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What We Know, Are Still Getting Wrong, and Have Yet to Learn about the Relationships among the SAT, Intelligence and Achievement
Commentary

The Role of Non-Cognitive Factors in the SAT Remains Unclear: A Commentary on Hannon (2019)

Department of Psychology, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, CA 91711, USA
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Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 April 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What Does the SAT Measure?)
In the current issue of the Journal of Intelligence, Hannon (2019) reports a novel and intriguing pattern of results that could be interpreted as evidence that the SAT is biased against Hispanic students. Specifically, Hannon’s analyses suggest that non-cognitive factors, such as test anxiety, contribute to SAT performance and the impact of test anxiety on the SAT is stronger among Hispanic students than European-American students. Importantly, this pattern of results was observed after controlling for individual differences in cognitive abilities. We argue that there are multiple issues with Hannon’s investigation and interpretation. For instance, Hannon did not include an adequate number or variety of measures of cognitive ability. In addition, the measure of test anxiety was a retrospective self-report survey on evaluated anxiety rather than a direct measure of situational test anxiety associated with the SAT. Based on these and other observations, we conclude that Hannon’s current results do not provide sufficient evidence to suggest that non-cognitive factors play a significant role in the SAT or that they impact European-American and Hispanic students differently. View Full-Text
Keywords: intelligence; cognitive ability; SAT intelligence; cognitive ability; SAT
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MDPI and ACS Style

Conway, A.R.A.; Hao, H. The Role of Non-Cognitive Factors in the SAT Remains Unclear: A Commentary on Hannon (2019). J. Intell. 2020, 8, 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020015

AMA Style

Conway ARA, Hao H. The Role of Non-Cognitive Factors in the SAT Remains Unclear: A Commentary on Hannon (2019). Journal of Intelligence. 2020; 8(2):15. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Conway, Andrew R.A., and Han Hao. 2020. "The Role of Non-Cognitive Factors in the SAT Remains Unclear: A Commentary on Hannon (2019)" Journal of Intelligence 8, no. 2: 15. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8020015

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