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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100860

Antibacterial and Bioactive Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants by PCL/TiO2 Nanocomposite Coatings

1
Medical Materials Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India
2
Department of Biotechnology, Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India
3
NUS Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117581, Singapore
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Abstract

Surface modification of biomedical implants is an established strategy to improve tissue regeneration, osseointegration and also to minimize the bacterial accumulation. In the present study, electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/titania (PCL/TiO2) nanocomposite coatings were developed on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates for an improved biological and antibacterial properties for bone tissue engineering. TiO2 nanoparticles in various amounts (2, 5, and 7 wt %) were incorporated into a biodegradable PCL matrix to form a homogeneous solution. Further, PCL/TiO2 coatings on cpTi were obtained by electrospinning of PCL/TiO2 solution onto the substrate. The resulted coatings were structurally characterized and inspected by employing scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Given the potential biological applications of PCL/TiO2 coated cpTi substrates, the apatite-forming capacity was examined by immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) for upto 21 days. Biocompatibility has been evaluated through adhesion/proliferation of hFOB osteoblast cell lines and cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity of PCL/TiO2 nanocomposites has been tested using UV light against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus). The resulting surface displays good bioactive properties against osteoblast cell lines with increased viability of 40% at day 3 and superior antibacterial property against S.aureus with a significant reduction of bacteria to almost 76%. Surface modification by PCL/TiO2 nanocomposites makes a viable approach for improving dual properties, i.e., biological and antibacterial properties on titanium implants which might be used to prevent implant-associated infections and promoting cell attachment of orthopedic devices at the same time. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium; antibacterial coatings; electrospinning; nanocomposite coatings; TiO2 photocatalytic; orthopedic infections titanium; antibacterial coatings; electrospinning; nanocomposite coatings; TiO2 photocatalytic; orthopedic infections
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kiran, A.S.K.; Kumar, T.S.; Sanghavi, R.; Doble, M.; Ramakrishna, S. Antibacterial and Bioactive Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants by PCL/TiO2 Nanocomposite Coatings. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 860.

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