Special Issue "Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Paola Badino
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy
Interests: antioxidants; mycotoxins; dioxins; pharmaco and toxicodynamics; metabolizing aenzymes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As in Human Medicine, antioxidants are widely used in Veterinary Medicine for different purposes in both food-producing animals and pets. Nowadays, together with the more classical examples, such as selenium and vitamin E, the supplement of the animal diet with phytogenic additives rich in flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans is widely investigated by the scientific community.

In food-producing animals, antioxidants can improve not only the animal’s health but also can offer a suitable tool to ameliorate the quality of the deriving foodstuffs. Additionally, in the scientific literature, several papers related to the possible protective effects exerted by natural antioxidants on reducing the toxic effects of mycotoxins are reported. Furthermore, antioxidants have been used in small animal practice for the treatments of conditions related to the redox imbalance (e.g., osteoarthritis, canine cognitive dysfunction, renal failure) or to counteract the side effects of certain drugs (e.g., the thyrostatic methimazole).

As the interest on this topic is increasing, I am pleased to invite you to submit your current research findings or a review article in this Special Issue, focused on the role of antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine from the clinical point of view, as well as through the investigation of their mechanisms of action. For these reasons, the submitted papers can deal with both in vitro and in vivo studies related to the antioxidant supplementation in the diet of food-producing animals and pets.

Prof. Paola Badino
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Redox unbalance
  • Companion animals
  • Large animals
  • Food and feed quality and safety
  • Feed and pet-food additives

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. as a Sustainable Source of Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds for Animal Feeding
Antioxidants 2021, 10(6), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060876 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 576
Abstract
With the aim to explore the use of A. hypochondriacus seeds for animal feeding, the agronomic traits, nutrients, and bioactive compounds of four accessions with different origin (India, Nebraska, Iowa, and Pennsylvania) grown in a Mediterranean environment were studied. Proximate composition was determined [...] Read more.
With the aim to explore the use of A. hypochondriacus seeds for animal feeding, the agronomic traits, nutrients, and bioactive compounds of four accessions with different origin (India, Nebraska, Iowa, and Pennsylvania) grown in a Mediterranean environment were studied. Proximate composition was determined using the official methods of analyses, fatty acid profile by gas chromatography, total phenolic content (TPC) and the scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS•+) by colorimetric method. A one-way ANOVA model was performed to determine the differences between accessions. The four A. hypochondriacus accessions showed interesting seed yield results. No significant differences were observed for crude protein and crude fiber; the oil content showed the significant highest values in the seeds from Nebraska and Pennsylvania, but their nutritional characteristics were significantly different. The accession from Nebraska showed the highest oleic and linoleic acid levels, the highest values of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the best atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolaemic ratio, and the highest TPC content. The accession from Pennsylvania showed the highest antioxidant activity and lowest peroxidation index. On the whole, A. hypochondriacus seeds can be used as pseudo-cereal to balance the animal diet and the accession should be chosen according to the different metabolic pathways of unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant and monogastric animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Lycopene Improves In Vitro Development of Porcine Embryos by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020230 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 555
Abstract
In vitro culture (IVC) for porcine embryo development is inferior compared to in vivo development because oxidative stress can be induced by the production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) under high oxygen tension in the in vitro environment. To overcome this problem, [...] Read more.
In vitro culture (IVC) for porcine embryo development is inferior compared to in vivo development because oxidative stress can be induced by the production of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) under high oxygen tension in the in vitro environment. To overcome this problem, we investigated the effect of lycopene, an antioxidant carotenoid, on developmental competence and the mechanisms involved in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathways in porcine embryos. In vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were cultured in IVC medium supplemented with 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 μM lycopene. The results indicate that 0.1 μM lycopene significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation and the total cell numbers, including trophectoderm cell numbers, on Day In terms of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, IVF embryos treated with 0.1 μM lycopene exhibited significantly decreased levels of ROS, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased expression of cytochrome c on Days 2 and Furthermore, 0.1 μM lycopene significantly decreased the number and percentage of caspase 3-positive and apoptotic cells in Day-6 blastocysts. In addition, Day-2 embryos and Day-6 blastocysts treated with 0.1 μM lycopene showed significantly reduced mRNA expression related to antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, SOD2, CATALASE) and apoptosis (BAX/BCL2L1 ratio). These results indicate that lycopene supplementation during the entire period of IVC enhanced embryonic development in pigs by regulating oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Depleted Myocardial Coenzyme Q10 in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Congestive Heart Failure Due to Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease
Antioxidants 2021, 10(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10020161 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 503
Abstract
Congestive heart failure (CHF) has been associated with depleted myocardial coenzyme Q10 (Q10) concentrations in human patients. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between myocardial Q10 concentrations and myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) severity in dogs. Furthermore, citrate synthase (CS) [...] Read more.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) has been associated with depleted myocardial coenzyme Q10 (Q10) concentrations in human patients. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between myocardial Q10 concentrations and myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) severity in dogs. Furthermore, citrate synthase (CS) activity was analysed to determine if a reduction in myocardial Q10 was associated with mitochondrial depletion in the myocardium. Thirty Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) in MMVD stages B1 (n = 11), B2 (n = 5) and C (n = 14) according to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) guidelines and 10 control (CON) dogs of other breeds were included. Myocardial Q10 concentration was analysed in left ventricular tissue samples using HPLC-ECD. CKCS with congestive heart failure (CHF; group C) had significantly reduced Q10 concentrations (median, 1.54 µg/mg; IQR, 1.36–1.94), compared to B1 (2.76 µg/mg; 2.10–4.81, p < 0.0018), B2 (3.85 µg/mg; 3.13–4.46, p < 0.0054) and CON dogs (2.8 µg/mg; 1.64–4.88, p < 0.0089). CS activity was comparable between disease groups. In conclusion, dogs with CHF due to MMVD had reduced myocardial Q10 concentrations. Studies evaluating antioxidant defense mechanisms as a therapeutic target for treatment of CHF in dogs are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Antioxidative Effects of Curcumin on the Hepatotoxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Rats
Antioxidants 2021, 10(1), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010125 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 974
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a powerful mycotoxin found in various foods and feedstuff, responsible for subchronic and chronic toxicity, such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity, and immunotoxicity to both humans and several animal species. The severity of the liver damage caused depends on both [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a powerful mycotoxin found in various foods and feedstuff, responsible for subchronic and chronic toxicity, such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity, and immunotoxicity to both humans and several animal species. The severity of the liver damage caused depends on both dose and duration of exposure. Several studies have suggested that oxidative stress might contribute to increasing the hepatotoxicity of OTA, and several antioxidants, including curcumin (CURC), have been tested to counteract the toxic hepatic action of OTA in various classes of animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of CURC, a bioactive compound with different therapeutic properties on hepatic injuries caused by OTA in rat animal models. CURC effects were examined in Sprague Dawley rats treated with CURC (100 mg/kg), alone or in combination with OTA (0.5 mg/kg), by gavage daily for 14 days. At the end of the experiment, rats treated with OTA showed alterations in biochemical parameters and oxidative stress in the liver. CURC dosing significantly attenuated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation versus the OTA group. Furthermore, liver histological tests showed that CURC reduced the multifocal lymphoplasmacellular hepatitis, the periportal fibrosis, and the necrosis observed in the OTA group. This study provides evidence that CURC can preserve OTA-induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Antioxidant Activity of Flavonoids in LPS-Treated IPEC-J2 Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Their Antibacterial Effect against Bacteria of Swine Origin
Antioxidants 2020, 9(12), 1267; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121267 - 13 Dec 2020
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Beneficial effects of flavonoids are widely known in human medicine, but less information is available about their veterinary usage. Based on their antioxidant and antibacterial activity, proanthocyanidins (PAs) and luteolin (LUT) might be used in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal infections in [...] Read more.
Beneficial effects of flavonoids are widely known in human medicine, but less information is available about their veterinary usage. Based on their antioxidant and antibacterial activity, proanthocyanidins (PAs) and luteolin (LUT) might be used in the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal infections in swine. In this study, in vitro beneficial effects of grape seed oligomeric proanthocyanidins (GSOPs) and LUT were investigated against bacterial endotoxin (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in IPEC-J2 porcine epithelial intestinal cells. Furthermore, antibacterial effects of GSOP and LUT were assessed against field isolates of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Both GSOP and LUT were found to possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity in LPS-treated IPEC-J2 cells; furthermore, they showed a bacteriostatic effect against the tested bacterial strains of porcine origin. Both flavonoids seem to be effective in the protection of porcine intestinal epithelial cells against Gram-negative bacteria in vitro, but further in vivo studies are necessary to confirm these activities and to establish their optimal dosage regimen for future usage in veterinary practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Curcumin Mitigates AFB1-Induced Hepatic Toxicity by Triggering Cattle Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Pathways: A Whole Transcriptomic In Vitro Study
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111059 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) toxicity in livestock and human beings is a major economic and health concern. Natural polyphenolic substances with antioxidant properties have proven to be effective in ameliorating AFB1-induced toxicity. Here we assessed the potential anti-AFB1 activity of curcumin (pure curcumin, C, [...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) toxicity in livestock and human beings is a major economic and health concern. Natural polyphenolic substances with antioxidant properties have proven to be effective in ameliorating AFB1-induced toxicity. Here we assessed the potential anti-AFB1 activity of curcumin (pure curcumin, C, and curcumin from Curcuma longa, CL) in a bovine fetal hepatocyte-derived cell line (BFH12). First, we measured viability of cells exposed to AFB1 in presence or absence of curcumin treatment. Then, we explored all the transcriptional changes occurring in AFB1-exposed cells cotreated with curcumin. Results demonstrated that curcumin is effective in reducing AFB1-induced toxicity, decreasing cells mortality by approximately 30%. C and CL induced similar transcriptional changes in BFH12 exposed to AFB1, yet C treatment resulted in a larger number of significant genes compared to CL. The mitigating effects of curcuminoids towards AFB1 toxicity were mainly related to molecular pathways associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response, cancer, and drug metabolism. Investigating mRNA changes induced by curcumin in cattle BFH12 cells exposed to AFB1 will help us to better characterize possible tools to reduce its consequences in this susceptible and economically important food-producing species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Betaine and Isoquinoline Alkaloids Protect against Heat Stress and Colonic Permeability in Growing Pigs
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101024 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
Heat stress (HS) compromises productivity of pork production, in part as a result of increased oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, particularly within the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to investigate whether plant-derived betaine and isoquinoline alkaloids could ameliorate HS in pigs. Fifty female [...] Read more.
Heat stress (HS) compromises productivity of pork production, in part as a result of increased oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, particularly within the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to investigate whether plant-derived betaine and isoquinoline alkaloids could ameliorate HS in pigs. Fifty female Large White × Landrace grower pigs, which were acclimated to control (CON), control plus betaine (BET), or control plus isoquinoline alkaloids (IQA) diets for 14 days were then exposed to heat stress or thermoneutral condition. Both BET and IQA partially ameliorated increases in respiration rate (p = 0.013) and rectal temperature (p = 0.001) associated with HS conditions. Heat stress increased salivary cortisol concentrations and reduced plasma creatinine, lactate, and thyroid hormone concentrations. Heat stress increased colon FD4 permeability, which was reduced by IQA (p = 0.030). Heat stress increased inflammation in the jejunum and ileum, as indicated by elevated interleukin-1β (p = 0.022) in the jejunum and interleukin-1β (p = 0.004) and interleukin-8 (p = 0.001) in the ileum. No differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were observed with HS, but betaine increased plasma TAC compared to IQA. Dietary BET increased betaine concentrations in the jejunum, ileum (p < 0.001 for both), plasma, liver, kidney (p < 0.010 for all), urine (p = 0.002) and tended to be higher in muscle (p = 0.084). Betaine concentration was not influenced by HS, but it tended to be higher in plasma and accumulated in the liver. These data suggest that betaine and isoquinoline alkaloids supplementation ameliorated consequences of heat stress in grower pigs and protected against HS induced increases in colonic permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Novel Combination of COX-2 Inhibitor and Antioxidant Therapy for Modulating Oxidative Stress Associated with Intestinal Ischemic Reperfusion Injury and Endotoxemia
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9100930 - 28 Sep 2020
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Background: Intestinal ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with a high mortality rate; this condition is also related to significant endotoxemia and systemic inflammation. The preservation of tissue perfusion and a sufficient blood flow are required to deliver nutrients and oxygen, preserve metabolic [...] Read more.
Background: Intestinal ischemic reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with a high mortality rate; this condition is also related to significant endotoxemia and systemic inflammation. The preservation of tissue perfusion and a sufficient blood flow are required to deliver nutrients and oxygen, preserve metabolic pathways, and eliminate waste products. Oxidative stress plays a fundamental role in intestinal I/R injury and leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and necrosis, allowing the migration of endotoxins and luminal bacteria into the systemic circulation. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effects of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor—firocoxib—plus the antioxidant vitamin C in a rat model of intestinal I/R injury. Methods: We used a rat model of I/R injury in which the superior mesenteric artery was clamped for 30 min by a vascular clamp, and the animals were then allowed 1 h of reperfusion. Results: Our results show the importance of combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant treatment for the prevention of intestinal I/R injury that leads to reduced systemic endotoxemia. We observed a significantly synergistic effect of firocoxib and vitamin C in reducing intestinal wall damage and oxidative stress, leading to a significant reduction of inflammation and endotoxemia. Conclusions: Our results indicate that this approach could be a new pharmacological protocol for intestinal colic or ischemic injury-induced endotoxemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Oral Dosing with Coenzyme Q10 in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090827 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (Q10) is a mitochondrial cofactor and an antioxidant with the potential to combat oxidative stress in heart failure. This study aims to determine the pharmacokinetics of repeated oral dosing of Q10 in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with spontaneous myxomatous mitral [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (Q10) is a mitochondrial cofactor and an antioxidant with the potential to combat oxidative stress in heart failure. This study aims to determine the pharmacokinetics of repeated oral dosing of Q10 in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with spontaneous myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and to evaluate echocardiographic parameters, circulating cardiac biomarkers, and quality of life (QoL) after treatment. The study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded crossover study. Nineteen CKCS with MMVD were randomized to receive 100 mg Q10 (ubiquinone) bi-daily for three weeks, then placebo (or in reverse order). Clinical examination, blood sampling, echocardiography, and QoL assessment were performed before and after each treatment phase. Q10 plasma concentrations were determined in plasma using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method using electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Eighteen CKCS were included in the analyses. Total plasma concentration of Q10 increased significantly (p < 0.0001) from baseline (median, 0.92 µg/mL; interquartile range (IQR), 0.70–1.26) to after treatment (median, 3.51 µg/mL; IQR, 2.30–6.88). Thirteen dogs reached the threshold of a total plasma Q10 concentration of ≥2.0 µg/mL. The average half-life (T1/2) of Q10 was 2.95 days (IQR, 1.75–4.02). No significant differences were observed in clinical MMVD severity, and the owner perceived QoL between Q10 and placebo treatment. The solubilized Q10 formulation was well-tolerated in the dogs. Individual variation in plasma concentrations was observed following oral treatment. A long-term placebo-controlled trial is warranted in dogs with MMVD to determine long-term efficacy on the clinical severity of MMVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Effects of Hydroxytyrosol against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells: A Natural Therapeutic Tool for Bovine Mastitis
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080693 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Background: Bovine mastitis is a growing health problem, affecting both welfare of dairy cattle and milk production. It often leads to chronic infections, disturbing the quality of milk and resulting in cow death. Thus, it has a great economic impact for breeders. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Bovine mastitis is a growing health problem, affecting both welfare of dairy cattle and milk production. It often leads to chronic infections, disturbing the quality of milk and resulting in cow death. Thus, it has a great economic impact for breeders. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of hydroxytyrosol—a natural molecule which is the major constituent of many phyto-complexes—in an in vitro model of mastitis induced by LPS (1μg/mL). Results: Our results showed that hydroxytyrosol (10 and 25 μM) was able to prevent the oxidative stress induced by LPS (intracellular ROS, GSH and NOX-1) and the consequently inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6). The protective effect of hydroxytyrosol is also related to the enhancement of endogenous antioxidant systems (Nrf2, HO-1, NQO-1 and Txnrd1). Moreover, hydroxytyrosol showed an important protective effect on cell functionality (α-casein S1, α-casein S2 and β-casein). Conclusions: Taken together, our results showed a significant protective effect of hydroxytyrosol on oxidative stress and inflammatory response in MAC-T cells. Thus, we indicated a possible important therapeutic role for hydroxytyrosol in the prevention or management of bovine mastitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Effects of Advanced Age, Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction and Insulin Dysregulation on Serum Antioxidant Markers in Horses
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050444 - 21 May 2020
Viewed by 856
Abstract
The study aims to assess the impact of age, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and insulin dysregulation (ID) in horses on selected oxidative stress markers. The study includes 32 horses, divided into three groups: “young” adult group (aged 8–16 years old) “geriatric” group [...] Read more.
The study aims to assess the impact of age, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and insulin dysregulation (ID) in horses on selected oxidative stress markers. The study includes 32 horses, divided into three groups: “young” adult group (aged 8–16 years old) “geriatric” group (aged 18–24 years old) and the “PPID” group (aged 15–31 years old). The PPID group was further divided into two subgroups: PPID ID+ and PPID ID− based on presence or absence of ID. We measured serum antioxidant stress markers in all horses: total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ceruloplasmin (CER), lipofuscin (LPS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiols concentrations (containing sulfhydryl group -SH) as well as enzymatic systems: total superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytoplasmic SOD (CuZnSOD), mitochondrial SOD activity (MnSOD). Total serum thiols were significantly lower in the geriatric group and in the PPID group compared to the young group. The MnSOD concentration was higher in the PPID ID+ group compared to the PPID ID−. LPS and MDA concentrations were lower in the PPID ID+ group compared to the PPID ID− group. In the selected study groups of horses, older age, the presence of PPID and ID in the case of PPID had no effect on the studied oxidative stress markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Effects of Curcumin on the Renal Toxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Rats
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040332 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1045
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a powerful nephrotoxin and the severity of its damage to kidneys depends on both the dose and duration of exposure. According to the scientific data currently available, the mechanism of action still is not completely clarified, but it is [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a powerful nephrotoxin and the severity of its damage to kidneys depends on both the dose and duration of exposure. According to the scientific data currently available, the mechanism of action still is not completely clarified, but it is supposed that oxidative stress is responsible for OTA-induced nephrotoxicity. Bioactive compound use has emerged as a potential approach to reduce chronic renal failure. Therefore, curcumin (CURC), due to its therapeutic effects, has been chosen for our study to reduce the toxic renal effects induced by OTA. CURC effects are examined in Sprague Dawley rats treated with CURC (100 mg/kg), alone or in combination with OTA (0.5 mg/kg), by gavage daily for 14 days. The end result of the experiment finds rats treated with OTA show alterations in biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the kidney, related to a decrease in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR). Conversely, the administration of CURC attenuates oxidative stress and prevents glomerular hyperfiltration versus the OTA group. Furthermore, kidney histological tests show a reduction in glomerular and tubular damage, inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. This study shows that CURC can mitigate OTA–induced oxidative damage in the kidneys of rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Changes in Plasma Fatty Acids, Free Amino Acids, Antioxidant Defense, and Physiological Stress by Oleuropein Supplementation in Pigs Prior to Slaughter
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010056 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Olive tree leaves are characterized for having not only a potent antioxidant power but also effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The impact of the individual oleuropein (OLE), vitamin E + Se (VE), or a combined supplementation of oleuropein, vitamin E, and selenium [...] Read more.
Olive tree leaves are characterized for having not only a potent antioxidant power but also effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The impact of the individual oleuropein (OLE), vitamin E + Se (VE), or a combined supplementation of oleuropein, vitamin E, and selenium (VEOLE) was evaluated on pig plasma metabolites under fasting prior to slaughter. VEOLE and OLE had lesser n-3 plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and greater monounsaturated free fatty acids compared to control. The n-3-fatty acid mobilization was directly correlated with greater cystine and inversely with oxidized glutathione/reduced glutathione (GSSH/GSH) levels. This faster use of n-3 fatty acids might act as an indicator of glutathione synthesis mediated by an increase of cystine in plasma. Different correlations and linear adjustments were observed between plasma antioxidant power and free cystine, free glycine, free glutamine, monounsaturated free fatty acids, and total n-3. The best response to stress was found in VEOLE. Cortisol reached the greatest positive correlation with plasma total n-3 fatty acids, which suggests a faster uptake of n-3 for biological functions such as stress control or energy supply in the brain. From a practical point of view, an enhanced oxidative status as well as control of physiological stress prior to slaughter by the combined antioxidants supplementation might have positive effects on pork quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Article
Evaluation of Antioxidant Supplementation on Redox Unbalance in Hyperthyroid Cats Treated with Methimazole: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010015 - 23 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Methimazole (MMI) is often the selected medical treatment for feline hyperthyroidism. However, the onset of MMI-related side effects (MMI-SE) is likely caused by oxidative stress. This study evaluated the dietary supplementation of selected antioxidants in hyperthyroid cats receiving MMI, to reduce MMI-SE. Thirty [...] Read more.
Methimazole (MMI) is often the selected medical treatment for feline hyperthyroidism. However, the onset of MMI-related side effects (MMI-SE) is likely caused by oxidative stress. This study evaluated the dietary supplementation of selected antioxidants in hyperthyroid cats receiving MMI, to reduce MMI-SE. Thirty hyperthyroid client-owned cats were randomly allocated in group M (MMI + placebo) or group M+A (MMI + antioxidants). At different time-points from the enrolment (ET) to the end of the trial (FT), the following information was recorded: clinical findings, complete blood count, serum biochemical parameters, urinalysis, total plasma thyroxine concentrations, determinable reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs), OXY-adsorbent test values, and oxidative stress index (OSi) values, and MMI-SE. dROMs and OSi values significantly increased from ET to FT in group M and were significantly higher in group M than in group M+A at FT. Likewise, OXY-absorbent test values were significantly higher in group M+A than in group M at FT. Moreover, the occurrence rate of MMI-SE in group M+A was lower than in group M. In conclusion, our results show that the dietary supplementation of antioxidants in hyperthyroid cats receiving MMI exerts a protective effect against oxidative stress, likely contributing to the reduction of MMI-SE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Review

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Review
Polyphenols in Farm Animals: Source of Reproductive Gain or Waste?
Antioxidants 2020, 9(10), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9101023 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Reproduction is a complex process that is substantially affected by environmental cues, specifically feed/diet and its components. Farm animals as herbivorous animals are exposed to a large amount of polyphenols present in their natural feeding system, in alternative feed resources (shrubs, trees, and [...] Read more.
Reproduction is a complex process that is substantially affected by environmental cues, specifically feed/diet and its components. Farm animals as herbivorous animals are exposed to a large amount of polyphenols present in their natural feeding system, in alternative feed resources (shrubs, trees, and agro-industrial byproducts), and in polyphenol-enriched additives. Such exposure has increased because of the well-known antioxidant properties of polyphenols. However, to date, the argumentation around the impacts of polyphenols on reproductive events is debatable. Accordingly, the intensive inclusion of polyphenols in the diets of breeding animals and in media for assisted reproductive techniques needs further investigation, avoiding any source of reproductive waste and achieving maximum benefits. This review illustrates recent findings connecting dietary polyphenols consumption from different sources (conventional and unconventional feeds) with the reproductive performance of farm animals, underpinned by the findings of in vitro studies in this field. This update will help in formulating proper diets, optimizing the introduction of new plant species, and feed additives for improving reproductive function, avoiding possible reproductive wastes and maximizing possible benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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Review
Acute Diarrhea in Dogs: Current Management and Potential Role of Dietary Polyphenols Supplementation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080725 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Acute diarrhea is one of the most common reasons why pet owners seek veterinary care for their canine companions. In many cases, signs resolve spontaneously or with symptomatic therapy without a specific cause being discovered. However, life-threatening cases can occur. The etiology is [...] Read more.
Acute diarrhea is one of the most common reasons why pet owners seek veterinary care for their canine companions. In many cases, signs resolve spontaneously or with symptomatic therapy without a specific cause being discovered. However, life-threatening cases can occur. The etiology is complex, including infectious diseases (endoparasites, virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungal agents) by both zoonotic and non-zoonotic pathogens, dietary indiscretion, endocrine diseases, and stress (e.g., travel or environmental changes). In the last years, the role played by oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies, independently from the initial noxa, has been highlighted by many researches in both humans and animals. As a result, a series of dietary antioxidant compounds have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of intestinal inflammation. This review summarizes the traditional therapeutic and nutritional options to manage canine acute diarrhea, highlighting the need to explore the role of oxidative stress and potential antioxidant supplementation, especially polyphenols, during acute diarrheic episodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Veterinary Medicine)
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