Next Issue
Volume 9, June
Previous Issue
Volume 9, April

Table of Contents

Antioxidants, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2020) – 99 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) This figure represents three consecutive steps of viral infection and their pathways of inhibition [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Arylesterase Activity of Paraoxonase-1 in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050456 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Background: It has been suggested that circulating Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), which closely interacts with the antioxidant enzyme, could be implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) development. This study aimed to evaluate PON1 changes in serum and cerebrospinal [...] Read more.
Background: It has been suggested that circulating Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), which closely interacts with the antioxidant enzyme, could be implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) development. This study aimed to evaluate PON1 changes in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as evidence for its association with AD or VaD. Methods: Serum PON-arylesterase activity was measured in patients with AD, VaD, and CONTROLS distributed in two cohorts: Ferrara cohort (FC: n = 503, age = 74 years) and Amsterdam Dementia cohort (ADC: n = 71, age = 65 years). In the last cohort, CSF PON-arylesterase, CSF β-amyloid1-42, p-tau and t-tau, and imaging biomarkers were also measured. Results: AD and VaD patients of FC showed significantly lower levels of serum PON-arylesterase compared to CONTROLS, but this outcome was driven by older subjects (>71 years, p < 0.0001). In the younger ADC, a similar decreasing (but not significant) trend was observed in serum and CSF. Intriguingly, PON-arylesterase per APOA1 correlated with t-tau in AD group (r = −0.485, p = 0.002). Conclusion: These results suggest that decreased peripheral PON-arylesterase might be a specific feature of older AD/VaD patients. Moreover, we showed that PON-arylesterase/APOA1 is inversely related to neurodegeneration in AD patients, suggesting a prognostic usefulness of this composite parameter. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Multidrug Resistance Modulation Activity of Silybin Derivatives and Their Anti-Inflammatory Potential
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050455 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Silybin is considered to be the main biologically active component of silymarin. Its oxidized derivative 2,3-dehydrosilybin typically occurs in silymarin in small, but non-negligible amounts (up to 3%). Here, we investigated in detail complex biological activities of silybin and 2,3-dehydrosilybin optical isomers. Antioxidant [...] Read more.
Silybin is considered to be the main biologically active component of silymarin. Its oxidized derivative 2,3-dehydrosilybin typically occurs in silymarin in small, but non-negligible amounts (up to 3%). Here, we investigated in detail complex biological activities of silybin and 2,3-dehydrosilybin optical isomers. Antioxidant activities of pure stereomers A and B of silybin and 2,3-dehydrosilybin, as well as their racemic mixtures, were investigated by using oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay. All substances efficiently reduced nitric oxide production and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) release in a dose-dependent manner. Multidrug resistance (MDR) modulating potential was evaluated as inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) ATPase activity and regulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein expression. All the tested compounds showed strong dose-dependent inhibition of P-gp pump. Moreover, 2,3-dehydrosilybin A (30 µM) displayed the strongest sensitization of doxorubicin-resistant ovarian carcinoma. Despite these significant effects, silybin B was the only compound acting directly upon P-gp in vitro and also downregulating the expression of respective MDR genes. This compound altered the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2). 2,3-Dehydrosilybin AB exhibited the most effective inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. We can clearly postulate that silybin derivatives could serve well as modulators of a cancer drug-resistant phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Role of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Plant Stress Response
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050454 - 25 May 2020
Viewed by 683
Abstract
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are the largest enzyme family involved in NADPH- and/or O2-dependent hydroxylation reactions across all the domains of life. In plants and animals, CYPs play a central role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. In addition to this function, CYPs [...] Read more.
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are the largest enzyme family involved in NADPH- and/or O2-dependent hydroxylation reactions across all the domains of life. In plants and animals, CYPs play a central role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. In addition to this function, CYPs act as versatile catalysts and play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, antioxidants, and phytohormones in higher plants. The molecular and biochemical processes catalyzed by CYPs have been well characterized, however, the relationship between the biochemical process catalyzed by CYPs and its effect on several plant functions was not well established. The advent of next-generation sequencing opened new avenues to unravel the involvement of CYPs in several plant functions such as plant stress response. The expression of several CYP genes are regulated in response to environmental stresses, and they also play a prominent role in the crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress responses. CYPs have an enormous potential to be used as a candidate for engineering crop species resilient to biotic and abiotic stresses. The objective of this review is to summarize the latest research on the role of CYPs in plant stress response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Antioxidants in the “One Health” Paradigm)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Biological Activity of Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oils through Their Phenolic Profile and Their Combination with Anticancer Drugs Observed in Human Cervical Carcinoma and Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050453 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 411
Abstract
The roles of phenolics from olive oils as effective anticancer agents have been documented in various in vitro studies of different cancer cells lines, but the relationship between the phenolic profile of olive oil and its biological activity needs more elucidation. In this [...] Read more.
The roles of phenolics from olive oils as effective anticancer agents have been documented in various in vitro studies of different cancer cells lines, but the relationship between the phenolic profile of olive oil and its biological activity needs more elucidation. In this study, we analysed phenolic profiles of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from different autochthonous cultivars from Croatia (Oblica, Bjelica, Buža, Žižolera) and investigated the biological effect of EVOO phenolic extracts (EVOO-PEs) on human cervical (HeLa) and human colon (SW48) cancer cell lines alone and in combination with cisplatin (cDDP), carboplatin (CBP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan. The quantitative evaluation of olive oil polyphenols was performed by HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric analysis. The biological effect of EVOO-PEs alone and in combination with anticancer drugs was measured by MTT assay. Analysed EVOO-PEs differ in phenolic profile and inhibited HeLa and SW48 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, it is shown that EVOO-PEs (Oblica-Sea, Buža and Žižolera), in combination with anticancer drugs, increase the metabolic activity of HeLa and SW48 cells and have a protective role. These data imply careful consummation of olive oil during chemotherapy of cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Antioxidant Enzyme Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A (MsrA) Interacts with Jab1/CSN5 and Regulates Its Function
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050452 - 24 May 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) is an oxidative posttranslational modification that primarily occurs under oxidative stress conditions, leading to alteration of protein structure and function. This modification is regulated by MetO reduction through the evolutionarily conserved methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) system. The Msr type A [...] Read more.
Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) is an oxidative posttranslational modification that primarily occurs under oxidative stress conditions, leading to alteration of protein structure and function. This modification is regulated by MetO reduction through the evolutionarily conserved methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) system. The Msr type A enzyme (MsrA) plays an important role as a cellular antioxidant and promotes cell survival. The ubiquitin- (Ub) like neddylation pathway, which is controlled by the c-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (Jab1), also affects cell survival. Jab1 negatively regulates expression of the cell cycle inhibitor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (P27) through binding and targeting P27 for ubiquitination and degradation. Here we report the finding that MsrA interacts with Jab1 and enhances Jab1′s deneddylase activity (removal of Nedd8). In turn, an increase is observed in the level of deneddylated Cullin-1 (Cul-1, a component of E3 Ub ligase complexes). Furthermore, the action of MsrA increases the binding affinity of Jab1 to P27, while MsrA ablation causes a dramatic increase in P27 expression. Thus, an interaction between MsrA and Jab1 is proposed to have a positive effect on the function of Jab1 and to serve as a means to regulate cellular resistance to oxidative stress and to enhance cell survival. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antioxidant Enzyme Systems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
State of the Art of Anthocyanins: Antioxidant Activity, Sources, Bioavailability, and Therapeutic Effect in Human Health
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 451; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050451 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins in food is well known. Numerous antioxidant assays have been proposed to measure the capacity of anthocyanins to prevent the oxidation process that naturally occurs. Different solvents, temperatures, and pH levels are applied in each assay, and these [...] Read more.
The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins in food is well known. Numerous antioxidant assays have been proposed to measure the capacity of anthocyanins to prevent the oxidation process that naturally occurs. Different solvents, temperatures, and pH levels are applied in each assay, and these factors should be taken into account in order to obtain useful and reproducible results. The concentration and the structure of these compounds are directly related to their antioxidant capacity and their environment. However, the effectiveness of the anthocyanin ingestion against diseases is also influenced by its bioavailability. Novel methodologies that simulate the digestion process have been developed in order to facilitate the current knowledge of anthocyanins bioavailability. Studies highlight the potential synergy effect between parent compounds and their derivatives (metabolites, conjugated products, and microbe-generated metabolites). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of advantages and disadvantages of the most common methods to determine the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins, chemical structure, and concentration of these compounds in different edible fruits, vegetables, and plants; their bioavailability after intake; as well as the main therapeutic effect described in the scientific literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant capacity of Anthocyanins and Other Vegetal Pigments)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Total Oxidant and Antioxidant Capacity of Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva in Patients with Periodontitis: Review and Clinical Study
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050450 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Periodontitis is inextricably linked to oxidative-reductive (redox) imbalance. However, little is still known about the resultant ability to scavenge oxygen free radicals in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with periodontitis. The multitude of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and their synergistic effects [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is inextricably linked to oxidative-reductive (redox) imbalance. However, little is still known about the resultant ability to scavenge oxygen free radicals in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with periodontitis. The multitude of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and their synergistic effects cause an interest in the evaluation of the total antioxidative capacity. Thus, our study aimed to evaluate the total oxidative and antioxidative activity of gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in the periodontitis, as well as to relate these biomarkers to clinical indices of periodontopathy. Additionally, by calculating the oxidative stress index (OSI), the intensity of redox disturbances was also evaluated. Fifty-eight periodontitis patients were included in the study and divided into two subgroups depending on the severity of the disease. In the non-stimulated/stimulated saliva as well as a gingival crevicular fluid of the study group, we found significantly higher OSI and total oxidant status (TOS) as well as lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, the ability to reduce iron ions (FRAP) was significantly lower only in stimulated and non-stimulated saliva of patients with periodontitis. The examined parameters correlated with the periodontium’s clinical condition, which indicates the exacerbation of the inflammatory process. However, TAC, TOS, OSI, and FRAP did not differentiate individual stages of periodontitis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Neuroprotective Effects of Euonymus alatus Extract on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficits in Mice
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050449 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 438
Abstract
Euonymus alatus is considered to elicit various beneficial effects against cancer, hyperglycemia, menstrual discomfort, diabetic complications, and detoxification. The young leaves of this plant are exploited as food and also utilized for traditional medicine in East Asian countries, including Korea and China. Our [...] Read more.
Euonymus alatus is considered to elicit various beneficial effects against cancer, hyperglycemia, menstrual discomfort, diabetic complications, and detoxification. The young leaves of this plant are exploited as food and also utilized for traditional medicine in East Asian countries, including Korea and China. Our preliminary study demonstrated that ethanolic extract from the Euonymus alatus leaf (EAE) exhibited the strongest antioxidant enzyme-inducing activity among more than 100 kinds of edible tree leaf extracts. This study investigated whether EAE could attenuate the cognitive deficits caused by oxidative stress in mice. Oral intubation of EAE at 100 mg/kg bw or higher resulted in significant improvements to the memory and behavioral impairment induced via i.p. injection of scopolamine. Furthermore, EAE enhanced the expression levels of hippocampal neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor in mice, activated the Nrf2, and the downstream heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) a quintessential antioxidant enzyme. As rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinose) was abundantly present in EAE and free quercetin was able to induce defensive antioxidant enzymes in an Nrf2-dependent manner, our findings suggested that quercetin derived from rutin via the intestinal microflora played a significant role in the protection of the mouse hippocampus from scopolamine-induced damage through BDNF-mediated Nrf2 activation, thereby dampening cognitive decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants of Natural Product)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress and Photodynamic Therapy of Skin Cancers: Mechanisms, Challenges and Promising Developments
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050448 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Ultraviolet radiation is one of the most pervasive environmental interactions with humans. Chronic ultraviolet irradiation increases the danger of skin carcinogenesis. Probably, oxidative stress is the most important mechanism by which ultraviolet radiation implements its damaging effects on normal cells. However, notwithstanding the [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet radiation is one of the most pervasive environmental interactions with humans. Chronic ultraviolet irradiation increases the danger of skin carcinogenesis. Probably, oxidative stress is the most important mechanism by which ultraviolet radiation implements its damaging effects on normal cells. However, notwithstanding the data referring to the negative effects exerted by light radiation and oxidative stress on carcinogenesis, both factors are used in the treatment of skin cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of the administration of a photosensitiser, which undergoes excitation after suitable irradiation emitted from a light source and generates reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress causes a condition in which cellular components, including DNA, proteins, and lipids, are oxidised and injured. Antitumor effects result from the combination of direct tumour cell photodamage, the destruction of tumour vasculature and the activation of an immune response. In this review, we report the data present in literature dealing with the main signalling molecular pathways modified by oxidative stress after photodynamic therapy to target skin cancer cells. Moreover, we describe the progress made in the design of anti-skin cancer photosensitisers, and the new possibilities of increasing the efficacy of PDT via the use of molecules capable of developing a synergistic antineoplastic action. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of the Kombucha Beverage Derived from White, Green, Black and Red Tea
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050447 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 540
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage prepared as a result of the symbiotic nature of bacterial cultures and yeast, the so-called SCOBY (Symbiotic Cultures of Bacteria and Yeasts). Kombucha is characterised by rich chemical content and healthy properties. It includes organic [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage prepared as a result of the symbiotic nature of bacterial cultures and yeast, the so-called SCOBY (Symbiotic Cultures of Bacteria and Yeasts). Kombucha is characterised by rich chemical content and healthy properties. It includes organic acids, minerals and vitamins originating mainly from tea, amino acids, and biologically active compounds—polyphenols in particular. Kombucha is prepared mainly in the form of black tea, but other tea types are increasingly often used as well, which can significantly impact its content and health benefits. This work shows that the type of tea has a significant influence on the parameters associated with the antioxidant potential, pH, as well as the content of acetic acid, alcohol or sugar. Red tea and green tea on the 1st and 14th day of fermentation are a particularly prominent source of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, including flavonoids. Therefore, the choice of other tea types than the traditionally used black tea and the subjection of these tea types to fermentation seems to be beneficial in terms of the healthy properties of kombucha. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Foods)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Myricetin on Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced 8-Hydroxy-2′-Deoxyguanosine and BPDE-DNA Adduct
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 446; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050446 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 361
Abstract
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a group 1 carcinogen, induces mutagenic DNA adducts. Myricetin is present in many natural foods with diverse biological activities, such as anti-oxidative and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of myricetin against B[a]P-induced toxicity. [...] Read more.
Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a group 1 carcinogen, induces mutagenic DNA adducts. Myricetin is present in many natural foods with diverse biological activities, such as anti-oxidative and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of myricetin against B[a]P-induced toxicity. Treatment of B[a]P induced cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells, whereas co-treatment of myricetin with B[a]P reduced the formation of the B[a]P-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adduct, which recovered cell viability. Furthermore, we found a protective effect of myricetin against B[a]P-induced genotoxicity in rats, via myricetin-induced inhibition of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and BPDE-DNA adduct formation in the liver, kidney, colon, and stomach tissue. This inhibition was more prominent in the liver than in other tissues. Correspondingly, myricetin regulated the phase I and II enzymes that inhibit B[a]P metabolism and B[a]P metabolites conjugated with DNA by reducing and inducing CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) expression, respectively. Taken together, this showed that myricetin attenuated B[a]P-induced genotoxicity via regulation of phase I and II enzymes. Our results suggest that myricetin is anti-genotoxic, and prevents oxidative DNA damage and BPDE-DNA adduct formation via regulation of phase I and II enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Modulators and Functional Foods)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
One-Week High-Intensity Interval Training Increases Hippocampal Plasticity and Mitochondrial Content without Changes in Redox State
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050445 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Evidence suggests that physical exercise has effects on neuronal plasticity as well as overall brain health. This effect has been linked to exercise capacity in modulating the antioxidant status, when the oxidative stress is usually linked to the neuronal damage. Although high-intensity interval [...] Read more.
Evidence suggests that physical exercise has effects on neuronal plasticity as well as overall brain health. This effect has been linked to exercise capacity in modulating the antioxidant status, when the oxidative stress is usually linked to the neuronal damage. Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is the training-trend worldwide, its effect on brain function is still unclear. Thus, we aimed to assess the neuroplasticity, mitochondrial, and redox status after one-week HIIT training. Male (C57Bl/6) mice were assigned to non-trained or HIIT groups. The HIIT protocol consisted of three days with short bouts at 130% of maximum speed (Vmax), intercalated with moderate-intensity continuous exercise sessions of 30 min at 60% Vmax. The mass spectrometry analyses showed that one-week of HIIT increased minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2), brain derived neutrophic factor (BDNF), doublecortin (DCX) and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 (VDAC), and decreased mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD 2) in the hippocampus. In addition, one-week of HIIT promoted no changes in H2O2 production and carbonylated protein concentration in the hippocampus as well as in superoxide anion production in the dentate gyrus. In conclusion, our one-week HIIT protocol increased neuroplasticity and mitochondrial content regardless of changes in redox status, adding new insights into the neuronal modulation induced by new training models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Signalling and Exercise)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Advanced Age, Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction and Insulin Dysregulation on Serum Antioxidant Markers in Horses
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050444 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 301
Abstract
The study aims to assess the impact of age, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and insulin dysregulation (ID) in horses on selected oxidative stress markers. The study includes 32 horses, divided into three groups: “young” adult group (aged 8–16 years old) “geriatric” group [...] Read more.
The study aims to assess the impact of age, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and insulin dysregulation (ID) in horses on selected oxidative stress markers. The study includes 32 horses, divided into three groups: “young” adult group (aged 8–16 years old) “geriatric” group (aged 18–24 years old) and the “PPID” group (aged 15–31 years old). The PPID group was further divided into two subgroups: PPID ID+ and PPID ID− based on presence or absence of ID. We measured serum antioxidant stress markers in all horses: total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ceruloplasmin (CER), lipofuscin (LPS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiols concentrations (containing sulfhydryl group -SH) as well as enzymatic systems: total superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytoplasmic SOD (CuZnSOD), mitochondrial SOD activity (MnSOD). Total serum thiols were significantly lower in the geriatric group and in the PPID group compared to the young group. The MnSOD concentration was higher in the PPID ID+ group compared to the PPID ID−. LPS and MDA concentrations were lower in the PPID ID+ group compared to the PPID ID− group. In the selected study groups of horses, older age, the presence of PPID and ID in the case of PPID had no effect on the studied oxidative stress markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Metabolite Profiling and Antioxidant Activity of 10 New Early- to Mid-Season Apple Cultivars and 14 Traditional Cultivars
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050443 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Early- to mid-season apple cultivars have recently been developed in response to global warming; however, their metabolite compositions remain unclear. Herein, metabolites, such as free sugars, and organic acids and antioxidant activity were determined in 10 new and 14 traditional apple cultivars. Additionally, [...] Read more.
Early- to mid-season apple cultivars have recently been developed in response to global warming; however, their metabolite compositions remain unclear. Herein, metabolites, such as free sugars, and organic acids and antioxidant activity were determined in 10 new and 14 traditional apple cultivars. Additionally, the phenolic profiles of the apple pulp and peel were characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Major phenolic compounds in apples varied depending on the cultivar and tissue (i.e., peel or pulp). Among the new apple cultivars, Decobell and Tinkerbell, showed high antioxidant activity and contained higher phenolic compound content than other cultivars in the peel and pulp, respectively. Honggeum showed high phenolic content with similar sugar to acid ratio compared to popular traditional cultivars. In addition to antioxidant phenolic contents, metabolite profile information can be used to select apple cultivars for various purposes. For example, Indo can be selected for sweet apple taste because of its higher sugar to acid ratio. This information can be used to select apple cultivars for various purposes. For example, Decobell peel could be used as sources of food supplements and food additives, and Tinkerbell pulp can be utilized for apple juice making according to its metabolite profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recents Developments in Bioactive Molecules Evaluation)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Transcriptomic Evidence of Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Response of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to Hydroxytyrosol
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050442 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 333
Abstract
This study was aimed to gain new insights into the molecular mechanisms used by Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to respond to hydroxytyrosol (HXT), one of the main and health-relevant plant phenolics present in olive oil. To this goal, whole genome transcriptomic profiling was used [...] Read more.
This study was aimed to gain new insights into the molecular mechanisms used by Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to respond to hydroxytyrosol (HXT), one of the main and health-relevant plant phenolics present in olive oil. To this goal, whole genome transcriptomic profiling was used to better understand the contribution of differential gene expression in the adaptation to HXT by this microorganism. The transcriptomic profile reveals an HXT-triggered antioxidant response involving genes from the ROS (reactive oxygen species) resistome of L. plantarum, genes coding for H2S-producing enzymes and genes involved in the response to thiol-specific oxidative stress. The expression of a set of genes involved in cell wall biogenesis was also upregulated, indicating that this subcellular compartment was a target of HXT. The expression of several MFS (major facilitator superfamily) efflux systems and ABC-transporters was differentially affected by HXT, probably to control its transport across the membrane. L. plantarum transcriptionally reprogrammed nitrogen metabolism and involved the stringent response (SR) to adapt to HXT, as indicated by the reduced expression of genes involved in cell proliferation or related to the metabolism of (p)ppGpp, the molecule that triggers the SR. Our data have identified, at genome scale, the antimicrobial mechanisms of HXT action as well as molecular mechanisms that potentially enable L. plantarum to cope with the effects of this phenolic compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olive Oil Antioxidants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Protein Formulations Containing Polysorbates: Are Metal Chelators Needed at All?
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050441 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 429
Abstract
Proteins are prone to post-translational modifications at specific sites, which can affect their physicochemical properties, and consequently also their safety and efficacy. Sources of post-translational modifications include oxygen and reactive oxygen species. Additionally, catalytic amounts of Fe(II) or Cu(I) can promote increased activities [...] Read more.
Proteins are prone to post-translational modifications at specific sites, which can affect their physicochemical properties, and consequently also their safety and efficacy. Sources of post-translational modifications include oxygen and reactive oxygen species. Additionally, catalytic amounts of Fe(II) or Cu(I) can promote increased activities of reactive oxygen species, and thus catalyse the production of particularly reactive hydroxyl radicals. When oxidative post-translational modifications are detected in the biopharmaceutical industry, it is common practice to add chelators to the formulation. However, the resultant complexes with metals can be even more damaging. Indeed, this is supported here using an ascorbate redox system assay and peptide mapping. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition strongly accelerated the formation of hydroxyl radicals in an iron-ascorbate system, while diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) addition did not. When Fe(III) was substituted with Cu(II), EDTA addition almost stopped hydroxyl radical production, whereas DTPA addition showed continued production, but at a reduced rate. Further, EDTA accelerated metal-catalysed oxidation of proteins, and thus did not protect them from Fe-mediated oxidative damage. As every formulation is unique, justification for EDTA or DTPA addition should be based on experimental data and not common practice. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Bioavailability of Epigallocatechin Gallate Administered with Different Nutritional Strategies in Healthy Volunteers
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050440 - 19 May 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
The flavanol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is being tested for the treatment of several diseases in humans. However, its bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile needs a better understanding to enable its use in clinical trials. There is no consensus on the most appropriate concentration of [...] Read more.
The flavanol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is being tested for the treatment of several diseases in humans. However, its bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile needs a better understanding to enable its use in clinical trials. There is no consensus on the most appropriate concentration of EGCG in the body to obtain the maximum therapeutic effects. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the bioavailability of EGCG orally administered alone or with different food supplements after overnight fasting in order to determine its optimal conditions (high concentrations in blood and the lowest interindividual variations) to be used as a pharmacological tool in human trials. Ten healthy volunteers (5 men and 5 women) aged 25 to 35 years were recruited prospectively. Three series of clinical experiments with a washout period of seven days among each were performed: (1) Teavigo® (EGCG extract) alone, (2) Teavigo® with a standard breakfast, and (3) FontUp® (Teavigo® commercially prepared with fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 360 min after EGCG intake. Free EGCG in plasma was measured using a liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analytical method. The pharmacokinetic variables analyzed statistically were area under the curve (AUC0–360), Cmax, Cav, Cmin, T1/2, and Tmax. EGCG (Teavigo®) alone was the group with higher AUC0–360, Cmax, and Cav both in men (3.86 ± 4.11 µg/mL/kg/6 h; 5.95 ng/mL/kg; 2.96 ng/mL/kg) and women (3.33 ± 1.08 µg/mL/kg/6 h; 6.66 ng/mL/kg; 3.66 ng/mL). Moreover, FontUp® was the group with the highest value of T1/2 both in men (192 ± 66 min) and women (133 ± 28 min). Teavigo® intake after fasting overnight revealed the highest concentration of EGCG in plasma according to its pharmacokinetic profile, indicating that this is an excellent alternative of administration if the experimental design requires good absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, EGCG taken along with food supplements (FontUp®) improved the stability of the molecule in the body, being the best choice if the experimental design wants to reduce interindividual variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Antioxidant Ingredients from Natural Products)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview
A Bibliometric Review of Publications on Oxidative Stress and Chemobrain: 1990–2019
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050439 - 18 May 2020
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Oxidative stress is considered one of the possible mechanisms behind chemobrain or the cognitive dysfunction persistent after chemotherapy treatment. Breast cancer patients have reported chemobrain symptoms since the 1990s. In this present bibliometric review, we employed the VOSviewer tool to describe the existing [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is considered one of the possible mechanisms behind chemobrain or the cognitive dysfunction persistent after chemotherapy treatment. Breast cancer patients have reported chemobrain symptoms since the 1990s. In this present bibliometric review, we employed the VOSviewer tool to describe the existing landscape on literature concerning oxidative stress, breast cancer chemotherapies, and chemobrain. As of 2019, 8799 papers were listed in the Web of Science database, with more than 900 papers published each year. As expected, terms relating to oxidative stress, mitochondria, breast cancer, and antioxidants have occurred very often in the literature throughout the years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the occurrence of terms related to nanomedicine. Only within the last decade do the keywords ‘brain’, ‘blood-brain barrier’, and ‘central nervous system’ appear, reflecting an increased interest in chemobrain. China has become the most prolific producer of oxidative stress and chemotherapy related papers in the last decade followed by the USA and India. In conclusion, the subject of oxidative stress as a mechanism behind chemotherapies’ toxicities is an active area of research. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Properties of Agri-Food Byproducts and Specific Boosting Effects of Hydrolytic Treatments
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050438 - 18 May 2020
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Largely produced agri-food byproducts represent a sustainable and easily available source of phenolic compounds, such as lignins and tannins, endowed with potent antioxidant properties. We report herein the characterization of the antioxidant properties of nine plant-derived byproducts. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power [...] Read more.
Largely produced agri-food byproducts represent a sustainable and easily available source of phenolic compounds, such as lignins and tannins, endowed with potent antioxidant properties. We report herein the characterization of the antioxidant properties of nine plant-derived byproducts. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays indicated the superior activity of pomegranate peels and seeds, grape pomace and pecan nut shell. An increase in the antioxidant potency was observed for most of the waste materials following a hydrolytic treatment, with the exception of the condensed tannin-rich pecan nut shell and grape pomace. UV-Vis and HPLC investigation of the soluble fractions coupled with the results from IR analysis and chemical degradation approaches on the whole materials allowed to conclude that the improvement of the antioxidant properties was due not only to removal of non-active components (mainly carbohydrates), but also to structural modifications of the phenolic compounds. Parallel experiments run on natural and bioinspired model phenolic polymers suggested that these structural modifications positively impacted on the antioxidant properties of lignins and hydrolyzable tannins, whereas significant degradation of condensed tannin moieties occurred, likely responsible for the lowering of the reducing power observed for grape pomace and pecan nut shell. These results open new perspectives toward the exploitation and manipulation of agri-food byproducts for application as antioxidant additives in functional materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Water Extract from Inflorescences of Industrial Hemp Futura 75 Variety as a Source of Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Proliferative and Antimycotic Agents: Results from In Silico, In Vitro and Ex Vivo Studies
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050437 - 17 May 2020
Viewed by 876
Abstract
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is traditionally cultivated as a valuable source of fibers and nutrients. Multiple studies also demonstrated antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, phytotoxic and insecticide effects of the essential oil from hemp female inflorescences. On the other side, only a few studies [...] Read more.
Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is traditionally cultivated as a valuable source of fibers and nutrients. Multiple studies also demonstrated antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, phytotoxic and insecticide effects of the essential oil from hemp female inflorescences. On the other side, only a few studies explored the potential pharmacological application of polar extracts from inflorescences. In the present study, we investigated the water extract from inflorescences of industrial hemp Futura 75 variety, from phytochemical and pharmacological point of view. The water extract was assayed for phenolic compound content, radical scavenger/reducing, chelating and anti-tyrosinase effects. Through an ex vivo model of toxicity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on isolated rat colon and liver, we explored the extract effects on serotonin, dopamine and kynurenine pathways and the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2. Anti-proliferative effects were also evaluated against human colon cancer HCT116 cell line. Additionally, antimycotic effects were investigated against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum gypseum. Finally, in silico studies, including bioinformatics, network pharmacology and docking approaches were conducted in order to predict the putative targets underlying the observed pharmacological and microbiological effects. Futura 75 water extract was able to blunt LPS-induced reduction of serotonin and increase of dopamine and kynurenine turnover, in rat colon. Additionally, the reduction of PGE2 levels was observed in both colon and liver specimens, as well. The extract inhibited the HCT116 cell viability, the growth of T. rubrum and T. interdigitale and the activity of tyrosinase, in vitro, whereas in silico studies highlighting the inhibitions of cyclooxygenase-1 (induced by carvacrol), carbonic anhydrase IX (induced by chlorogenic acid and gallic acid) and lanosterol 14-α-demethylase (induced by rutin) further support the observed pharmacological and antimycotic effects. The present findings suggest female inflorescences from industrial hemp as high quality by-products, thus representing promising sources of nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals against inflammatory and infectious diseases. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Biological Activities of Fruits and Leaves of Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. and Their Isoprenoids and Polyphenolics Profile
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050436 - 17 May 2020
Viewed by 505
Abstract
The objective of this study was in-depth identification of carotenoids and polyphenolic compounds in leaves and fruits of Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. An additional aim was to assay their antioxidant and in vitro biological activities (the ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was in-depth identification of carotenoids and polyphenolic compounds in leaves and fruits of Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. An additional aim was to assay their antioxidant and in vitro biological activities (the ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase activity) of two cultivars: ‘Sweet Scarlet’ and ‘Jahidka’. Study results showed the presence of 70 bioactive compounds, including 20 isoprenoids and 50 polyphenols. The profile of identified bioactive compounds had not been examined in this respect until now. The total carotenoid, chlorophyll, and polyphenol levels and antioxidant activity of the foliar samples were virtually identical in both cultivars and clearly higher relative to those in the fruits. On the other hand, the ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase activity of the fruits was clearly higher as compared to the leaves. The highest amount of phenolic acids, flavonols, and polymeric procyanidins was in the ‘Sweet Scarlet’ for fruit and leaves, while the highest amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids was in the ‘Jahidka’. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activities appeared to be better correlated with the carotenoid content, which warrants further studies of the possible anti-diabetic and anti-obesity actions of the major carotenoids found in the fruits (lycopene, phytoene, and lutein). In addition, strong correlation between antioxidant activity and phenols of E. multiflora Thunb. components can be effective in removing reactive oxygen species. The results of our study show that both the fruits and leaves of E. multiflora Thunb. can be important for health promotion through the diet and for innovating in the industry of functional food and (nutri)cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
Open AccessArticle
A Novel and Potentially Multifaceted Dehydroascorbate Reductase Increasing the Antioxidant Systems is Induced by Beauvericin in Tomato
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050435 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) are important enzymes that reconvert the dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) into ascorbic acid (ASC). They are involved in the plant response to oxidative stress, such as that induced by the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA). Tomato plants were treated with 50 µM of [...] Read more.
Dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) are important enzymes that reconvert the dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) into ascorbic acid (ASC). They are involved in the plant response to oxidative stress, such as that induced by the mycotoxin beauvericin (BEA). Tomato plants were treated with 50 µM of BEA; the main antioxidant compounds and enzymes were evaluated. DHARs were analyzed in the presence of different electron donors by native and denaturing electrophoresis as well as by western blot and mass spectrometry to identify a novel induced protein with DHAR activity. Kinetic parameters for dehydroascorbate (DHA) and glutathione (GSH) were also determined. The novel DHAR was induced after BEA treatment. It was GSH-dependent and possessed lower affinity to DHA and GSH than the classical DHARs. Interestingly, the mass spectrometry analysis of the main band appearing on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a chloroplast sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase, a key enzyme of the Calvin cycle, and a chloroplast mRNA-binding protein, suggesting that the DHA reducing capacity could be a side activity or the novel DHAR could be part of a protein complex. These results shed new light on the ascorbate-glutathione regulation network under oxidative stress and may represent a new way to increase the plant antioxidant defense system, plant nutraceutical value, and the health benefits of plant consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Molecules with Antioxidant Function)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Thiol Peroxidases as Major Regulators of Intracellular Levels of Peroxynitrite in Live Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 434; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050434 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Thiol peroxidases (TP) are ubiquitous and abundant antioxidant proteins of the peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase families that can catalytically and rapidly reduce biologically relevant peroxides, such as hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. However, the TP catalytic cycle is complex, depending on multiple redox reactions [...] Read more.
Thiol peroxidases (TP) are ubiquitous and abundant antioxidant proteins of the peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase families that can catalytically and rapidly reduce biologically relevant peroxides, such as hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. However, the TP catalytic cycle is complex, depending on multiple redox reactions and partners, and is subjected to branching and competition points that may limit their peroxide reductase activity in vivo. The goals of the present study were to demonstrate peroxynitrite reductase activity of TP members in live cells in real time and to evaluate its catalytic characteristics. To these ends, we developed a simple fluorescence assay using coumarin boronic acid (CBA), exploiting that fact that TP and CBA compete for peroxynitrite, with the expectation that higher TP peroxynitrite reductase activity will lower the CBA oxidation. TP peroxynitrite reductase activity was evaluated by comparing CBA oxidation in live wild type and genetically modified Δ8 (TP-deficient strain) and Δ8+TSA1 (Δ8 strain that expresses only one TP member, the TSA1 gene) Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The results showed that CBA oxidation decreased with cell density and increased with increasing peroxynitrite availability. Additionally, the rate of CBA oxidation decreased in the order Δ8 > Δ8+TSA1 > WT strains both in control and glycerol-adapted (expressing higher TP levels) cells, showing that the CBA competition assay could reliably detect peroxynitrite in real time in live cells, comparing CBA oxidation in strains with reduced and increased TP expression. Finally, there were no signs of compromised TP peroxynitrite reductase activity during experimental runs, even at the highest peroxynitrite levels tested. Altogether, the results show that TP is a major component in the defense of yeast against peroxynitrite insults under basal and increasing stressful conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Viburnum opulus L. Fruit Phenolics Cytoprotective Potential on Insulinoma MIN6 Cells Relevant for Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050433 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 430
Abstract
In this study, the influence of guelder rose (Viburnum opulus) fruit fresh juice (FJ) and a phenolic-rich fraction (PRF) isolated from juice on mice insulinoma MIN6 cells activities was investigated. Extracts were able to decrease intracellular oxidative stress at the highest [...] Read more.
In this study, the influence of guelder rose (Viburnum opulus) fruit fresh juice (FJ) and a phenolic-rich fraction (PRF) isolated from juice on mice insulinoma MIN6 cells activities was investigated. Extracts were able to decrease intracellular oxidative stress at the highest non-cytotoxic concentrations. They induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in the presence of an elevated glucose concentration, and they inhibited in vitro activity of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) enzyme. Nonetheless, inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was detected, which was accompanied by a decrease of cellular membrane fluidity and hyperpolarization effect. In addition, the increase of free fatty acid uptake and accumulation of lipid droplets in MIN6 cells were observed. Elevated extract concentrations induced cell apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway with activation of initiatory caspase-9 and downstream caspases-3/7. The fluorescence-quenching studies indicated that PRF extract has binding affinity to human serum albumin, which is one of the factors determining drug bioavailability. Taken together, despite the cytoprotective activity against generated intracellular oxidative stress, V. opulus revealed potential toxic effects as well as decreased insulin secretion from MIN6 cells. These findings are relevant in understanding V. opulus limitations in developing diet supplements designed for the prevention and treatment of postprandial glucose elevation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Andrographis paniculata and Its Bioactive Diterpenoids Protect Dermal Fibroblasts against Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050432 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 433
Abstract
Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) has long been used in ayurvedic medicine through its anti-inflammatory properties. However, its protective effect of skin aging has not been studied in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the anti-aging effects of methanolic extract (ME), andrographolide (ANDRO), neoandrographolide (NEO), [...] Read more.
Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) has long been used in ayurvedic medicine through its anti-inflammatory properties. However, its protective effect of skin aging has not been studied in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the anti-aging effects of methanolic extract (ME), andrographolide (ANDRO), neoandrographolide (NEO), 14-deoxyandrographolide (14DAP) and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (14DAP11-12) on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) under pro-oxidant or pro-inflammatory condition. The in vitro anti-aging capacity of ME, ANDRO, NEO, 14DAP, and 14DAP11-12 (1, 2.5 and 5 µg/mL) was performed in HDFa. Oxidative stress and inflammation were induced by hydrogen peroxide and lipopolysaccharide/TNF-α, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured by the fluorescence of DCF-DA probe and cytokines were quantified by ELISA (IL6 and IL8) or RTqPCR (TNF-α). Procollagen type I production was determined by an ELISA. Our results showed a decrease in ROS production with ME and 14DAP at 5 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, IL-6 production and TNF-α expression decreased under ANDRO and ME at 5 µg/mL. Our data indicated that ME and 14DAP protect from oxidative stress. Additionally, ME and ANDRO decreased an inflammation marker, IL-6. This suggests their potential natural treatment against skin damage. Hence, their applications could be of interest in cosmetics for preventing skin ageing. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Resveratrol Regulates the Expression of Genes Involved in CoQ Synthesis in Liver in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050431 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Resveratrol (RSV) is a bioactive natural molecule that induces antioxidant activity and increases protection against oxidative damage. RSV could be used to mitigate damages associated to metabolic diseases and aging. Particularly, RSV regulates different aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. However, no information is available [...] Read more.
Resveratrol (RSV) is a bioactive natural molecule that induces antioxidant activity and increases protection against oxidative damage. RSV could be used to mitigate damages associated to metabolic diseases and aging. Particularly, RSV regulates different aspects of mitochondrial metabolism. However, no information is available about the effects of RSV on Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a central component in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we report for the first time that RSV modulates COQ genes and parameters associated to metabolic syndrome in mice. Mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) presented a higher weight gain, triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol levels while RSV reverted TGs to control level but not weight or cholesterol. HFD induced a decrease of COQs gene mRNA level, whereas RSV reversed this decrease in most of the COQs genes. However, RSV did not show effect on CoQ9, CoQ10 and total CoQ levels, neither in CoQ-dependent antioxidant enzymes. HFD influenced mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy markers. RSV modulated the levels of PINK1 and PARKIN and their ratio, indicating modulation of mitophagy. In summary, we report that RSV influences some of the metabolic adaptations of HFD affecting mitochondrial physiology while also regulates COQs gene expression levels in a process that can be associated with mitochondrial dynamics and turnover. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
The Structural Integrity of the Model Lipid Membrane during Induced Lipid Peroxidation: The Role of Flavonols in the Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050430 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 428
Abstract
The structural integrity, elasticity, and fluidity of lipid membranes are critical for cellular activities such as communication between cells, exocytosis, and endocytosis. Unsaturated lipids, the main components of biological membranes, are particularly susceptible to the oxidative attack of reactive oxygen species. The peroxidation [...] Read more.
The structural integrity, elasticity, and fluidity of lipid membranes are critical for cellular activities such as communication between cells, exocytosis, and endocytosis. Unsaturated lipids, the main components of biological membranes, are particularly susceptible to the oxidative attack of reactive oxygen species. The peroxidation of unsaturated lipids, in our case 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), induces the structural reorganization of the membrane. We have employed a multi-technique approach to analyze typical properties of lipid bilayers, i.e., roughness, thickness, elasticity, and fluidity. We compared the alteration of the membrane properties upon initiated lipid peroxidation and examined the ability of flavonols, namely quercetin (QUE), myricetin (MCE), and myricitrin (MCI) at different molar fractions, to inhibit this change. Using Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), we identified various carbonyl products and examined the extent of the reaction. From Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Force Spectroscopy (FS), Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) experiments, we concluded that the membranes with inserted flavonols exhibit resistance against the structural changes induced by the oxidative attack, which is a finding with multiple biological implications. Our approach reveals the interplay between the flavonol molecular structure and the crucial membrane properties under oxidative attack and provides insight into the pathophysiology of cellular oxidative injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Anti-Inflammatory and Reactive Oxygen Species Suppression through Aspirin Pretreatment to Treat Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Lung Injury in NF-κB–Luciferase Inducible Transgenic Mice
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050429 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Acute lung injury (ALI), a common cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, results from either direct intra-alveolar injury or indirect injury following systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Adequate tissue oxygenation often requires additional supplemental oxygen. However, hyperoxia causes lung injury [...] Read more.
Acute lung injury (ALI), a common cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, results from either direct intra-alveolar injury or indirect injury following systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Adequate tissue oxygenation often requires additional supplemental oxygen. However, hyperoxia causes lung injury and pathological changes. Notably, preclinical data suggest that aspirin modulates numerous platelet-mediated processes involved in ALI development and resolution. Our previous study suggested that prehospital aspirin use reduced the risk of ALI in critically ill patients. This research uses an in vivo imaging system (IVIS) to investigate the mechanisms of aspirin’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects on hyperoxia-induced ALI in nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)–luciferase transgenic mice. To define mechanisms through which NF-κB causes disease, we developed transgenic mice that express luciferase under the control of NF-κB, enabling real-time in vivo imaging of NF-κB activity in intact animals. An NF-κB-dependent bioluminescent signal was used in transgenic mice carrying the luciferase genes to monitor the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin. These results demonstrated that pretreatment with aspirin reduced luciferase expression, indicating that aspirin reduces NF-κB activation. In addition, aspirin reduced reactive oxygen species expression, the number of macrophages, neutrophil infiltration and lung edema compared with treatment with only hyperoxia treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that pretreatment with aspirin significantly reduced the protein levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B, NF-κB and tumor necrosis factor α in NF-κB–luciferase+/+ transgenic mice. Thus, the effects of aspirin on the anti-inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species suppressive are hypothesized to occur through the NF-κB signaling pathway. This study demonstrated that aspirin exerts a protective effect for hyperoxia-induced lung injury and thus is currently the drug conventionally used for hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Activity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical Profile of Capsicum annuum L. cv Senise, Incorporation into Liposomes, and Evaluation of Cellular Antioxidant Activity
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050428 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Overproduction of oxidants in the human body is responsible for oxidative stress, which is associated with several diseases. High intake of vegetables and fruits can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, as they are sources of bioactive compounds capable of contrasting the free [...] Read more.
Overproduction of oxidants in the human body is responsible for oxidative stress, which is associated with several diseases. High intake of vegetables and fruits can reduce the risk of chronic diseases, as they are sources of bioactive compounds capable of contrasting the free radical effects involved in cancer, obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Capsicum annuum L. cv Senise is a sweet pepper that is grown in the Basilicata region (Italy). It is an important source of polyphenols, carotenoids, and capsinoids and can play a key role in human health. In this study, an ethanol extract was obtained from C. annuum dried peppers and the analysis of the phytochemical composition was performed by LC-ESI/LTQ Orbitrap/MS. The extract was incorporated into liposomes, which showed small size (~80 nm), good homogeneity, negative surface charge, and good stability in storage. The biological activity of the extract was evaluated in the human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line, used as model cells. The extract showed no cytotoxic activity and reduced the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in stressed cells. The antioxidant activity was further improved when the extract was loaded into liposomes. Moreover, the extract promoted the expression of endogenous antioxidants, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase through the Nrf-2 pathway evaluated by RT-PCR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Plant Extracts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial
Natural Phenolic Compounds for Health, Food and Cosmetic Applications
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 427; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050427 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 333
Abstract
Based on their potent antioxidant properties, natural phenolic compounds have gained more and more attention for their possible exploitation as food supplements, as well as functional ingredients in food and in the cosmetic industry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Phenolic Compounds for Health, Food and Cosmetic Applications)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop