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J. Intell., Volume 8, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 13 articles

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Article
The Contribution of Executive Functions in Predicting Mathematical Creativity in Typical Elementary School Classes: A Twofold Role for Updating
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020026 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3216
Abstract
The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of executive functions in mathematical creativity. The sample included 278 primary school children (ages 8–13). Two models were compared: the starting model tested whether executive functions (shifting, updating, and inhibition), domain-general creativity, [...] Read more.
The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of executive functions in mathematical creativity. The sample included 278 primary school children (ages 8–13). Two models were compared: the starting model tested whether executive functions (shifting, updating, and inhibition), domain-general creativity, and mathematical ability directly predicted mathematical creativity. The second model, which fitted the data best, included the additional assumption that updating influences mathematical creativity indirectly through mathematical ability and domain-general creativity. Updating was positively related to mathematical creativity. Additionally, updating was positively related to mathematical ability and domain-general creativity. Inhibition, shifting, domain-general creativity and mathematical ability did not have a significant contribution to either model but did positively correlate with mathematical creativity. This study reports the first empirical evidence that updating is a predictor of mathematical creativity in primary school children and demonstrates that creativity is a higher order cognitive process, activating a variety of cognitive abilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligence and Creativity)
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Article
The Worst Performance Rule, or the Not-Best Performance Rule? Latent-Variable Analyses of Working Memory Capacity, Mind-Wandering Propensity, and Reaction Time
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020025 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
The worst performance rule (WPR) is a robust empirical finding reflecting that people’s worst task performance shows numerically stronger correlations with cognitive ability than their average or best performance. However, recent meta-analytic work has proposed this be renamed the “not-best performance” rule because [...] Read more.
The worst performance rule (WPR) is a robust empirical finding reflecting that people’s worst task performance shows numerically stronger correlations with cognitive ability than their average or best performance. However, recent meta-analytic work has proposed this be renamed the “not-best performance” rule because mean and worst performance seem to predict cognitive ability to similar degrees, with both predicting ability better than best performance. We re-analyzed data from a previously published latent-variable study to test for worst vs. not-best performance across a variety of reaction time tasks in relation to two cognitive ability constructs: working memory capacity (WMC) and propensity for task-unrelated thought (TUT). Using two methods of assessing worst performance—ranked-binning and ex-Gaussian-modeling approaches—we found evidence for both the worst and not-best performance rules. WMC followed the not-best performance rule (correlating equivalently with mean and longest response times (RTs)) but TUT propensity followed the worst performance rule (correlating more strongly with longest RTs). Additionally, we created a mini-multiverse following different outlier exclusion rules to test the robustness of our findings; our findings remained stable across the different multiverse iterations. We provisionally conclude that the worst performance rule may only arise in relation to cognitive abilities closely linked to (failures of) sustained attention. Full article
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Commentary
Déjà vu All Over Again: A Unitary Biological Mechanism for Intelligence Is (Probably) Untenable
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020024 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2605
Abstract
Nearly a century ago, Spearman proposed that “specific factors can be regarded as the ‘nuts and bolts’ of cognitive performance…, while the general factor is the mental energy available to power the specific engines”. Geary (2018; 2019) takes Spearman’s analogy of “mental energy” [...] Read more.
Nearly a century ago, Spearman proposed that “specific factors can be regarded as the ‘nuts and bolts’ of cognitive performance…, while the general factor is the mental energy available to power the specific engines”. Geary (2018; 2019) takes Spearman’s analogy of “mental energy” quite literally and doubles-down on the notion by proposing that a unitary energy source, the mitochondria, explains variations in both cognitive function and health-related outcomes. This idea is reminiscent of many earlier attempts to describe a low-level biological determinant of general intelligence. While Geary does an admirable job developing an innovative theory with specific and testable predictions, this new theory suffers many of the shortcomings of previous attempts at similar goals. We argue that Geary’s theory is generally implausible, and does not map well onto known psychological and genetic properties of intelligence or its relationship to health and fitness. While Geary’s theory serves as an elegant model of “what could be”, it is less successful as a description of “what is”. Full article
Commentary
Turtles All the Way Down: From g to Mitochondrial Functioning
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020023 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2075
Abstract
Geary (2018, 2019) theorizes that the efficiency of mitochondrial functioning is the fundamental biological mechanism that affects the organism as a whole and is common to all brain and cognitive processes [...] Full article
Article
A Mokken Scale Analysis of the Last Series of the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM-LS)
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020022 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven 1941) is a widely used 60-item long measure of general mental ability. It was recently suggested that, for situations where taking this test is too time consuming, a shorter version, comprised of only the last series of the [...] Read more.
Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven 1941) is a widely used 60-item long measure of general mental ability. It was recently suggested that, for situations where taking this test is too time consuming, a shorter version, comprised of only the last series of the Standard Progressive Matrices (Myszkowski and Storme 2018) could be used, while preserving satisfactory psychometric properties (Garcia-Garzon et al. 2019; Myszkowski and Storme 2018). In this study, I argue, however, that some psychometric properties have been left aside by previous investigations. As part of this special issue on the reinvestigation of Myszkowski and Storme’s dataset, I propose to use the non-parametric Item Response Theory framework of Mokken Scale Analysis (Mokken 1971, 1997) and its current developments (Sijtsma and van der Ark 2017) to shed new light on the SPM-LS. Extending previous findings, this investigation indicated that the SPM-LS had satisfactory scalability ( H = 0.469 ), local independence and reliability ( M S = 0.841 , L C R C = 0.874 ). Further, all item response functions were monotonically increasing, and there was overall evidence for invariant item ordering ( H T = 0.475 ), supporting the Double Monotonicity Model (Mokken 1997). Item 1, however, appeared problematic in most analyses. I discuss the implications of these results, notably regarding whether to discard item 1, whether the SPM-LS sum scores can confidently be used to order persons, and whether the invariant item ordering of the SPM-LS allows to use a stopping rule to further shorten test administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of an Intelligence Dataset)
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Article
Diagnosing a 12-Item Dataset of Raven Matrices: With Dexter
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020021 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2498
Abstract
We analyze a 12-item version of Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices test, traditionally scored with the sum score. We discuss some important differences between assessment in practice and psychometric modelling. We demonstrate some advanced diagnostic tools in the freely available R package, dexter. We [...] Read more.
We analyze a 12-item version of Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices test, traditionally scored with the sum score. We discuss some important differences between assessment in practice and psychometric modelling. We demonstrate some advanced diagnostic tools in the freely available R package, dexter. We find that the first item in the test functions badly—at a guess, because the subjects were not given exercise items before the live test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of an Intelligence Dataset)
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Commentary
Mitochondrial Functioning ≠ General Intelligence
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020020 - 03 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
Geary puts forward an appealing argument for the consideration of mitochondrial functioning as a candidate for a formative g Geary (2019); it is also an ambitious argument [...] Full article
Review
Mapping Mind-Brain Development: Towards a Comprehensive Theory
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020019 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4091
Abstract
The relations between the developing mind and developing brain are explored. We outline a theory of intellectual development postulating that the mind comprises four systems of processes (domain-specific, attention and working memory, reasoning, and cognizance) developing in four cycles (episodic, realistic, rule-based, and [...] Read more.
The relations between the developing mind and developing brain are explored. We outline a theory of intellectual development postulating that the mind comprises four systems of processes (domain-specific, attention and working memory, reasoning, and cognizance) developing in four cycles (episodic, realistic, rule-based, and principle-based representations, emerging at birth, 2, 6, and 11 years, respectively), with two phases in each. Changes in reasoning relate to processing efficiency in the first phase and working memory in the second phase. Awareness of mental processes is recycled with the changes in each cycle and drives their integration into the representational unit of the next cycle. Brain research shows that each type of processes is served by specialized brain networks. Domain-specific processes are rooted in sensory cortices; working memory processes are mainly rooted in hippocampal, parietal, and prefrontal cortices; abstraction and alignment processes are rooted in parietal, frontal, and prefrontal and medial cortices. Information entering these networks is available to awareness processes. Brain networks change along the four cycles, in precision, connectivity, and brain rhythms. Principles of mind-brain interaction are discussed. Full article
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Article
An Examination of Ability Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationships with Fluid and Crystallized Abilities in a Student Sample
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020018 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3214
Abstract
This study investigated correlative, factorial, and structural relationships between scores for ability emotional intelligence in the workplace (measured with the Geneva Emotional Competence Test), as well as fluid and crystallized abilities (measured with the Intelligence Structure Battery), carried out by a 188-participant student [...] Read more.
This study investigated correlative, factorial, and structural relationships between scores for ability emotional intelligence in the workplace (measured with the Geneva Emotional Competence Test), as well as fluid and crystallized abilities (measured with the Intelligence Structure Battery), carried out by a 188-participant student sample. Confirming existing research, recognition, understanding, and management of emotions were related primarily to crystallized ability tests measuring general knowledge, verbal fluency, and knowledge of word meaning. Meanwhile, emotion regulation was the least correlated with any other cognitive or emotional ability. In line with research on the trainability of emotional intelligence, these results may support the notion that emotional abilities are subject to acquired knowledge, where situational (i.e., workplace-specific) emotional intelligence may depend on accumulating relevant experiences. Full article
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Article
The Relation of Scientific Creativity and Evaluation of Scientific Impact to Scientific Reasoning and General Intelligence
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020017 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3090
Abstract
In many nations, grades and standardized test scores are used to select students for programs of scientific study. We suggest that the skills that these assessments measure are related to success in science, but only peripherally in comparison with two other skills, scientific [...] Read more.
In many nations, grades and standardized test scores are used to select students for programs of scientific study. We suggest that the skills that these assessments measure are related to success in science, but only peripherally in comparison with two other skills, scientific creativity and recognition of scientific impact. In three studies, we investigated the roles of scientific creativity and recognition of scientific impact on scientific thinking. The three studies described here together involved 219 students at a selective university in the Northeast U.S. Participants received assessments of scientific creativity and recognition of scientific impact as well as a variety of previously used assessments measuring scientific reasoning (generating alternative hypotheses, generating experiments, drawing conclusions) and the fluid aspect of general intelligence (letter sets, number series). They also provided scores from either or both of two college-admissions tests—the SAT and the ACT—as well as demographic information. Our goal was to determine whether the new tests of scientific impact and scientific creativity correlated and factored with the tests of scientific reasoning, fluid intelligence, both, or neither. We found that our new measures tapped into aspects of scientific reasoning as we previously have studied it, although the factorial composition of the test on recognition of scientific impact is less clear than that of the test of scientific creativity. We also found that participants rated high-impact studies as more scientifically rigorous and practically useful than low-impact studies, but also generally as less creative, probably because their titles/abstracts were seemingly less novel for our participants. Replicated findings across studies included the correlation of Letter Sets with Number Series (both measures of fluid intelligence) and the correlation of Scientific Creativity with Scientific Reasoning. Full article
Article
Imagine: Design for Creative Thinking, Learning, and Assessment in Schools
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020016 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3389
Abstract
Although not generally included in classroom activities of the past, cultivating creative thinking is considered one of the core strands in future-focused learning in schools. Learning focused on creative thinking is uncommon in school, mainly due to a lack of consensus on the [...] Read more.
Although not generally included in classroom activities of the past, cultivating creative thinking is considered one of the core strands in future-focused learning in schools. Learning focused on creative thinking is uncommon in school, mainly due to a lack of consensus on the definition of the creative thinking competency and a lack of effective methods designed for curriculum-embedded implementations of creative thinking learning and assessment in classrooms. This paper describes the development of a framework for formative assessments of creative thinking frameworks and provides considerations for the design of technology-enhanced learning and assessment in support of creative thinking competency in students. Task models described in the paper aimed to cultivate creative thinking and elicit evidence on competency development in students. Future directions for the development and validation of learning and assessment approaches are discussed. Full article
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Commentary
The Role of Non-Cognitive Factors in the SAT Remains Unclear: A Commentary on Hannon (2019)
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020015 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2830
Abstract
In the current issue of the Journal of Intelligence, Hannon (2019) reports a novel and intriguing pattern of results that could be interpreted as evidence that the SAT is biased against Hispanic students. Specifically, Hannon’s analyses suggest that non-cognitive factors, such as [...] Read more.
In the current issue of the Journal of Intelligence, Hannon (2019) reports a novel and intriguing pattern of results that could be interpreted as evidence that the SAT is biased against Hispanic students. Specifically, Hannon’s analyses suggest that non-cognitive factors, such as test anxiety, contribute to SAT performance and the impact of test anxiety on the SAT is stronger among Hispanic students than European-American students. Importantly, this pattern of results was observed after controlling for individual differences in cognitive abilities. We argue that there are multiple issues with Hannon’s investigation and interpretation. For instance, Hannon did not include an adequate number or variety of measures of cognitive ability. In addition, the measure of test anxiety was a retrospective self-report survey on evaluated anxiety rather than a direct measure of situational test anxiety associated with the SAT. Based on these and other observations, we conclude that Hannon’s current results do not provide sufficient evidence to suggest that non-cognitive factors play a significant role in the SAT or that they impact European-American and Hispanic students differently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What Does the SAT Measure?)
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Commentary
Mitochondrial Functioning and Its Relation to Higher-Order Cognitive Processes
J. Intell. 2020, 8(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020014 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
One of the most replicated findings in psychology is the positive manifold between cognitive ability measures (Jensen 1998; Spearman 1904) [...] Full article
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