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Agriculture, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 49 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Solitary bees provide an important pollination service for many agricultural crops and wildflowers. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Different Levels of L-carnitine and Excess Lysine-Methionine on Broiler Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Constituents, Immunity and Triiodothyronine Hormone
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040138 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 391
Abstract
The influence of dietary L-carnitine and lysine (Lys)-methionine (Met) levels on productive performance, haematology and triiodothyronine hormone levels of broilers was investigated. Dietary treatments included different L-carnitine (0, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and Lys-Met (0%, 10% and 20% over National Research Council (NRC) [...] Read more.
The influence of dietary L-carnitine and lysine (Lys)-methionine (Met) levels on productive performance, haematology and triiodothyronine hormone levels of broilers was investigated. Dietary treatments included different L-carnitine (0, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and Lys-Met (0%, 10% and 20% over National Research Council (NRC) (1994) recommendation levels), under a 3 × 3 factorial design arrangement. From the findings, the body weight (BW) gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by dietary treatments in the different growing stages. Conversely, carcass yield and organs did not differ (p > 0.05) among treatments, whereas meat-cuts varied significantly when broilers were fed experimental diets. Moreover, the dietary inclusion of the highest levels of amino-acids (L-carnitine (100 mg/kg) and Lys-Met (+20%)) produced a reduction (p < 0.05) of blood uric acid, also leading to the highest triiodothyronine (T3) hormone levels. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the combination of extra levels of L-carnitine associated with Lys-Met positively influenced the performance traits in broiler chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Farm Animal Nutrition Approaches in a Changing Environment)
Open AccessArticle
Yield Prediction Modeling for Sorghum–Sudangrass Hybrid Based on Climatic, Soil, and Cultivar Data in the Republic of Korea
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040137 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 356
Abstract
The objective of this study was to construct a sorghum–sudangrass hybrid (SSH) yield prediction model based on climatic, soil, and cultivar information in the southern area of the Korean Peninsula. Besides, the effects of climatic factors on SSH yield were investigated simultaneously. The [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to construct a sorghum–sudangrass hybrid (SSH) yield prediction model based on climatic, soil, and cultivar information in the southern area of the Korean Peninsula. Besides, the effects of climatic factors on SSH yield were investigated simultaneously. The SSH dataset (n = 105), including Dry Matter Yield (DMY, kg/ha), Seeding-Harvest Accumulated Temperature (SHaAT, °C), Seeding–Harvest Accumulated Precipitation (SHAP, mm), Seeding–Harvest Sunshine Duration (SHSD, h), Soil Suitability Score (SSS), and cultivar maturity information, was developed for model construction. Subsequently, using general linear modeling method, the SSH yield prediction model was constructed as follows: DMY = 6.5SHaAT – 4.9SHAP + 13.8SHSD – 54.4SSS – 1036.4 + Maturity. The impacts of the accumulated thermal climatic variables and accumulated precipitation during crop growth on the variance of SSH yield in this region were confirmed. The summer-concentrated precipitation in the southern area of the Korean Peninsula exceeded the proper range of SSH water requirement and led to stresses to its yield production. Furthermore, to improve the data quality for high fitness model construction, the standard schedule for forage crop cultivation experiment in this region was recommended to be developed, especially under the data requirement in the context of the big data era. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
European Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Yield and Profitability under Different Irrigation Systems
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040136 - 20 Apr 2020
Viewed by 404
Abstract
European borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a cultivated medicinal plant in Iran, but common agronomic practices about profitable cultivation are mostly unknown. A 2-yr field experiment (2013 and 2014) was conducted in Guilan Province of northern Iran to evaluate European borage yield [...] Read more.
European borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a cultivated medicinal plant in Iran, but common agronomic practices about profitable cultivation are mostly unknown. A 2-yr field experiment (2013 and 2014) was conducted in Guilan Province of northern Iran to evaluate European borage yield and profitability under irrigation with surface and drip irrigation systems. Treatments included (i) rainfed production (I0, control), (ii) single irrigation (I1) applied with surface irrigation alone and drip irrigation alone, and (iii) two irrigations (I2) applied with surface irrigation alone and drip irrigation alone. In 2013, I1 increased flower dry weight by 41.0% and seed weight by 7.1% compared with rainfed European borage, while with I2, the increases in those traits were 23.4% and 0.6%, respectively. In 2014, I1 increased flower dry weight by 78.0% and seed weight by 21.3% compared with rainfed European borage, while the respective increases were 51.8% and 17.3% with I2. On average, drip irrigation provided higher flower dry weight and seed weight by 39.3% and 12.6%, respectively, compared with surface irrigation. Drip irrigation increased variable costs by 165.2% compared with surface irrigation but resulted in increased gross income by 23.2%. Partial budgeting showed that I1 with drip irrigation provided the maximum net profit in both years. Based on the final rate of return, investing in the treatment I1 with drip irrigation was better than investing in the other treatments. Moreover, I1 with drip irrigation showed the highest value of economic water productivity and could be considered for improving the net income of European borage farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Agronomic Practices for Maximizing Crop Growth and Yield)
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Open AccessArticle
Enzymatic Activity of Loess Soil in Organic and Conventional Farming Systems
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040135 - 18 Apr 2020
Viewed by 354
Abstract
This study was conducted over the period 2017–2019 in Czesławice (central Lublin region, Poland). The aim of the present study was to compare chemical soil quality parameters (soil pH, available P and K, organic carbon, and total nitrogen content) and soil enzymatic activity [...] Read more.
This study was conducted over the period 2017–2019 in Czesławice (central Lublin region, Poland). The aim of the present study was to compare chemical soil quality parameters (soil pH, available P and K, organic carbon, and total nitrogen content) and soil enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, urease, protease) in organic and conventional farming systems. The experimental design included two crop rotations (organic and conventional) in which identical plant species were grown: sugar beet-spring barley-red clover-winter wheat-oats. The loess soil on which the experiment was conducted was characterized by the grain size distribution of silt loam, and this soil was categorized as good wheat soil complex (soil class II). The experiment was set up as a split-plot design in triplicate in plots with an area of 40 m2. Soil sampling was carried out using a soil auger within an area of 0.20 m2 (from the 0 to 20 cm layer) in each plot during the autumn period. Over the 3-year study period, it was found that the organic system contributed to an increased soil content of organic carbon and total nitrogen. Moreover, a significantly higher soil pH value and a favorable narrow C/N ratio were found under the organic system (regardless of the crop species). Under the conventional system, in turn, a higher soil phosphorus and potassium content was observed. Enzymatic tests of the soil in the five-field crop rotation proved significantly higher activity of all the enzymes studied (in particular that of dehydrogenase, protease, and urease) in the organic system relative to the conventional one, regardless of the crop plant. Among the plants grown in crop rotation, sugar beet, and red clover had the most beneficial effect on the activity of the soil enzymes, followed by oats (especially under the organic system). The activity of the studied enzymes in the organic system was positively correlated (statistically significantly) with favorable soil pH, a higher content of organic C, and total N, and C/N ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Soils)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Catch Crops on Yield and Chemical Composition of Winter Garlic Grown for Bunch Harvesting
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040134 - 18 Apr 2020
Viewed by 554
Abstract
The cultivation of catch crops left on the surface of the field in the form of mulch promotes sustainable farming practices, while protecting the biodiversity of agricultural landscape. The paper presents results of research from 2013–2016, aimed at determining the usefulness of catch [...] Read more.
The cultivation of catch crops left on the surface of the field in the form of mulch promotes sustainable farming practices, while protecting the biodiversity of agricultural landscape. The paper presents results of research from 2013–2016, aimed at determining the usefulness of catch crops of millet, buckwheat, white mustard, bird’s-foot and Egyptian clover for soil mulching in winter garlic cultivation. The effect of soil litter on the amount of garlic crop in cultivation for bunch harvest and nutritional value determined by chemical composition of edible parts was determined. In the edible part of garlic, the content of dry matter, total and reducing sugars, L-ascorbic acid, total ash, crude fiber, phenolic acids and essential oil was evaluated. The control consisted of plots without mulch plants. In the cultivation of garlic under organic mulch, there was no decrease in commercial yield and no negative competitive effect on yielding. Garlic plants cultivated with mulch plants were characterized by increased height and developed more leaves. The catch crops used in the form of mulch did not affect the dry matter and total ash content in garlic bulbs. In the cultivation with plant litter, the concentration of phenolic acids and essential oil in the leaves was higher and the content of crude fiber was lower, compared to the cultivation without litter. Biomass from catch crops from clover and mustard increased the content of L-ascorbic acid, at the same time reducing the content of total and reducing sugars in the edible part of garlic, except for mulch plants of the bean family. The chemical composition of garlic was affected by different thermal and precipitation conditions in the years of research. In 2016, the year with the highest total rainfall, plants accumulated more dry matter, L-ascorbic acid as well as total and reducing sugars than in 2014 and 2015, years with less rainfall. Our research indicates that there are prospects for practical application of catch crops in the form of mulch for garlic cultivation to enhance the level of nutrients, without compromising the yield. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Using SPOT-7 for Nitrogen Fertilizer Management in Oil Palm
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040133 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Environmental concerns are growing about excessive applying nitrogen (N) fertilizers, especially in oil palm. Some conventional methods which are used to assess the amount of nutrient in oil palm are time-consuming, expensive, and involve frond destruction. Remote sensing as a non-destructive, affordable, and [...] Read more.
Environmental concerns are growing about excessive applying nitrogen (N) fertilizers, especially in oil palm. Some conventional methods which are used to assess the amount of nutrient in oil palm are time-consuming, expensive, and involve frond destruction. Remote sensing as a non-destructive, affordable, and efficient method is widely used to detect the concentration of chlorophyll (Chl) from canopy plants using several vegetation indices (VIs) because there is an influential relation between the concentration of N in the leaves and canopy Chl content. The objectives of this research are to (i) evaluate and compare the performance of various vegetation indices (VIs) for measuring N status in oil palm canopy using SPOT-7 imagery (AIRBUS Defence & Space, Ottobrunn, Germany) to (ii) develop a regression formula that can predict the N content using satellite data to (iii) assess the regression formula performance on testing datasets by testing the coefficient of determination between the predicted and measured N contents. SPOT-7 was acquired in a 6-ha oil palm planted area in Pahang, Malaysia. To predict N content, 28 VIs based on the spectral range of SPOT-7 satellite images were evaluated. Several regression models were applied to determine the highest coefficient of determination between VIs and actual N content from leaf sampling. The modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI) generated the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.93). MTVI1 and triangular VI had the highest second and third coefficient of determination with N content (R2 = 0.926 and 0.923, respectively). The classification accuracy assessment of the developed model was evaluated using several statistical parameters such as the independent t-test, and p-value. The accuracy assessment of the developed model was more than 77%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Systems and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Chemical Composition of Some Silphium L. Species as Alternative Raw Materials
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040132 - 17 Apr 2020
Viewed by 323
Abstract
The chemical composition of three Silphium species in the aspect of the possibility of their use for various purposes has been evaluated. The plant material of three Silphium species (S. perfoliatum, S. trifoliatum and S. integrifolium) was acquired from cultivation [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of three Silphium species in the aspect of the possibility of their use for various purposes has been evaluated. The plant material of three Silphium species (S. perfoliatum, S. trifoliatum and S. integrifolium) was acquired from cultivation located in eastern Poland. The vegetative propagating material consisted of seeds and rhizomes. Content of protein (up to 22.9% in leaves of S. perfoliatum), amino acids (aspartic acid—up to 12.0%, glutamic acid—up to 9.5%, and leucine—up to 9.4%), fat (up to 4.2% in inflorescences of S. perfoliatum), cellulose (up to 42.9% in stems of S. trifoliatum), water-soluble sugars (up to 26.7% in rhizomes of S. perfoliatum) and mineral substances (ash up to 20.9% in stems of S. integrifolium, with significant levels of elements such as K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn) in the tested Silphium species can be an important criterion determining a positive evaluation of these plants as sources of alternative raw materials. The conducted research is meant to draw attention to the possibility of use of the biomass of three Silphium species as a potential source of ecological and renewable raw material for food, pharmaceuticals, feed and possibly also for energy generation purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Product Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review on Case Studies of Remote-Sensing-Based Flood Crop Loss Assessment
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040131 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 680
Abstract
This article reviews case studies which have used remote sensing data for different aspects of flood crop loss assessment. The review systematically finds a total of 62 empirical case studies from the past three decades. The number of case studies has recently been [...] Read more.
This article reviews case studies which have used remote sensing data for different aspects of flood crop loss assessment. The review systematically finds a total of 62 empirical case studies from the past three decades. The number of case studies has recently been increased because of increased availability of remote sensing data. In the past, flood crop loss assessment was very generalized and time-intensive because of the dependency on the survey-based data collection. Remote sensing data availability makes rapid flood loss assessment possible. This study groups flood crop loss assessment approaches into three broad categories: flood-intensity-based approach, crop-condition-based approach, and a hybrid approach of the two. Flood crop damage assessment is more precise when both flood information and crop condition are incorporated in damage assessment models. This review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of different loss assessment approaches. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat are the dominant sources of optical remote sensing data for flood crop loss assessment. Remote-sensing-based vegetation indices (VIs) have significantly been utilized for crop damage assessments in recent years. Many case studies also relied on microwave remote sensing data, because of the inability of optical remote sensing to see through clouds. Recent free-of-charge availability of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data from Sentinel-1 will advance flood crop damage assessment. Data for the validation of loss assessment models are scarce. Recent advancements of data archiving and distribution through web technologies will be helpful for loss assessment and validation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tail Lesions and Losses of Docked and Undocked Pigs in Different Farrowing and Rearing Systems
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040130 - 16 Apr 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of farrowing and rearing systems on tail lesions and losses of docked and undocked pigs. Pigs from three farrowing systems: Conventional farrowing crate (FC), free farrowing (FF) and group housing of lactating sows (GH) were randomly [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of farrowing and rearing systems on tail lesions and losses of docked and undocked pigs. Pigs from three farrowing systems: Conventional farrowing crate (FC), free farrowing (FF) and group housing of lactating sows (GH) were randomly allocated to different rearing systems: A conventional system (CONV), where the pigs were regrouped and transferred to conventional finishing pens at ten weeks of age or a wean-to-finish (W-F) system, where the pigs remained in their pens until slaughter with higher space allowance during rearing. Weekly, tail lesions and losses were assessed individually. The incidence of tail lesions was higher in undocked CONV pigs compared to undocked W-F pigs (maximum: CONV 58.01%, W-F 41.16%). The rearing system had a significant effect on tail losses at the end of finishing (CONV 67.63%, W-F 38.2%). The significant effect of the rearing system might be explained by higher space allowance during rearing and reduced regrouping stress for W-F pigs. In conclusion, farrowing systems showed no effects, but the W-F rearing system reduces the frequency of tail lesions and losses; the curves of tail lesions increased slower and stayed on a lower level, which resulted in lower losses as well. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review on the Current State of Knowledge of Growing Conditions, Agronomic Soil Health Practices and Utilities of Hemp in the United States
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040129 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 548
Abstract
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an emerging high-value specialty crop that can be cultivated for either fiber, seed, or cannabidiol (CBD). The demand for hemp and its products has been consistently on the rise in the 21st century. The United States of [...] Read more.
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an emerging high-value specialty crop that can be cultivated for either fiber, seed, or cannabidiol (CBD). The demand for hemp and its products has been consistently on the rise in the 21st century. The United States of America (USA) has reintroduced hemp and legalized its production as an agricultural commodity through the 2018 Federal Farm Bill. Although there is a renewed interest in the adoption of hemp due to the emerging market, its production in the United States (US) remains limited partly because of unclear agronomic guidance and fertilization recommendations. This review article provides information on the current agronomic management practices that are available in the literature and identifies the future research needs for cultivating this multipurpose crop to address the growing market demands. Hemp production could be beneficial if managed properly. Hemp fertilizer requirements vary in accordance with the type of hemp grown (seed, fiber, or CBD), soil, environmental conditions and requires a wide range of macro- and micronutrients. Integrating management practices in hemp cultivation intended to build soil health is promising since the hemp cropping system is suitable for crop rotation, cover cropping, and livestock integration through animal waste applications. Hemp also has significant environmental benefits since it has the potential to remediate contaminated soils through phytoremediation, convert high amounts of atmospheric CO2 to biomass through bio-sequestration, and hemp biomass for bioenergy production. This review identifies that most of the agronomic research in the past has been limited to hemp fiber and, to some extent, hemp seed but not CBD hemp. With the increase in the global markets for hemp products, more research needs to be conducted to provide agronomic guidelines for sustainable hemp production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Crop Rotation and Biocontrol Amendments on Rhizoctonia Disease of Potato and Soil Microbial Communities
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040128 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 383
Abstract
Rotation crops and biocontrol amendments were investigated for suppression of Rhizoctonia solani on potato (Solanum tuberosum) and their interactive effects on soil microbial communities. Greenhouse trials were conducted to evaluate selected rotation crops, including barley, common and “Lemtal” ryegrass, clover, potato, [...] Read more.
Rotation crops and biocontrol amendments were investigated for suppression of Rhizoctonia solani on potato (Solanum tuberosum) and their interactive effects on soil microbial communities. Greenhouse trials were conducted to evaluate selected rotation crops, including barley, common and “Lemtal” ryegrass, clover, potato, and combinations of barley with ryegrass or clover, for their effects on populations of R. solani and Rhizoctonia disease. Potato and clover preceding potato resulted in higher disease severity than most other rotations, whereas ryegrass reduced stem canker severity. In addition, all ryegrass treatments resulted in substantially higher populations of R. zeae. Field trials evaluating selected biocontrol treatments in combination with different rotations were conducted at two locations in Maine. Potatoes were treated with the biocontrol organisms Laetisaria arvalis, Trichoderma virens, or Bacillus subtilis and planted following rotation crops of barley and ryegrass, barley and clover, or potato. The barley/ryegrass rotation significantly reduced incidence and severity of stem canker and increased tuber yield at one location. Efficacy of the biocontrol treatments varied by rotation and location, with L. arvalis and T. virens reducing black scurf in some rotations and increasing some aspects of tuber yield at one location. Soil microbial community characteristics differed among rotation crops and biocontrol treatments. Significant crop by biocontrol interactions were observed demonstrating the complex interactions among rotation crops, biocontrol treatments, and soil microbial communities, as well as indicating that biocontrol can be enhanced within beneficial rotations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Protection, Diseases, Pest and Weeds)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Analyze the Concentration of Ferulic Acid, Deoxynivalenol, and Nivalenol in Winter Wheat Grain
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040127 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Biotic stress, which includes infection by pathogenic fungi, causes losses of wheat yield in terms of quantity and quality. Ear Fusarium is caused by strains of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, which can produce mycotoxins—deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). One of the [...] Read more.
Biotic stress, which includes infection by pathogenic fungi, causes losses of wheat yield in terms of quantity and quality. Ear Fusarium is caused by strains of F. graminearum and F. culmorum, which can produce mycotoxins—deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). One of the wheat’s defense mechanisms against stressors is the activation of biosynthesis pathways of antioxidant compounds, including ferulic acid. The aim of the study was to conduct pilot studies on the basis of which neural models were created that would examine the impact of the variety and weather conditions on the concentration of ferulic acid, and link its content with the concentration of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol. The plant material was 23 winter wheat genotypes with different Fusarium resistance. The field experiment was conducted in 2011–2013 in Poland in three experimental combinations, namely: with full chemical protection; without chemical protection, but infested with natural disease (control); and in the absence of fungicidal protection, with artificial inoculation by genus Fusarium fungi. As a result of the pilot studies, three neural models—FERUANN analytical models (ferulic acid content), DONANN (deoxynivalenol content) and NIVANN (nivalenol content)—were produced. Each model was based on 14 independent features, 12 of which were in the form of quantitative data, and the other two were presented as qualitative data. The structure of the created models was based on an artificial neural network (ANN) of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) with two hidden layers. The sensitivity analysis of the neural network showed the two most important features determining the concentration of ferulic acid, deoxynivalenol, and nivalenol in winter wheat seeds. These are the experiment variant (VAR) and winter wheat variety (VOW). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Neural Networks in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Microbial β-glucan Incorporated into Muffins: Impact on Quality of the Batter and Baked Products
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040126 - 14 Apr 2020
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Microorganisms can be a promising source of bioactive food ingredients derived from unconventional agricultural farms. The quality of batter and final products in which 20%–80% of the fat has been replaced by β-glucan, obtained from microorganisms, was analyzed. The instrumental texture measurements showed [...] Read more.
Microorganisms can be a promising source of bioactive food ingredients derived from unconventional agricultural farms. The quality of batter and final products in which 20%–80% of the fat has been replaced by β-glucan, obtained from microorganisms, was analyzed. The instrumental texture measurements showed that β-glucan batter and muffins were harder than the control sample. Fat substitution over 40%, while enriching muffins with yeast β-glucan (over 2%), led to a decrease in the quality of products after baking and during 14-day storage. The incorporation of 3% or more β-glucan into the composition increased the hardness of the batter and deteriorated the quality of the muffin crumb, after baking and during storage. The sensory study revealed that fat replacement up to 40% with β-glucan provided acceptable biscuits, but higher replacement decreased the overall acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Product Quality and Safety)
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Open AccessReview
The Triple Logic and Choice Strategy of Rural Revitalization in the 70 Years since the Founding of the People’s Republic of China, Based on the Perspective of Historical Evolution
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040125 - 13 Apr 2020
Viewed by 428
Abstract
Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has continuously improved and developed the rural system, deepened rural reform, and promoted the process of agricultural and rural modernization. This paper constructs an analytical [...] Read more.
Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has continuously improved and developed the rural system, deepened rural reform, and promoted the process of agricultural and rural modernization. This paper constructs an analytical framework of rural revitalization and explores the logical law behind it from the three aspects of theoretical evolution, historical evolution, and realistic development. Then, on the basis of summarizing the existing rural revitalization path model, in view of the lack of industrial, ecological, cultural, and other rural revitalization path development models, the paper explores the general principles of rural revitalization path selection and puts forward a realistic choice: First, the key breakthrough of rural revitalization will be achieved through the construction of a rural revitalization planning system, land system reform, and green development. Second, the connotation and extension of concepts, such as “small farmers”, “industry prosperity”, and “rural areas”, are objectively analyzed and evaluated, so as to promote rural revitalization and avoid the risks and challenges that it may face in practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Mechanisms of the Spatiotemporal Invasion of Tuta absoluta in Asia
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040124 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
International crop exchange always brings the risk of introducing pests to countries where they are not yet present. The invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick 1917), after taking just a decade (2008–2017) to invade the entire Africa continent, is now continuing its expansion in [...] Read more.
International crop exchange always brings the risk of introducing pests to countries where they are not yet present. The invasive pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick 1917), after taking just a decade (2008–2017) to invade the entire Africa continent, is now continuing its expansion in Asia. From its first detection in Turkey (2009), the pest has extended its range of invasion at a very high speed of progression to the southeast part of Asia. This study adopted the cellular automata modelling method used to successfully predict the spatiotemporal invasion of T. absoluta in Africa to find out if the invasive pest is propagating with a similar pattern of spread in Asia. Using land cover vegetation, temperature, relative humidity and the natural flight ability of Tuta absoluta, we simulated the spread pattern considering Turkey as the initial point in Asia. The model revealed that it would take about 20 years for the pest to reach the southeast part of Asia, unlike real life where it took just about 10 years (2009–2018). This can be explained by international crop trade, especially in tomatoes, and movement of people, suggesting that recommendations and advice from the previous invasion in Europe and Africa were not implemented or not seriously taken into account. Moreover, some countries like Taiwan and the Philippines with suitable environmental condition for the establishment of T. absoluta are not at risk of natural invasion by flight, but quarantine measure must be put in place to avoid invasion by crop transportation or people movement. The results can assist policy makers to better understand the different mechanisms of invasion of T. absoluta in Asia, and therefore adjust or adapt control measures that fit well with the dynamic of the invasive pest observed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Concept of a Compact Profile Agricultural Tractor Suitable for Use on Specialised Tree Crops
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040123 - 11 Apr 2020
Viewed by 424
Abstract
This study firstly examined certain methods of vineyard management typically adopted in Apulia for both table grapes and wine grapes. In the later phenological stages, guyot or spurred cordon vineyards have extremely abundant vegetation, which drastically limits the space available between the rows [...] Read more.
This study firstly examined certain methods of vineyard management typically adopted in Apulia for both table grapes and wine grapes. In the later phenological stages, guyot or spurred cordon vineyards have extremely abundant vegetation, which drastically limits the space available between the rows for the passage of a tractor, even for a narrow-track vehicle. On the other hand, vegetation in tendone vineyards is situated at approximately 1.90 m above the soil surface, so that total tractor height must be compatible with this cultivation method. Foliage canopies in these types of vineyard cultivation system were evaluated at the times of their maximum growth in order to identify the maximum possible size of a prototype tractor that would be able to pass between vineyard rows without interfering in any way with the vegetation and fruits. Using the results of field measurements, it was established that the prototype tractor must have a maximum height of 1600 mm, with a minimum front axle track of less than 1100 mm and a back axle track of less than 1000 mm. A tractor built to these specifications is now being tested in order to compare its performance with that of other tractors commonly used in Apulia in various agricultural contexts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Effects of Allelopathic Aqueous Plant Extracts, as Potential Preparations for Seed Dressing, on the Modulation of Cauliflower Seed Germination
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040122 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Allelopathic plants can be widely used in bio-farming considering their potential role in the improvement of seed germination. The study presented in this work was designed to evaluate the effects of two extraction methods and the effects of allelopathic aqueous extracts from twenty [...] Read more.
Allelopathic plants can be widely used in bio-farming considering their potential role in the improvement of seed germination. The study presented in this work was designed to evaluate the effects of two extraction methods and the effects of allelopathic aqueous extracts from twenty plants as seed dressing preparations on the number of germinating and infested seeds of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea convarietas L. botrytis var. botrytis). Plant extracts (in the form of cold-soaked macerates and infusions) were used for seed dressing. The percentages of normally germinating, non-germinating, and pathogen-infested seeds were determined in a paper test. Of the 20 herbal plant species used in the study, the biopreparations extracted from Zea mays L. moles were the most effective as they evoked the most beneficial effects on both seed germination and reduction of infestation by microbial pathogens. The study also showed that infusions used for seed treatment were better at improving cauliflower seed germination than were macerates. This method of extract preparation probably enabled an increase both in the availability and activity of allelochemical compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Agronomic Practices for Maximizing Crop Growth and Yield)
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Fertilizer Strategies for Vaccinium corymbosum x V. angustifolium under Abandoned Peatland Conditions
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040121 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 321
Abstract
Revegetating abandoned peatlands plays an important role in reducing the CO2 footprint. One possibility for carbon reduction is cultivating blueberries as calcifuge plants in acidic peat soil. The aim of the experiment was to find out the effect of different fertilizers on [...] Read more.
Revegetating abandoned peatlands plays an important role in reducing the CO2 footprint. One possibility for carbon reduction is cultivating blueberries as calcifuge plants in acidic peat soil. The aim of the experiment was to find out the effect of different fertilizers on half-highbush blueberry cultivar ‘Northblue’ growth and biochemical parameters in peatland conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2011–2015 with four organic and one mineral fertilizer, where three were composted chicken manure- and one maltose-based organic fertilizer. The soil of the experimental area belongs to the soil subgroup Fibri–Dystric Histosol with the peat layer 1.0–1.5 m deep. Organic fertilizer 4–1–2, which contained seaweed but had low phosphorus and potassium content, resulted in high yields in 2011 and 2013, with similar vegetative growth and comparable biochemical parameters as mineral fertilizer 6–14–23. The principal component analysis showed that the experimental year was more important in determining fruit parameters than the fertilizer type. However, our results indicated that the organic fertilizers are alternatives to mineral fertilizer for organic production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture and Viticulture)
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Open AccessArticle
The Determinants of Risk Transmission between Oil and Agricultural Prices: An IPVAR Approach
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040120 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 356
Abstract
Previous empirical studies have generally considered biofuel as a main factor in changes in the relationship between oil and agricultural prices because these changes happened after U.S. biofuel policies were implemented. However, it has been argued that other economic factors can trigger the [...] Read more.
Previous empirical studies have generally considered biofuel as a main factor in changes in the relationship between oil and agricultural prices because these changes happened after U.S. biofuel policies were implemented. However, it has been argued that other economic factors can trigger the correlation of these two markets. This study was conducted to examine the transmission mechanisms that influence the relationship between oil and agricultural prices. This paper used the interacted panel vector autoregressive framework, which allowed us to investigate the effect of biofuel production under different regimes of exchange rates and global economic activities. The responses of agricultural prices to oil prices at different levels of biofuel production, global economic activity, and exchange rates were examined in this paper. Data on prices for 10 agricultural commodities—barley, beans, corn, cotton, oats, rice, sorghum, soybean, sunflower, and wheat—from January 2000 to May 2019, were used in this study. Our findings indicate that oil prices can affect agricultural prices through biofuel and exchange rates. Moreover, the effect of biofuel depends on the level of global economic activity and exchange rates. We offer some policy implications on the basis of our findings in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Productivity, Efficiency, and Sustainability in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Pathogens Associated to Kiwifruit Vine Decline in Italy
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040119 - 10 Apr 2020
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Kiwifruit production has gained great importance in Italy, becoming a strategic crop in several areas. In recent years, the Italian kiwifruit industry has been threatened by the emergence of a new, idiopathic syndrome causing a severe and rapid decline, leading to vine collapse [...] Read more.
Kiwifruit production has gained great importance in Italy, becoming a strategic crop in several areas. In recent years, the Italian kiwifruit industry has been threatened by the emergence of a new, idiopathic syndrome causing a severe and rapid decline, leading to vine collapse within two years from symptom development. The main symptoms associated to this syndrome are the disappearance of feeding roots, blocking of both stele and xylem vessels, root cortex breakdown, leaf necrosis, phylloptosis, twig wilting and plant death. Kiwifruit decline affects both Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis and A. chinensis var. deliciosa. Due to the similarity with other fruit trees idiopathic diseases, such as the rapid apple decline, we propose to name this disorder as kiwifruit vine decline syndrome (KVDS). The causes of KVDS are still unknown. However, KVDS is prevalent in soils affected by waterlogging or poor aeration, suggesting a physiological origin of this disorder. In addition, our experiments suggested a role of the rhizosphere microbial community, since healthy and KVDS-affected plants show distinct bacterial and fungal communities. Phytophthora spp. and Phytopythium spp. were more frequent in symptomatic plants (58.6%) than in asymptomatic ones (19%). Moreover, Desarmillaria tabescens were found only on symptomatic plants. Inoculation of potted kiwifruit vines with those pathogens resulted in KVDS symptom development. Finally, induced waterlogging conditions increased the incidence of pathogen isolation, but not the symptom development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Protection, Diseases, Pest and Weeds)
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Open AccessArticle
Machine Learning Regression Model for Predicting Honey Harvests
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040118 - 09 Apr 2020
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Honey yield from apiary sites varies significantly between years. This affects the beekeeper’s ability to manage hive health, as well as honey production. This also has implications for ecosystem services, such as forage availability for nectarivores or seed sets. This study investigates whether [...] Read more.
Honey yield from apiary sites varies significantly between years. This affects the beekeeper’s ability to manage hive health, as well as honey production. This also has implications for ecosystem services, such as forage availability for nectarivores or seed sets. This study investigates whether machine learning methods can develop predictive harvest models of a key nectar source for honeybees, Corymbia calophylla (marri) trees from South West Australia, using data from weather stations and remotely sensed datasets. Honey harvest data, weather and vegetation-related datasets from satellite sensors were input features for machine learning algorithms. Regression trees were able to predict the marri honey harvested per hive to a Mean Average Error (MAE) of 10.3 kg. Reducing input features based on their relative model importance achieved a MAE of 11.7 kg using the November temperature as the sole input feature, two months before marri trees typically start to produce nectar. Combining weather and satellite data and machine learning has delivered a model that quantitatively predicts harvest potential per hive. This can be used by beekeepers to adaptively manage their apiary. This approach may be readily applied to other regions or forage species, or used for the assessment of some ecosystem services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Productivity of Common Bean in Intercrop with Maize across Agro-Ecological Zones of Smallholder Farms in the Northern Highlands of Tanzania
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040117 - 08 Apr 2020
Viewed by 423
Abstract
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important grain legume for food and cash of the smallholder farmers worldwide. However, the total potential benefits to be derived from the common bean as a source of food and income, its complementarities with non-legume [...] Read more.
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important grain legume for food and cash of the smallholder farmers worldwide. However, the total potential benefits to be derived from the common bean as a source of food and income, its complementarities with non-legume food crops, and significance to the environment are underexploited. Intensification of common bean could provide approaches that offer new techniques to better manage and monitor globally complex systems of sustainable food production. Therefore, this study tried to assess the productivity of common bean bushy varieties when are involved as part of an intercrop with maize (Zea mays L.) in varying agro-ecological zones. The factors evaluated were the cropping seasons/years (S) (2015 and 2016), agro-ecological zones (A) above sea level (lower 843 m, middle 1051 m, upper 1743 m), and cropping systems (C) (sole, intercrop). The data collected were the total biomass, number of pods per plant and seeds per pod, 100-seed weight as yield components, and grain yield. Bean and maize grain yields were used to calculate the partial (P) and total land equivalent ratio (LER). Results indicated that the main effects of S, A, C, and the interaction effects of S × A, S × C, S × A × C were significant on bean grain yields. Interactions of S × A × C were also significant on all measured variables. Results also indicated that continuous intercropping of bean with maize over two cropping seasons resulted in the increase of bean grain yields from 1.5 to 2.3 t ha−1 in the lower altitude, 2.0 to 2.3 t ha−1 in the middle altitude, and 1.8 to 2.9 t ha−1 in the upper altitude. Land utilization advantage of intercrops over monocultures yielded a total LER of 1.58, whereas the average partial land equivalent ratio (PLER) of individual beans was 1.53. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Productivity, Efficiency, and Sustainability in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Tree Species, Harvesting Method and Storage on Energy Demand and Wood Chip Quality When Chipping Poplar, Willow and Black Locust
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040116 - 06 Apr 2020
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The cultivation of fast-growing wood (e.g., poplar, willow or black locust) in short rotation coppices and agroforestry systems presents an opportunity for producing biomass sustainably in the agricultural sector. Cost-efficient agricultural wood production requires the availability of high-performance machinery and methods with which [...] Read more.
The cultivation of fast-growing wood (e.g., poplar, willow or black locust) in short rotation coppices and agroforestry systems presents an opportunity for producing biomass sustainably in the agricultural sector. Cost-efficient agricultural wood production requires the availability of high-performance machinery and methods with which high-quality wood chips can be produced at low cost. It is known from harvesting short rotation coppices in practice that both the wood chip quality and the performance of the harvesting machinery depend on a variety of factors (e.g., harvesting method, weather conditions, tree species). That is why this study examines in detail the influence of the tree species (different varieties of poplar, willow, black locust) and the wood condition (fresh, stored or dried, frozen) on the specific energy demand for comminution in a stationary drum chipper and on the particle size distribution of the wood chips produced. For all the tree species examined, the chipping of dried as well as frozen stems was connected with a significant increase in the specific energy demand for comminution. An increase of 31% has been measured if poplar stems are chipped in frozen conditions (max. 6.31 kWh t−1). Drying led to an increase of 59% for dried willow stems (max. 6.67 kWh t−1). Drying and frost had also an influence on the size and quality of the wood chips, but no globally significant connection could be established for the examined tree varieties. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mitigating the Effects of Habitat Loss on Solitary Bees in Agricultural Ecosystems
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040115 - 05 Apr 2020
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Solitary bees and other wild pollinators provide an important ecosystem service which can benefit both the agricultural economy and the sustainability of many native ecosystems. Many solitary bees, however, are experiencing decreases in their populations and ranges, resulting in an overall loss of [...] Read more.
Solitary bees and other wild pollinators provide an important ecosystem service which can benefit both the agricultural economy and the sustainability of many native ecosystems. Many solitary bees, however, are experiencing decreases in their populations and ranges, resulting in an overall loss of pollinator species richness in many areas. Several interacting factors have been implicated in this decline, including increased pesticide use, climate change, and pathogens, but habitat loss remains one of the primary drivers. The widespread conversion of natural habitats into agricultural landscapes has decreased the availability of adequate nesting sites and floral diversity for many bee species. Large monocultures with intensive production systems often cannot support the populations of wild bees (particularly species with short foraging ranges) necessary to ensure adequate pollination of animal-pollinated crops. Diversifying agricultural landscapes through the incorporation of wildflower plantings, as well as the preservation of remaining natural habitats, may offer a solution, as it has been shown to increase both bee diversity and abundance and the pollination of nearby crops. In this review article, we discuss the various effects of habitat loss on solitary bees and different ways to mitigate such effects in order to conserve bee diversity and populations in agricultural landscapes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biocontrol Potential of Some Entomopathogenic Fungal Strains Against Bean Aphid Megoura japonica (Matsumura)
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040114 - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 354
Abstract
This research reported the in vitro pathogenicity of Verticillium lecanii strains, L2 and L5, and Beauveria bassiana strains, B76 and B252, against Megoura japonica using leaf-dip method. The virulence potential of these four entomopathogenic fungal strains of V. lecanii and of B. bassiana [...] Read more.
This research reported the in vitro pathogenicity of Verticillium lecanii strains, L2 and L5, and Beauveria bassiana strains, B76 and B252, against Megoura japonica using leaf-dip method. The virulence potential of these four entomopathogenic fungal strains of V. lecanii and of B. bassiana were compared between fungi conidia (concentrations 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108 conidia mL−1) and culture filtrate. Moreover, binary combination of four different fungal strains (L2 + B76, B76 + L5, L2 + B252, and L2 + B76 + B252 + L5) were evaluated against M. japonica under control condition. Aphid mortality was recorded after two, four, six, and eight days of post-treatment. In the conidial concentration bioassay, strain B76 showed maximal mortality (85.3%) against bean aphid, and strain L5 showed the lowest effect (60.0%) at the highest concentration (1 × 108 conidia mL−1) at eight days post-treatment. Whereas, binary combinations of B76 and L2 strains showed the highest effect against M. japonica (90.5%) than other combinations. Moreover, in comparison with the effect of filtrate and conidia bioassay, 91.4% and 84.1% were achieved in strain B76, and the lowest effect (63.8% and 55.1%) was recorded in strain L5. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alpha and Beta-diversity of Microbial Communities Associated to Plant Disease Suppressive Functions of On-farm Green Composts
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040113 - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Green waste composts are obtained from agricultural production chains; their suppressive properties are increasingly being developed as a promising biological control option in the management of soil-borne phytopathogens. The wide variety of microbes harbored in the compost ecological niches may regulate suppressive functions [...] Read more.
Green waste composts are obtained from agricultural production chains; their suppressive properties are increasingly being developed as a promising biological control option in the management of soil-borne phytopathogens. The wide variety of microbes harbored in the compost ecological niches may regulate suppressive functions through not yet fully known underlying mechanisms. This study investigates alpha- and beta-diversity of the compost microbial communities, as indicators of the biological features. Our green composts displayed a differential pattern of suppressiveness over the two assayed pathosystems. Fungal and bacterial densities, as well as catabolic and enzyme functionalities did not correlate with the compost control efficacy on cress disease. Differences in the suppressive potential of composts can be better predicted by the variations in the community levels of physiological profiles indicating that functional alpha-diversity is more predictive than that which is calculated on terminal restriction fragments length polymorphisms (T-RFLPs) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. However, beta-diversity described by nMDS analysis of the Bray–Curtis dissimilarity allowed for separating compost samples into distinct functionally meaningful clusters and indicated that suppressiveness could be regulated by selected groups of microorganisms as major deterministic mechanisms. This study contributes to individuating new suitable characterization procedures applicable to the suppressive green compost chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composting and Organic Soil Amendments)
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Open AccessArticle
Quality Evaluation of Potato Tubers Using Neural Image Analysis Method
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040112 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 375
Abstract
This paper describes the research aimed at developing an effective quality assessment method for potato tubers using neural image analysis techniques. Nowadays, the methods used to identify damage and diseases are time-consuming, require specialized knowledge, and often rely on subjective judgment. This study [...] Read more.
This paper describes the research aimed at developing an effective quality assessment method for potato tubers using neural image analysis techniques. Nowadays, the methods used to identify damage and diseases are time-consuming, require specialized knowledge, and often rely on subjective judgment. This study showed the use of the developed neural model as a tool supporting the evaluation of potato tubers during the sorting process in the storage room. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Analysis Techniques in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pre-Harvest Glyphosate Application on Spring Wheat Quality Characteristics
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040111 - 04 Apr 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the effect of pre-harvest glyphosate application on spring wheat quality characteristics, ranging from kernel quality to baking quality. Two wheat cultivars were grown in three locations, and glyphosate was applied at the recommended rate at the soft [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to determine the effect of pre-harvest glyphosate application on spring wheat quality characteristics, ranging from kernel quality to baking quality. Two wheat cultivars were grown in three locations, and glyphosate was applied at the recommended rate at the soft dough stage (early application) and the ripe stage (recommended application time). When glyphosate was applied at the soft dough stage, kernel weight, wheat protein and wet gluten decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05), however, gluten index significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05). Dough quality, farinograph stability, and quality number were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher when glyphosate was applied at the soft dough stage, and absorption and the mixing tolerance index were lower. As for baking quality, loaf volume and mix time were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the treated samples in comparison to the untreated control, and other baking quality characteristics did not show any significant difference. Overall, the results indicate that spring wheat quality characteristics are impacted to the greatest degree when glyphosate is applied earlier than recommended at the soft dough stage, as opposed to the recommended application at the ripe stage of physiological development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Convenient Co-Dominant Marker for Height-Reducing Ddw1 Allele Useful for Marker-Assisted Selection
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040110 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Reducing plant height improves lodging resistance and helps to obtain high grain yield under various environmental conditions. So far, the introduction and maintenance of the dwarfing allele of the Ddw1 gene is the most effective height-reducing genetic approach in rye and triticale breeding [...] Read more.
Reducing plant height improves lodging resistance and helps to obtain high grain yield under various environmental conditions. So far, the introduction and maintenance of the dwarfing allele of the Ddw1 gene is the most effective height-reducing genetic approach in rye and triticale breeding programs. However, the dominance of the dwarfing Ddw1 allele makes it difficult to select against heterozygous lines for further breeding based on plant phenotype. To assist breeders in the identification of the allele status of the Ddw1 gene, we developed a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker that requires basic equipment and can be easily applied. The CAPS marker was tested on two F2 segregating populations of triticale, and the test showed the association of the Ddw1 genotype with plant height. The application of the marker for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for rye and triticale is discussed in detail. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antibiosis Effects of Rice Carrying Bph14 and Bph15 on the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens
Agriculture 2020, 10(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10040109 - 03 Apr 2020
Viewed by 367
Abstract
The brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is the most destructive insect pest in rice production worldwide. The development and cultivation of BPH-resistant varieties is the most economical and efficient strategy to overcome the destruction caused by BPH. The modified bulk seedling test method [...] Read more.
The brown planthopper(BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is the most destructive insect pest in rice production worldwide. The development and cultivation of BPH-resistant varieties is the most economical and efficient strategy to overcome the destruction caused by BPH. The modified bulk seedling test method was used to identify the BPH resistance level and host feeding choice of rice lines of Liangyou8676(Bph14/Bph15), Bph68S(Bph14/Bph15), RHT(Bph3), Fuhui676, and TN1 on BPH. In the meantime, the population, survival and emergence rate, developmental duration, honeydew excretion, female ratio and brachypterous ratio of adults were used as indicators to detect the antibiosis effects of the different rice lines. The results showed that the resistance levels of RHT, Bph68S, Liangyou8676, Fuhui676, and TN1 to BPH were HR, R, MR, S and HS, respectively. The host choice implied that BPH was more inclined to feeding on rice plants with a lower resistance. An analysis of the antibiosis activity of rice lines RHT, BPh68S, and Liangyou8676 carrying resistance genes indicated a significant reduction in the population growth rate, survival and emergence rate of BPH nymphs, significant delay in the developmental duration of nymphs, reduced honeydew excretion of females, decreased female ratio, and a decreased brachypterous ratio of females and males, when compared with rice carrying no BPH-resistant genes. Full article
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