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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100862

Laser Alloying Advantages by Dry Coating Metallic Powder Mixtures with SiOx Nanoparticles

1
Institute of Photonic Technologies (LPT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Konrad-Zuse-Straße 3/5, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
2
Collaborative Research Center 814-Additive Manufacturing (CRC 814), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Am Weichselgarten 9, 91058 Erlangen-Tennenlohe, Germany
3
Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Paul Gordan Straße 6, 91052 Erlangen, Germany
4
Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N. Tupolev-KAI, Karl Marx Str. 10, 420111 Kazan, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
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Abstract

Up to now, minimizing segregation of free-flowing, microscale metal powder mixtures driven by different mass density is an open challenge. In this work, effects of particle size variation on homogeneity of Al-Cu mixtures, with a density ratio of 3.3, are examined. Dry coating Al particles with 0.3 wt% fumed silica SiOx nanoparticles significantly decreases interparticle attraction. This enlarges the range of free-flowing Al particle sizes to < 20 µm. Powder mixture homogeneity is examined optically in vibrated bulk powder and thinly spread layers. From various powder mixtures, solid samples are built layer by layer with the Additive Manufacturing (3D printing) technology Laser Beam Melting in metal powder bed (LBM). Chemical homogeneity of solids is evaluated via energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, backscattered electron microscopy, metallographic analysis and tensile tests. Persistent homogeneity of Al-Cu powder mixtures and LBM solids is found only with particles < 20 µm dry coated with SiOx nanoparticles. Observed segregation phenomena are explained with a decrease in particle mobility at increasing local concentration and the decreasing effectiveness of mass in smaller particles. The main effects are based on geometry, so they are expected to be transferrable to other nanoparticles, alloying components and powder bed technologies, e.g., binder jetting. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry coating fumed silica nanoparticles; powder mixture segregation; in situ alloy creation; Selective Laser Melting™; Laser Metal Powder Bed Fusion; Aluminium Copper Magnesium alloys 2xxx; powder layer microscopy; EDX; tensile test dry coating fumed silica nanoparticles; powder mixture segregation; in situ alloy creation; Selective Laser Melting™; Laser Metal Powder Bed Fusion; Aluminium Copper Magnesium alloys 2xxx; powder layer microscopy; EDX; tensile test
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Karg, M.C.H.; Rasch, M.; Schmidt, K.; Spitzer, S.A.E.; Karsten, T.F.; Schlaug, D.; Biaciu, C.-R.; Gorunov, A.I.; Schmidt, M. Laser Alloying Advantages by Dry Coating Metallic Powder Mixtures with SiOx Nanoparticles. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 862.

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