancreatin in a dose-dependent manner, and showed a delayed enzymatic degradation after protein corona formation. We present here novel labelling strategies for nanocapsules that allow us to judge their status and an in vitro method to study nanocapsule degradation and the influence of surface characteristics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Eight-Channel C-Band Demux Based on Multicore Photonic Crystal Fiber
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100845
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
A novel eight-channel demux device based on multicore photonic crystal fiber (PCF) structures that operate in the C-band range (1530–1565 nm) has been demonstrated. The PCF demux design is based on replacing some air-hole areas with lithium niobate and silicon nitride materials over
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A novel eight-channel demux device based on multicore photonic crystal fiber (PCF) structures that operate in the C-band range (1530–1565 nm) has been demonstrated. The PCF demux design is based on replacing some air-hole areas with lithium niobate and silicon nitride materials over the PCF axis alongside with the appropriate optimizations of the PCF structure. The beam propagation method (BPM) combined with Matlab codes was used to model the demux device and optimize the geometrical parameters of the PCF structure. The simulation results showed that the eight-channel demux can be demultiplexing after light propagation of 5 cm with a large bandwidth (4.03–4.69 nm) and cross-talk (−16.88 to −15.93 dB). Thus, the proposed device has great potential to be integrated into dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technology for increasing performances in networking systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Modification of Nanostructured Thin Films)
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Open AccessCommunication Green Preparation of High Yield Fluorescent Graphene Quantum Dots from Coal-Tar-Pitch by Mild Oxidation
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100844
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Coal tar pitch (CTP), a by-product of coking industry, has a unique molecule structure comprising an aromatic nucleus and several side chains bonding on this graphene-like nucleus, which is very similar to the structure of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Based on this perception,
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Coal tar pitch (CTP), a by-product of coking industry, has a unique molecule structure comprising an aromatic nucleus and several side chains bonding on this graphene-like nucleus, which is very similar to the structure of graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Based on this perception, we develop a facile approach to convert CTP to GQDs only by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide under mild conditions. One to three graphene layers, monodisperse GQDs with a narrow size distribution of 1.7 ± 0.4 nm, are obtained at high yield (more than 80 wt. %) from CTP. The as-produced GQDs are highly soluble and strongly fluorescent in aqueous solution. This simple strategy provides a feasible route towards the commercial synthesis of GQDs for its cheap material source, green reagent, mild condition, and high yield. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Direct Exfoliation of Natural SiO2-Containing Molybdenite in Isopropanol: A Cost Efficient Solution for Large-Scale Production of MoS2 Nanosheetes
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100843
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
The cost-effective exfoliation of layered materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides into mono- or few- layers is of significant interest for various applications. This paper reports the preparation of few-layered MoS2 from natural SiO2-containing molybdenite by exfoliation in isopropanol (IPA)
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The cost-effective exfoliation of layered materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides into mono- or few- layers is of significant interest for various applications. This paper reports the preparation of few-layered MoS2 from natural SiO2-containing molybdenite by exfoliation in isopropanol (IPA) under mild ultrasonic conditions. One- to six-layer MoS2 nanosheets with dimensions in the range of 50-200 nm are obtained. By contrast, MoS2 quantum dots along with nanosheets are produced using N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) and an aqueous solution of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (propylene glycol)-block-poly (ethylene glycol) (P123) as exfoliation solutions. Compared with molybdenite, commercial bulk MoS2 cannot be exfoliated to nanosheets under the same experimental conditions. In the exfoliation process of the mineral, SiO2 associated in molybdenite plays the role of similar superfine ball milling, which significantly enhances the exfoliation efficiency. This work demonstrates that isopropanol can be used to exfoliate natural molybdenite under mild conditions to produce nanosheets, which facilitates the preparation of highly concentrated MoS2 dispersions or MoS2 in powder form due to the volatility of the solvent. Such exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets exhibit excellent photoconductivity under visible light. Hence, the direct mild exfoliation method of unrefined natural molybdenite provides a solution for low-cost and convenient production of few-layered MoS2 which is appealing for industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Preparation and Properties of 2D Materials)
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Open AccessArticle One-Step Synthesis Heterostructured g-C3N4/TiO2 Composite for Rapid Degradation of Pollutants in Utilizing Visible Light
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100842
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
To meet the urgent need of society for advanced photocatalytic materials, novel visible light driven heterostructured composite was constructed based on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and fibrous TiO2. The g-C3N4/TiO2 (CNT) composite
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To meet the urgent need of society for advanced photocatalytic materials, novel visible light driven heterostructured composite was constructed based on graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and fibrous TiO2. The g-C3N4/TiO2 (CNT) composite was prepared through electrospinning technology and followed calcination process. The state of the g-C3N4 and fibrous TiO2 was tightly coupled. The photocatalytic performance was measured by degrading the Rhodamine B. Compared to commercial TiO2 (P25®) and electrospun TiO2 nanofibers, the photocatalytic performance of CNT composite was higher than them. The formation of CNT heterostructures and the enlarged specific surface area enhanced the photocatalytic performance, suppressing the recombination rate of photogenerated carriers while broadening the absorption range of light spectrum. Our studies have demonstrated that heterostructured CNT composite with an appropriate proportion can rational use of visible light and can significantly promote the photogenerated charges transferred at the contact interface between g-C3N4 and TiO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Heterocatalysis by Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessLetter Micelle-Assisted Strategy for the Direct Synthesis of Large-Sized Mesoporous Platinum Catalysts by Vapor Infiltration of a Reducing Agent
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100841
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Stable polymeric micelles have been demonstrated to serve as suitable templates for creating mesoporous metals. Herein, we report the utilization of a core-shell-corona type triblock copolymer of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide) and H2PtCl6·H2O to synthesize
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Stable polymeric micelles have been demonstrated to serve as suitable templates for creating mesoporous metals. Herein, we report the utilization of a core-shell-corona type triblock copolymer of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide) and H2PtCl6·H2O to synthesize large-sized mesoporous Pt particles. After formation of micelles with metal ions, the reduction process has been carried out by vapor infiltration of a reducing agent, 4-(Dimethylamino)benzaldehyde. Following the removal of the pore-directing agent under the optimized temperature, mesoporous Pt particles with an average pore size of 15 nm and surface area of 12.6 m2·g−1 are achieved. More importantly, the resulting mesoporous Pt particles exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity compared to commercially available Pt black. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthetic Bio-Graphene Based Nanomaterials through Different Iron Catalysts
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100840
Received: 25 September 2018 / Revised: 9 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Kraft lignin was catalytically graphitized to graphene-based nanostructures at 1000 °C under argon atmosphere with four iron catalysts, iron(III) nitrate (Fe-N); iron(II) chloride (Fe-Cl2); iron(III) chloride (Fe-Cl3); and iron(II) sulfate (Fe-S). The catalytic decomposition process of iron-promoted lignin materials
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Kraft lignin was catalytically graphitized to graphene-based nanostructures at 1000 °C under argon atmosphere with four iron catalysts, iron(III) nitrate (Fe-N); iron(II) chloride (Fe-Cl2); iron(III) chloride (Fe-Cl3); and iron(II) sulfate (Fe-S). The catalytic decomposition process of iron-promoted lignin materials was examined using thermalgravimetric analysis and temperature-programmed decomposition methods. The crystal structure, morphology and surface area of produced materials were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption−desorption techniques. Experimental results indicated that iron nitrate catalyst had better iron dispersion three other iron salts. Iron nitrate was the most active catalyst among four iron salts. The low activity of iron in iron chloride-promoted samples was because the residual chlorine over iron surfaces prevent iron interaction with lignin functional groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles on Paddy Soil Properties and Components
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100839
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
The wide use of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) will inevitably lead to their release into soil, and consequently affect the quality and ecological functions of soil environments. In this study, two paddy soils with different properties were exposed to CuO NPs to evaluate the
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The wide use of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) will inevitably lead to their release into soil, and consequently affect the quality and ecological functions of soil environments. In this study, two paddy soils with different properties were exposed to CuO NPs to evaluate the transformation of CuO NPs and their effects on soil properties and components. The results of single chemical extraction and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis showed that CuO NPs could release Cu ions once being applied into the flooding paddy soil and then progress toward the more stable forms (Cu2S and Cu(OH)2). CuO NPs could change the soil properties by increasing the pH and Eh of the lower organic matter-soil rather than those of the higher organic matter-soil. Furthermore, we found that the 1000 mg/kg CuO NPs could accelerate the degradation or mineralization of the organic matter, as well as the Fe reduction process, by increasing the Fe(II) content by 293% after flooding for 60 days in the lower organic matter soil. The microbial biomass in both soils was severely inhibited by CuO NPs and the organic matter could partly mitigate the negative effects of CuO NPs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Radiation and Energetic Analysis of Nanofluid Based Volumetric Absorbers for Concentrated Solar Power
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100838
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
Recently, several publications gave attention to nanofluid based solar absorber systems in which the solar radiation energy is directly absorbed in the volume of the fluid. This idea could provide advantages over conventionally used surface absorbers regarding the optical and thermal efficiency. For
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Recently, several publications gave attention to nanofluid based solar absorber systems in which the solar radiation energy is directly absorbed in the volume of the fluid. This idea could provide advantages over conventionally used surface absorbers regarding the optical and thermal efficiency. For the evaluation of this concept, a numerical approach is introduced and validated in this contribution. The results show that the optical efficiency of a volumetric absorber strongly depends on the scattering behavior of the nanofluid and can reach competitive values only if the particle size distribution is narrow and small. If this is achieved, the surface temperature and therefore the heat loss can be lowered significantly. Furthermore, the surface absorber requires very high Reynolds numbers to transfer the absorbed energy into the working fluid and avoid overheating of the absorber tube. This demand of pumping power can be reduced significantly using the concept of volumetric absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle New Antioxidant Multilayer Packaging with Nanoselenium to Enhance the Shelf-Life of Market Food Products
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100837
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
A flexible multilayer with selenium nanoparticles incorporated has been used to build an antioxidant packaging. The oxidation of hazelnuts, walnuts, and potato chips was tested at laboratory scale. Hexanal released by the nuts, fatty acids oxidation study, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and
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A flexible multilayer with selenium nanoparticles incorporated has been used to build an antioxidant packaging. The oxidation of hazelnuts, walnuts, and potato chips was tested at laboratory scale. Hexanal released by the nuts, fatty acids oxidation study, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), and tasting were compared to study the oxidation of foods packaged with this antioxidant packaging. Finally, TBARS method in combination with tasting were selected due to their simplicity and accuracy. It was found that hazelnuts packaged in nanoSe active bags released around 20% less malonaldehyde (MDA) than the blanks. In the case of the walnuts, the active ones released 25% less MDA than the blanks. As for potato chips, the improvement was around 22%. Finally, an industrial study was done. Cooked ham, chicken, and a ready-to-eat vegetable mixture seasoned with butter were industrially packaged with the new antioxidant material and improvements higher than 25% were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials to Enhance Food Quality, Safety, and Health Impact)
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Open AccessArticle Ultra-Thin Platinum Deposits by Surface-Limited Redox Replacement of Tellurium
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100836
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Platinum is the most employed electrocatalyst for the reactions taking place in energy converters, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, despite being a very low abundant element in the earth’s crust and thus extremely expensive. The search
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Platinum is the most employed electrocatalyst for the reactions taking place in energy converters, such as the oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, despite being a very low abundant element in the earth’s crust and thus extremely expensive. The search for more active electrocatalysts with ultra-low Pt loading is thus a very active field of investigation. Here, surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) that utilizes the monolayer-limited nature of underpotential deposition (UPD) was used to prepare ultrathin deposits of Pt, using Te as sacrificial metal. Cyclic voltammetry and anodic potentiodynamic scanning experiments have been performed to determine the optimal deposition conditions. Physicochemical and electrochemical characterization of the deposited Pt was carried out. The deposit comprises a series of contiguous Pt islands that form along the grain interfaces of the Au substrate. The electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of the Pt deposit obtained after 5 replacements, estimated to be 18 m2/g, is in agreement with the ECSA of extended surface catalysts on flat surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Development of Nanostructured Thin Films)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of ZnO/Red Phosphorus Heterostructure for Effective Photocatalytic H2 Evolution from Water Splitting
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100835
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Photocatalysis is a green technique that can convert solar energy to chemical energy, especially in H2 production from water splitting. In this study, ZnO and red phosphorus (ZnO/RP) heterostructures were fabricated through a facile calcination method for the first time, which showed
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Photocatalysis is a green technique that can convert solar energy to chemical energy, especially in H2 production from water splitting. In this study, ZnO and red phosphorus (ZnO/RP) heterostructures were fabricated through a facile calcination method for the first time, which showed the considerable photocatalytic activity of H2 evolution. The photocatalytic activities of heterostructures with different ratios of RP have been investigated in detail. Compared to bare ZnO, ZnO/RP heterostructures exhibit a 20.8-fold enhancement for H2 production and furthermore overcome the photocorrosion issue of ZnO. The improved photocatalytic activities highly depend on the synergistic effect of the high migration efficiency of photo-induced electron–hole pairs with the inhibited charge carrier recombination on the surface. The presented strategy can also be applied to other semiconductors for various optoelectronics applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Heterocatalysis by Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Frequency-Reconfigurable Wide-Angle Terahertz Absorbers Using Single- and Double-Layer Decussate Graphene Ribbon Arrays
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100834
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
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Abstract
We propose and numerically demonstrate two novel terahertz absorbers made up of periodic single- and double-layer decussate graphene ribbon arrays. The simulated results show that the proposed absorbers have narrowband near-unity terahertz absorption with ultra-wide frequency reconfiguration and angular stability. By tuning the
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We propose and numerically demonstrate two novel terahertz absorbers made up of periodic single- and double-layer decussate graphene ribbon arrays. The simulated results show that the proposed absorbers have narrowband near-unity terahertz absorption with ultra-wide frequency reconfiguration and angular stability. By tuning the Fermi level of graphene ribbons, the over 90% absorbance peak frequency of the absorber with single-layer graphene structure can be flexibly adjusted from 6.85 to 9.85 THz for both the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. This absorber with single-layer graphene demonstrates excellent angular stability with the absorbance peaks of the reconfigurable absorption bands remaining over 99.8% in a wide angle of incidence ranging from 0 to 70°. The tuning frequency can be significantly enhanced by using the absorber with double-layer graphene structure from 5.50 to 11.28 THz and 5.62 to 10.65 THz, approaching two octaves under TM and TE polarizations, respectively. The absorbance peaks of the reconfigurable absorption band of this absorber for both polarizations maintain over 70%, even at a large angle of incidence up to 70°. Furthermore, an analytical fitting model is also proposed to accurately predict the absorbance peak frequencies for this variety of absorbers. Benefitting from these attractive properties, the proposed absorber may have great potential applications in tunable terahertz trapping, detecting, sensing, and various terahertz optoelectronic devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On the Frequency Response of Nanostructured Thermoacoustic Loudspeakers
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100833
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
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Abstract
In this work, we investigate the thermal and acoustic frequency responses of nanostructured thermoacoustic loudspeakers. An opposite frequency dependence of thermal and acoustic responses was found independently of the device substrate (Kapton and glass) and the nanometric active film (silver nanowires and nm-thick
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In this work, we investigate the thermal and acoustic frequency responses of nanostructured thermoacoustic loudspeakers. An opposite frequency dependence of thermal and acoustic responses was found independently of the device substrate (Kapton and glass) and the nanometric active film (silver nanowires and nm-thick metal films). The experimental results are interpreted with the support of a comprehensive electro-thermo-acoustic model, allowing for the separation of the purely thermal effects from the proper thermoacoustic (TA) transduction. The thermal interactions causing the reported opposite trends are understood, providing useful insights for the further development of the TA loudspeaker technology. Full article
Open AccessArticle Physical Properties and Photovoltaic Application of Semiconducting Pd2Se3 Monolayer
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100832
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
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Abstract
Palladium selenides have attracted considerable attention because of their intriguing properties and wide applications. Motivated by the successful synthesis of Pd2Se3 monolayer (Lin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2017, 119, 016101), here we systematically study its physical properties and device
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Palladium selenides have attracted considerable attention because of their intriguing properties and wide applications. Motivated by the successful synthesis of Pd2Se3 monolayer (Lin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2017, 119, 016101), here we systematically study its physical properties and device applications using state-of-the-art first principles calculations. We demonstrate that the Pd2Se3 monolayer has a desirable quasi-direct band gap (1.39 eV) for light absorption, a high electron mobility (140.4 cm2V−1s−1) and strong optical absorption (~105 cm−1) in the visible solar spectrum, showing a great potential for absorber material in ultrathin photovoltaic devices. Furthermore, its bandgap can be tuned by applying biaxial strain, changing from indirect to direct. Equally important, replacing Se with S results in a stable Pd2S3 monolayer that can form a type-II heterostructure with the Pd2Se3 monolayer by vertically stacking them together. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the heterostructure-based solar cell reaches 20%, higher than that of MoS2/MoSe2 solar cell. Our study would motivate experimental efforts in achieving Pd2Se3 monolayer-based heterostructures for new efficient photovoltaic devices. Full article
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