Special Issue "Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Stanley Omaye
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, Nutrition and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nevada, 1664 North Virginia Street, Reno, NV 89557, USA
Interests: involved in various research regarding nutrition, toxicology, and environmental-health sciences; research has been directed toward better understanding the role of micronutrients, antioxidants, and other bioactive chemicals in health, and developing effective pharmacological and nutritional interventions in chronic diseases and aging; interested in the health effects of environmental or occupational substances, such as, arsenic, mercury, air pollutants, and products of nanotechnology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Editor-in-Chief of Antioxidants, I am pleased to announce this Special Issue, entitled "Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020". This Special Issue will be a collection of high-quality reviews and original papers from editorial board members, guest editors, and leading researchers, discussing new knowledge or new cutting-edge developments in the science of antioxidants in 2020.

Prof. Dr. Stanley Omaye
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (43 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Chlorella sorokiniana Dietary Supplementation Increases Antioxidant Capacities and Reduces ROS Release in Mitochondria of Hyperthyroid Rat Liver
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090883 - 17 Sep 2020
Abstract
The ability of aerobic organisms to cope with the attack of radicals and other reactive oxygen species improves by feeding on foods containing antioxidants. Microalgae contain many molecules showing in vitro antioxidant capacity, and their food consumption can protect cells from oxidative insults. [...] Read more.
The ability of aerobic organisms to cope with the attack of radicals and other reactive oxygen species improves by feeding on foods containing antioxidants. Microalgae contain many molecules showing in vitro antioxidant capacity, and their food consumption can protect cells from oxidative insults. We evaluated the capacity of dietary supplementation with 1% dried Chlorella sorokiniana strain 211/8k, an alga rich in glutathione, α-tocopherol, and carotenoids, to counteract an oxidative attack in vivo. We used the hyperthyroid rat as a model of oxidative stress, in which the increase in metabolic capacities is associated with an increase in the release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the susceptibility to oxidative insult. Chlorella sorokiniana supplementation prevents the increases in oxidative stress markers and basal oxygen consumption in hyperthyroid rat livers. It also mitigates the thyroid hormone-induced increase in maximal aerobic capacities, the mitochondrial ROS release, and the susceptibility to oxidative stress. Finally, alga influences the thyroid hormone-induced changes in the factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC1-1) and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2). Our results suggest that Chlorella sorokiniana dietary supplementation has beneficial effects in counteracting oxidative stress and that it works primarily by preserving mitochondrial function. Thus, it can be useful in preventing dysfunctions in which mitochondrial oxidative damage and ROS production play a putative role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Intradialytic Cardiovascular Exercise Training Alters Redox Status, Reduces Inflammation and Improves Physical Performance in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090868 - 15 Sep 2020
Abstract
Redox status (RS) perturbations and inflammation are fundamental features of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that are substantially exacerbated in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of a 6-month intradialytic exercise training program on RS, inflammation and physical performance [...] Read more.
Redox status (RS) perturbations and inflammation are fundamental features of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that are substantially exacerbated in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of a 6-month intradialytic exercise training program on RS, inflammation and physical performance in patients with ESRD. Twenty hemodialysis (HD) patients (17 males, three females) were randomly assigned to either an intradialytic training (bedside cycling) group (TR; n = 10) or a control group (CON; n = 10) for 6 months. Anthropometrics [body mass and height, body mass index (BMI), body composition], physical performance (VO2peak), functional capacity [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary (NSRI) walk test, sit-to-stand test (STS-60)], quality of life (short form-36 (SF-36) as well as RS [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, GSH/GSSG, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT)] and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were assessed at baseline and after the 6-month intervention. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) increased by 15% only in TR (p < 0.01). Performance in NSRI, STS-60 and SF-36 improved by 4–13% only in TR (p < 0.01). Exercise training reduced TBARS (by 28%), PC (by 31%) and hs-CRP (by 15%), and elevated GSH (by 52%), GSH/GSSG (by 51%), TAC (by 59%) and CAT (by 15%) (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that engagement in chronic intradialytic cardiovascular exercise alters RS, reduces inflammation and improves performance in patients with ESRD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Intervention Accelerates NASH Resolution Depending on Inflammatory Status with Minor Additive Effects on Hepatic Injury by Vitamin E Supplementation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9090808 - 01 Sep 2020
Abstract
Despite the lack of effective pharmacotherapy against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis, vitamin E (vitE) supplementation and lifestyle modifications are recommended for the management of NASH due to promising clinical results. We recently reported a positive effect of supplementation with 800 IU [...] Read more.
Despite the lack of effective pharmacotherapy against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis, vitamin E (vitE) supplementation and lifestyle modifications are recommended for the management of NASH due to promising clinical results. We recently reported a positive effect of supplementation with 800 IU vitE and atorvastatin on NASH resolution in guinea pigs. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high-dose vitE therapy combined with dietary intervention against progressive NASH and advanced fibrosis in the guinea pig model. Sixty-six guinea pigs received either high-fat (HF) or standard guinea pig chow diet (Control) for 25 weeks. Prior to eight weeks of intervention, HF animals were allocated into groups; dietary intervention (Chow) or dietary intervention with 2000 IU/d vitE supplementation (CvitE). Both Chow and CvitE reduced dyslipidemia, hepatic lipid accumulation and liver weight (p < 0.05), while CvitE further decreased hepatocellular ballooning (p < 0.05). Subanalyses of individual responses within intervention groups showed significant correlation between the hepatic hallmarks of NASH and lipid accumulation vs. inflammatory state (p < 0.05). Collectively, our results indicate that individual differences in sensitivity towards intervention and inflammatory status determine the potential beneficial effect of dietary intervention and high-dose vitE supplementation. Moreover, the study suggests that inflammation is a primary target in NASH treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxidative Stress Response Is Mediated by Overexpression and Spatiotemporal Regulation of Caveolin-1
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080766 - 18 Aug 2020
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) has been linked to the aetiology of many diseases including osteoarthritis (OA). Recent studies have shown that caveolin-1—a structural protein of plasma membrane’s caveolae—is upregulated in response to OS. Here, we explore the function of caveolin-1 in chondrocytes derived from [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) has been linked to the aetiology of many diseases including osteoarthritis (OA). Recent studies have shown that caveolin-1—a structural protein of plasma membrane’s caveolae—is upregulated in response to OS. Here, we explore the function of caveolin-1 in chondrocytes derived from healthy individuals (control) and OA patients that were subjected to exogenous OS. We showed that caveolin-1 was upregulated in response to acute OS in the control, but not in OA chondrocytes. Moreover, OS-induced DNA damage analysis revealed that control cells started repairing the DNA lesions 6 h post-oxidative treatment, while OA cells seemed unable to restore these damages. Importantly, in the control cells, we observed a translocation of caveolin-1 from the membrane/cytoplasm in and out of the nucleus, which coincided with the appearance and restoration of DNA lesions. When caveolin-1 was prevented from translocating to the nucleus, the control cells were unable to repair DNA damage. In OA cells, no such translocation of caveolin-1 was observed, which could account for their inability to repair DNA damage. Taken together, these results provide novel insights considering the role of caveolin-1 in response to OS-induced DNA damage while revealing its implication in the pathophysiology of OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial Activation and Reactive Oxygen-Species Overproduction during Sperm Capacitation are Independent of Glucose Stimuli
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080750 - 14 Aug 2020
Abstract
Spermatozoa capacitation is a complex process that requires specific ionic and energetic conditions to support biochemical alterations leading to motility hyperactivation. However, human sperm capacitation is still poorly understood. Herein, we studied the effects of glucose on human sperm capacitation. Healthy men seminal [...] Read more.
Spermatozoa capacitation is a complex process that requires specific ionic and energetic conditions to support biochemical alterations leading to motility hyperactivation. However, human sperm capacitation is still poorly understood. Herein, we studied the effects of glucose on human sperm capacitation. Healthy men seminal samples (n = 55) were submitted to a density gradient centrifugation and incubated in capacitating conditions in the absence or presence of increasing glucose concentrations (0, 5.5, 11, and 22 mM). Viability and total motility were accessed. Phosphotyrosine levels were measured. Mitochondrial activity and endogenous ROS production were evaluated. Oxidative stress-induced damage was analyzed. Culture media was collected and analyzed by 1H-NMR. Our results show that glucose is essential for human sperm capacitation and motility. Notably, we observed that mitochondrial activity increased even in the absence of glucose. This increased mitochondrial activity was followed by a ROS overproduction, although no oxidative stress-induced damage was detected. Our results show that glucose is essential for capacitation but mitochondrial activation is independent from its stimuli. ROS overproduction may take part on a finely regulated signaling pathway that modulates or even activates capacitation. Taken together, our results constitute a paradigm shift on human sperm capacitation physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Endogenous Carbon Monoxide Signaling Modulates Mitochondrial Function and Intracellular Glucose Utilization: Impact of the Heme Oxygenase Substrate Hemin
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080652 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Stress-inducible heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of heme yielding biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). Heme oxygenase activity has been attributed to antioxidant defense via the redox cycling system of biliverdin and bilirubin. There is increasing evidence that CO is [...] Read more.
Stress-inducible heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of heme yielding biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). Heme oxygenase activity has been attributed to antioxidant defense via the redox cycling system of biliverdin and bilirubin. There is increasing evidence that CO is a gaseous signaling molecule and plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Inhibitory effects of CO on the respiratory chain are well established, but the implication of such a process on the cellular stress response is not well understood. By means of extracellular flux analyses and isotopic tracing, we studied the effects of CO, either released from the CO donor CORM-401 or endogenously produced by heme oxygenases, on the respiratory chain and glucose metabolism. CORM-401 was thereby used as a tool to mimic endogenous CO production by heme oxygenases. In the long term (>60 min), CORM-401-derived CO exposure inhibited mitochondrial respiration, which was compensated by increased glycolysis accompanied by a loss of the ATP production rate and an increase in proton leakage. This effect pattern was likewise observed after endogenous CO production by heme oxygenases. However, in the present setting, these effects were only observed when sufficient substrate for heme oxygenases (hemin) was provided. Modulation of the HO-1 protein level was less important. The long-term influence of CO on glucose metabolism via glycolysis was preceded by a short-term response (<30 min) of the cells to CO. Stable isotope-labeling experiments and metabolic flux analysis revealed a short-term shift of glucose consumption from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) along with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Overall, we suggest that signaling by endogenous CO stimulates the rapid formation of reduction equivalents (NADPH) via the PPP, and plays an additional role in antioxidant defense, e.g., via feed-forward stimulation of the bilirubin/biliverdin redox cycling system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Targeting the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathways Affects NRF2, Trx and GSH Antioxidant Systems in Leukemia Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070633 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signal transduction pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of ERK1/2 inhibitor AZD0364 [...] Read more.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signal transduction pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of ERK1/2 inhibitor AZD0364 and PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) REH, MOLT-4, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) MOLM-14, and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cell lines. To evaluate the interactions of the drugs, cells were treated for 48 h with AZD0364 or ZSTK474 alone and in combination at fixed ratios. The combinatorial effects of both inhibitors were synergistic over a wide range of concentrations in REH, MOLT-4, and MOLM-14 cell lines. However, in K562 cells, the effects were found to be antagonistic. Furthermore, AZD0364 and ZSTK474 significantly decreased both ERK1/2 and AKT activation in REH, MOLT-4, and MOLM-14 cells. The results showed that incubation with both AZD0364 and ZSTK474 inhibited cell viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. We observed that combined treatment with AZD0364 and ZSTK474 affected nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and antioxidant protein levels: NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. These effects were accompanied with decreased antiapoptotic survivin protein level. However, distinct cell line dependent effects were observed. In conclusion, the combination of AZD0364 and ZSTK474 can exert a synergistic anticancer effect in ALL and AML cells, which is associated with the induction of oxidative stress and the involvement of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Antioxidant Packaging Films Based on Poly(ε-Caprolactone) and Almond Skin Extract: Development and Effect on the Oxidative Stability of Fried Almonds
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070629 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
Antioxidant films based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) containing almond skin extract (ASE) were developed for food packaging applications. The effect of ASE incorporation on the morphological, structural, colour, mechanical, thermal, barrier and antioxidant properties of the prepared films were evaluated. The structural, tensile and [...] Read more.
Antioxidant films based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) containing almond skin extract (ASE) were developed for food packaging applications. The effect of ASE incorporation on the morphological, structural, colour, mechanical, thermal, barrier and antioxidant properties of the prepared films were evaluated. The structural, tensile and thermal properties of the films were not altered due to ASE addition. Although no significant differences were observed for the oxygen permeability of samples, some increase in water absorption and water vapour permeability was observed for active films due to the hydrophilic character of ASE phenolic compounds, suggesting the suitability of this novel packaging for fatty foods conservation. ASE conferred antioxidant properties to PCL films as determined by the DPPH radical scavenging activity. The efficiency of the developed films was evaluated by the real packaging application of fried almonds at different ASE contents (0, 3, 6 wt.%) up to 56 days at 40 °C. The evolution of peroxide and p-anisidine values, hexanal content, fatty acid profile and characteristic spectroscopy bands showed that active films improved fried almonds stability. The results suggested the potential of PCL/ASE films as sustainable and antioxidant food packaging systems to offer protection against lipid oxidation in foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Olive Mill Wastewater Polyphenol-Enriched Fractions by Integrated Membrane Process: A Promising Source of Antioxidant, Hypolipidemic and Hypoglycaemic Compounds
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070602 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
The valorisation of food wastes is a challenging opportunity for the green, sustainable, and competitive development of industry. The recovery of phenols contributes to the sustainability of olive waste sector, reducing its environmental impact and promoting the development of innovative formulations of interest [...] Read more.
The valorisation of food wastes is a challenging opportunity for the green, sustainable, and competitive development of industry. The recovery of phenols contributes to the sustainability of olive waste sector, reducing its environmental impact and promoting the development of innovative formulations of interest for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical applications. In this work, olive mill wastewater was treated through a combination of microfiltration (MF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO) in a sequential design to produce polyphenol-enriched fractions that have been investigated for their chemical profile using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), and their potential antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycaemic activities. RO retentate exhibited the highest content of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, vanillic acid, and luteolin. In particular, a content of hydroxytyrosol of 1522.2 mg/L, about five times higher than the MF feed, was found. RO retentate was the most active extract in all in vitro tests. Interestingly, this fraction showed a 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid (ABTS) radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 6.9 μg/mL and a potential inhibition of lipid peroxidation evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching test with IC50 values of 25.1 μg/mL after 30 min of incubation. Moreover, RO retentate inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 65.3 and 66.2 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Honey Extracts Exhibit Cytoprotective Properties against UVB-Induced Photodamage in Human Experimental Skin Models
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070566 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
In the present study, we aimed to examine the antioxidant, antiaging and photoprotective properties of Greek honey samples of various botanical and geographical origin. Ethyl-acetate extracts were used and the and the total phenolic/flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Honey extracts were [...] Read more.
In the present study, we aimed to examine the antioxidant, antiaging and photoprotective properties of Greek honey samples of various botanical and geographical origin. Ethyl-acetate extracts were used and the and the total phenolic/flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Honey extracts were then studied for their cytoprotective properties against UVB-induced photodamage using human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and/or reconstituted human skin tissue models. Specifically, the cytotoxicity, oxidative status, DNA damage and gene expression levels of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined. Overall, the treatment of HaCaT cells with honey extracts resulted in lower levels of DNA strand breaks and attenuated the decrease in cell viability following UVB exposure. Additionally, honey extracts significantly decreased the total protein carbonyl content of the irradiated cells, however, they had no significant effect on their total antioxidant status. Finally, the extracts alleviated the UVB-induced up-regulation of MMPs-3, -7 and -9 in a model of reconstituted skin tissue. In conclusion, honey extracts exhibited significant photoprotective and antiaging properties under UVB exposure conditions and thus could be further exploited as promising agents for developing novel and naturally-based, antiaging cosmeceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
In vitro Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-metabolic Syndrome, Antimicrobial, and Anticancer Effect of Phenolic Acids Isolated from Fresh Lovage Leaves [Levisticum officinale Koch] Elicited with Jasmonic Acid and Yeast Extract
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060554 - 25 Jun 2020
Abstract
Lovage seedlings were elicited with jasmonic acid (JA) and yeast extract (YE) to induce the synthesis of biologically active compounds. A simulated digestion process was carried out to determine the potential bioavailability of phenolic acids. Buffer extracts were prepared for comparison. The ability [...] Read more.
Lovage seedlings were elicited with jasmonic acid (JA) and yeast extract (YE) to induce the synthesis of biologically active compounds. A simulated digestion process was carried out to determine the potential bioavailability of phenolic acids. Buffer extracts were prepared for comparison. The ability to neutralize ABTS radicals was higher in all samples after the in vitro digestion, compared to that in the buffer extracts. However, the elicitation resulted in a significant increase only in the value of the reduction power of the potentially bioavailable fraction of phenolic acids. The effect of the elicitation on the activity of the potentially bioavailable fraction of phenolic acids towards the enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., ACE, lipase, amylase, and glucosidase, was analyzed as well. The in vitro digestion caused a significant increase in the ability to inhibit the activity of these enzymes; moreover, the inhibitory activity against alpha-amylase was revealed only after the digestion process. The potential anti-inflammatory effect of the analyzed extracts was defined as the ability to inhibit key pro-inflammatory enzymes, i.e., lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase 2. The buffer extracts from the YE-elicited lovage inhibited the LOX and COX-2 activity more effectively than the extracts from the control plants. A significant increase in the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties was noted after the simulated digestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of an Anthocyanin-Rich Bilberry Extract Using the Caenorhabditis elegans Model
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060509 - 10 Jun 2020
Abstract
Anthocyanins have been associated with several health benefits, although the responsible mechanisms are not well established yet. In the present study, an anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) was tested in order to evaluate its capacity to modulate reactive oxygen species [...] Read more.
Anthocyanins have been associated with several health benefits, although the responsible mechanisms are not well established yet. In the present study, an anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) was tested in order to evaluate its capacity to modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and resistance to thermally induced oxidative stress, using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as an in vivo model. The assays were carried out with the wild-type N2 strain and the mutant strains daf-16(mu86) I and hsf-1(sy441), which were grown in the presence of two anthocyanin extract concentrations (5 and 10 μg/mL in the culture medium) and further subjected to thermal stress. The treatment with the anthocyanin extract at 5 μg/mL showed protective effects on the accumulation of ROS and increased thermal resistance in C. elegans, both in stressed and non-stressed young and aged worms. However, detrimental effects were observed in nematodes treated with 10 μg/mL, leading to a higher worm mortality rate compared to controls, which was interpreted as a hormetic response. These findings suggested that the effects of the bilberry extract on C. elegans might not rely on its direct antioxidant capacity, but other mechanisms could also be involved. Additional assays were performed in two mutant strains with loss-of-function for DAF-16 (abnormal DAuer Formation factor 16) and HSF-1 (Heat Shock Factor 1) transcription factors, which act downstream of the insulin/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway. The results indicated that the modulation of these factors could be behind the improvement in the resistance against thermal stress produced by bilberry anthocyanins in young individuals, whereas they do not totally explain the effects produced in worms in the post-reproductive development stage. Further experiments are needed to continue uncovering the mechanisms behind the biological effects of anthocyanins in living organisms, as well as to establish whether they fall within the hormesis concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Baicalein Inhibits Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced Toxic Response by Downregulating Src Phosphorylation and by Upregulating NRF2-HMOX1 System
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060507 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a major environmental pollutant, activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), induces its cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and upregulates the production of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme which metabolize BaP. The BaP-AHR-CYP1A1 axis generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces proinflammatory cytokines. [...] Read more.
Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a major environmental pollutant, activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), induces its cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation and upregulates the production of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), a xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme which metabolize BaP. The BaP-AHR-CYP1A1 axis generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces proinflammatory cytokines. Although the anti-inflammatory phytochemical baicalein (BAI) is known to inhibit the BaP-AHR-mediated CYP1A1 expression, its subcellular signaling remains elusive. In this study, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with BAI, BaP, or BAI + BaP, and assessed for the CYP1A1 expression, antioxidative pathways, ROS generation, and proinflammatory cytokine expressions. BAI and BAI-containing herbal medicine Wogon and Oren-gedoku-to could inhibit the BaP-induced CYP1A1 expression. In addition, BAI activated antioxidative system nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), leading the reduction of BaP-induced ROS production. The BaP-induced IL1A and IL1B was also downregulated by BAI. BAI inhibited the phosphorylation of Src, a component of AHR cytoplasmic complex, which eventually interfered with the cytoplasmic-to-nuclear translocation of AHR. These results indicate that BAI and BAI-containing herbal drugs may be useful for inhibiting the toxic effects of BaP via dual AHR-CYP1A1-inhibiting and NRF2-HMOX1-activating activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Structure-Dependent Effects of Bisphosphonates on Inflammatory Responses in Cultured Neonatal Mouse Calvaria
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060503 - 09 Jun 2020
Abstract
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are classified into two groups, according to their side chain structures, as nitrogen-containing BPs (NBPs) and non-nitrogen-containing BPs (non-NBPs). In this study, we examined the effects of NBPs and non-NBPs on inflammatory responses, by quantifying the inflammatory mediators, prostaglandin E2 [...] Read more.
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are classified into two groups, according to their side chain structures, as nitrogen-containing BPs (NBPs) and non-nitrogen-containing BPs (non-NBPs). In this study, we examined the effects of NBPs and non-NBPs on inflammatory responses, by quantifying the inflammatory mediators, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), in cultured neonatal mouse calvaria. All examined NBPs (pamidronate, alendronate, incadronate, risedronate, zoledronate) stimulated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PGE2 and NO production by upregulating COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression, whereas non-NBPs (etidronate, clodronate, tiludronate) suppressed PGE2 and NO production, by downregulating gene expression. Additionally, [4-(methylthio) phenylthio] methane bisphosphonate (MPMBP), a novel non-NBP with an antioxidant methylthio phenylthio group in its side chain, exhibited the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among non-NBPs. Furthermore, results of immunohistochemistry showed that the nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 and tyrosine nitration of cytoplasmic protein were stimulated by zoledronate, while MPMBP inhibited these phenomena, by acting as a superoxide anion (O2) scavenger. These findings indicate that MPMBP can act as an efficacious agent that causes fewer adverse effects in patients with inflammatory bone diseases, including periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
MnTE-2-PyP Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell Growth via H2O2 Production
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060490 - 04 Jun 2020
Abstract
Prostate cancer patients are often treated with radiotherapy. MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic, is a known radioprotector of normal tissues. Our recent work demonstrated that MnTE-2-PyP also inhibits prostate cancer progression with radiotherapy; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer patients are often treated with radiotherapy. MnTE-2-PyP, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic, is a known radioprotector of normal tissues. Our recent work demonstrated that MnTE-2-PyP also inhibits prostate cancer progression with radiotherapy; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we identified that MnTE-2-PyP-induced intracellular H2O2 levels are critical in inhibiting the growth of PC3 and LNCaP cells, but the increased H2O2 levels affected the two cancer cells differently. In PC3 cells, many proteins were thiol oxidized with MnTE-2-PyP treatment, including Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 1 beta catalytic subunit (PP1CB). This resulted in reduced PP1CB activity; however, overall cell cycle progression was not altered, so this is not the main mechanism of PC3 cell growth inhibition. High H2O2 levels by MnTE-2-PyP treatment induced nuclear fragmentation, which could be synergistically enhanced with radiotherapy. In LNCaP cells, thiol oxidation by MnTE-2-PyP treatment was not observed previously and, similarly to PC3 cells, there was no effect of MnTE-2-PyP treatment on cell cycle progression. However, in LNCaP cells, MnTE-2-PyP caused an increase in low RNA population and sub-G1 population of cells, which indicates that MnTE-2-PyP treatment may cause cellular quiescence or direct cancer cell death. The protein oxidative modifications and mitotic catastrophes caused by MnTE-2-PyP may be the major contributors to cell growth inhibition in PC3 cells, while in LNCaP cells, tumor cell quiescence or cell death appears to be major factors in MnTE-2-PyP-induced growth inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Circulating Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060476 - 02 Jun 2020
Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) drives cardiometabolic diseases. Intermittent hypoxia consistently increases oxidative stress markers. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients experience intermittent hypoxia and an increased rate of cardiovascular disease, however, the impact of OSA on OS markers is not clear. The objective was to [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress (OS) drives cardiometabolic diseases. Intermittent hypoxia consistently increases oxidative stress markers. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients experience intermittent hypoxia and an increased rate of cardiovascular disease, however, the impact of OSA on OS markers is not clear. The objective was to assess relationships between OSA severity and biomarker levels. Patients with suspected OSA referred for a polysomnogram (PSG) provided fasting blood sample. Plasma levels of 8-isoprostane, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The relationship between OSA and OS was assessed both before and after controlling for confounders (age, sex, smoking history, history of cardiovascular disease, ethnicity, diabetes, statin usage, body mass index (BMI)). 402 patients were studied (68% male, mean age ± SD = 50.8 ± 11.8 years, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) = 22.2 ± 21.6 events/hour, BMI = 31.62 ± 6.49 kg/m2). In a multivariable regression, the AHI significantly predicted 8-isoprostane levels (p = 0.0008) together with age and statin usage; AHI was not a predictor of 8-OHdG or SOD. Female sex (p < 0.0001) and no previous history of cardiovascular disease (p = 0.002) were associated with increased antioxidant capacity. Circulating 8-isoprostane levels may be a promising biomarker of the severity of oxidative stress in OSA patients. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether this biomarker is associated with long-term cardiometabolic complications in OSA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
Open AccessArticle
Biological Activity of Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oils through Their Phenolic Profile and Their Combination with Anticancer Drugs Observed in Human Cervical Carcinoma and Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050453 - 24 May 2020
Abstract
The roles of phenolics from olive oils as effective anticancer agents have been documented in various in vitro studies of different cancer cells lines, but the relationship between the phenolic profile of olive oil and its biological activity needs more elucidation. In this [...] Read more.
The roles of phenolics from olive oils as effective anticancer agents have been documented in various in vitro studies of different cancer cells lines, but the relationship between the phenolic profile of olive oil and its biological activity needs more elucidation. In this study, we analysed phenolic profiles of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) from different autochthonous cultivars from Croatia (Oblica, Bjelica, Buža, Žižolera) and investigated the biological effect of EVOO phenolic extracts (EVOO-PEs) on human cervical (HeLa) and human colon (SW48) cancer cell lines alone and in combination with cisplatin (cDDP), carboplatin (CBP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan. The quantitative evaluation of olive oil polyphenols was performed by HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric analysis. The biological effect of EVOO-PEs alone and in combination with anticancer drugs was measured by MTT assay. Analysed EVOO-PEs differ in phenolic profile and inhibited HeLa and SW48 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Further, it is shown that EVOO-PEs (Oblica-Sea, Buža and Žižolera), in combination with anticancer drugs, increase the metabolic activity of HeLa and SW48 cells and have a protective role. These data imply careful consummation of olive oil during chemotherapy of cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Properties of Agri-Food Byproducts and Specific Boosting Effects of Hydrolytic Treatments
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050438 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Largely produced agri-food byproducts represent a sustainable and easily available source of phenolic compounds, such as lignins and tannins, endowed with potent antioxidant properties. We report herein the characterization of the antioxidant properties of nine plant-derived byproducts. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power [...] Read more.
Largely produced agri-food byproducts represent a sustainable and easily available source of phenolic compounds, such as lignins and tannins, endowed with potent antioxidant properties. We report herein the characterization of the antioxidant properties of nine plant-derived byproducts. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays indicated the superior activity of pomegranate peels and seeds, grape pomace and pecan nut shell. An increase in the antioxidant potency was observed for most of the waste materials following a hydrolytic treatment, with the exception of the condensed tannin-rich pecan nut shell and grape pomace. UV-Vis and HPLC investigation of the soluble fractions coupled with the results from IR analysis and chemical degradation approaches on the whole materials allowed to conclude that the improvement of the antioxidant properties was due not only to removal of non-active components (mainly carbohydrates), but also to structural modifications of the phenolic compounds. Parallel experiments run on natural and bioinspired model phenolic polymers suggested that these structural modifications positively impacted on the antioxidant properties of lignins and hydrolyzable tannins, whereas significant degradation of condensed tannin moieties occurred, likely responsible for the lowering of the reducing power observed for grape pomace and pecan nut shell. These results open new perspectives toward the exploitation and manipulation of agri-food byproducts for application as antioxidant additives in functional materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Biological Activities of Fruits and Leaves of Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. and Their Isoprenoids and Polyphenolics Profile
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050436 - 17 May 2020
Abstract
The objective of this study was in-depth identification of carotenoids and polyphenolic compounds in leaves and fruits of Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. An additional aim was to assay their antioxidant and in vitro biological activities (the ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was in-depth identification of carotenoids and polyphenolic compounds in leaves and fruits of Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. An additional aim was to assay their antioxidant and in vitro biological activities (the ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase activity) of two cultivars: ‘Sweet Scarlet’ and ‘Jahidka’. Study results showed the presence of 70 bioactive compounds, including 20 isoprenoids and 50 polyphenols. The profile of identified bioactive compounds had not been examined in this respect until now. The total carotenoid, chlorophyll, and polyphenol levels and antioxidant activity of the foliar samples were virtually identical in both cultivars and clearly higher relative to those in the fruits. On the other hand, the ability to inhibit pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase activity of the fruits was clearly higher as compared to the leaves. The highest amount of phenolic acids, flavonols, and polymeric procyanidins was in the ‘Sweet Scarlet’ for fruit and leaves, while the highest amount of chlorophylls and carotenoids was in the ‘Jahidka’. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activities appeared to be better correlated with the carotenoid content, which warrants further studies of the possible anti-diabetic and anti-obesity actions of the major carotenoids found in the fruits (lycopene, phytoene, and lutein). In addition, strong correlation between antioxidant activity and phenols of E. multiflora Thunb. components can be effective in removing reactive oxygen species. The results of our study show that both the fruits and leaves of E. multiflora Thunb. can be important for health promotion through the diet and for innovating in the industry of functional food and (nutri)cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
Open AccessArticle
The Profile of Selected Antioxidants in Two Courgette Varieties from Organic and Conventional Production
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050404 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Courgette is considered as a low-calorie vegetable with health-promoting properties. However, scientific publications focused on the profile and content of bioactive compounds in courgette, as well as the potential fruit quality modulating factors, are rare. Due to the high adaptability of courgette to [...] Read more.
Courgette is considered as a low-calorie vegetable with health-promoting properties. However, scientific publications focused on the profile and content of bioactive compounds in courgette, as well as the potential fruit quality modulating factors, are rare. Due to the high adaptability of courgette to weather and agronomic conditions, it is produced on a global scale. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of organic versus conventional agronomic practices on the concentration of selected antioxidants in courgette fruits. Fruits of two courgette varieties (Astra Polka and Nimba) produced in an organic and conventional system were tested by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the content of polyphenols (flavonoids and phenolic acids), carotenoids, chlorophylls, and vitamin C. Organic courgette fruits were characterised by their significantly higher content of phenolic acids and flavonoids when compared to the conventionally grown fruit. The organic cultivation might be a good method to increase concentration of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties in courgette fruits. Nevertheless, the identified trends should be further confirmed, with attention paid to other courgette varieties, as well as to the potential interactions between the plant genotype, agronomic system and the location-specific growing conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Vasodilation of Tea Polyphenols Ex Vivo Is Mediated by Hydrogen Peroxide under Rapid Compound Decay
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050390 - 07 May 2020
Abstract
Improvement of endothelial function represents a major health effect of tea in humans. Ex vivo, tea and tea polyphenols stimulate nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation in isolated blood vessels. However, it was reported that polyphenols can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. We [...] Read more.
Improvement of endothelial function represents a major health effect of tea in humans. Ex vivo, tea and tea polyphenols stimulate nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilation in isolated blood vessels. However, it was reported that polyphenols can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. We therefore aimed to elucidate the role of ROS production in tea polyphenol-induced vasodilation in explanted aortic rings. Vasorelaxation of rat aortic rings was assessed in an organ chamber model with low concentrations of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), theaflavin-3,3’-digallate (TF3), and with green and black tea, with or without pretreatment with catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD). The stability of EGCG and TF3 was measured by HPLC, and the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were determined. EGCG and green tea-induced vasorelaxation was completely prevented by catalase and slightly increased by SOD. TF3 and black tea yielded similar results. Both EGCG and TF3 were rapidly degraded. This was associated with increasing H2O2 levels over time. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations produced in a time range compatible with tea polyphenol decay induced NO-dependent vasodilation in aortic rings. In conclusion, tea polyphenol-induced vasodilation in vitro is mediated by low levels of H2O2 generated during compound decay. The results could explain the apparent lack of vasodilatory effects of isolated tea polyphenols in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Antiproliferative Effect of Bioaccessible Fractions of Four Brassicaceae Microgreens on Human Colon Cancer Cells Linked to Their Phytochemical Composition
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050368 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The antiproliferative effect of the bioaccessible fractions (BFs) of four hydroponic Brassicaceae microgreens (broccoli, kale, mustard and radish) was evaluated on colon cancer Caco-2 cells vs. normal colon CCD18-Co cells after 24 h treatment with BFs diluted 1:10 v/v in cell culture medium. [...] Read more.
The antiproliferative effect of the bioaccessible fractions (BFs) of four hydroponic Brassicaceae microgreens (broccoli, kale, mustard and radish) was evaluated on colon cancer Caco-2 cells vs. normal colon CCD18-Co cells after 24 h treatment with BFs diluted 1:10 v/v in cell culture medium. Their bioactivity was compared with the digestion blank, while the colon cancer chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil was used as a positive control. Cell viability (mitochondrial enzyme activity assay (MTT test) and Trypan blue test) and mechanisms related to antiproliferative activity (cell cycle, apoptosis/necrosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, Ca2+ and glutathione (GSH) intracellular content) were studied. All microgreen BFs increased ROS and decreased GSH, altering the redox status and causing mitochondrial membrane dissipation followed by a general cell cycle arrest in G2/M and apoptotic cell death via a Ca2+-independent mechanism. As a result, the antioxidant bioactive compounds present in these microgreen species reduced the proliferation of tumoral cells (10 to 12.8% -MTT or 20 to 41.9% -Trypan blue), showing lesser effects with broccoli microgreens, in line with their lower ascorbic acid content and total antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the daily intake of microgreens within a balanced diet could be a preventive nutritional strategy to reduce the burden of chronic degenerative diseases such as colon cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of a Fucoidan from an Enzymatic Digest of the Edible Seaweed, Hizikia fusiforme
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050363 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The previous study suggested that the sulfated polysaccharides from Hizikia fusiforme (HFPS) possess strong antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study is to isolate fucoidan from HFPS and to investigate its antioxidant activity. A fucoidan (HFPS-F4) with a molecular weight of 102.67 kDa [...] Read more.
The previous study suggested that the sulfated polysaccharides from Hizikia fusiforme (HFPS) possess strong antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study is to isolate fucoidan from HFPS and to investigate its antioxidant activity. A fucoidan (HFPS-F4) with a molecular weight of 102.67 kDa was isolated from HFPS. HFPS-F4 contains 99.01% of fucoidan (71.79 ± 0.56% of carbohydrate and 27.22 ± 0.05% of sulfate content). The fucoidan increased the viability of H2O2-treated Vero cells by 5.41, 11.17, and 16.32% at the concentration of 12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL, respectively. Further results demonstrated that this effect act diminishing apoptosis by scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via increasing the expression of the endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was induced by elevating total nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) levels. In addition, the in vivo test results displayed that the pretreatment of fucoidan improved the survival rates and decreased heart-beating rate, ROS, cell death, and lipid peroxidation in H2O2-stimulated zebrafish. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fucoidan isolated from HFPS has strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities and it could be utilized in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Chemical and Sensory Profiling of Monovarietal Extra Virgin Olive Oils from the Italian Marche Region
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040330 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Chemical and sensory peculiarities of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (MEVOOs) from the cultivars (cvs.) Ascolana tenera (ASC), Coroncina (COR), Mignola (MIG), Piantone di Mogliano (MOG), and Raggia (RAG) from Marche region (Italy) are investigated. Their polar phenolic substances and α-tocopherol are analysed [...] Read more.
Chemical and sensory peculiarities of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (MEVOOs) from the cultivars (cvs.) Ascolana tenera (ASC), Coroncina (COR), Mignola (MIG), Piantone di Mogliano (MOG), and Raggia (RAG) from Marche region (Italy) are investigated. Their polar phenolic substances and α-tocopherol are analysed through high performance liquid chromatography with different detectors. Volatile substances, fatty acid composition, and squalene are analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) and to the flame ionization detector, respectively. Total antioxidant activity and sensory analysis were also performed. MOG showed high squalene content (on average 0.88 ± 0.16 g/100 g), high relative amount of α-copaene among volatiles, and the highest oleic acid percentage. MIG had high α-tocopherol content (on average 350.0 ± 57.6 mg kg−1) and high α-farnesene in the volatile fraction. ASC showed the highest sensory quality and the lignan pinoresinol with higher concentration as compared to the other MEVOOs (p < 0.05), which resulted in a possible chemical marker for this cv. RAG was characterized by the sensory note of almond, which corresponds to its highest (E)-2-hexenal percentage. Sensory analysis and an antioxidant activity assay performed on a set of industrial extra virgin olive oils purchased in supermarkets, highlighted MEVOOs’ superiority from these points of view. Principal component analysis displays the main characteristics of the cvs. investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Gas Plasma-Treated Prostate Cancer Cells Augment Myeloid Cell Activity and Cytotoxicity
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040323 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Despite recent improvements in cancer treatment, with many of them being related to foster antitumor immunity, tumor-related deaths continue to be high. Novel avenues are needed to complement existing therapeutic strategies in oncology. Medical gas plasma technology recently gained attention due to its [...] Read more.
Despite recent improvements in cancer treatment, with many of them being related to foster antitumor immunity, tumor-related deaths continue to be high. Novel avenues are needed to complement existing therapeutic strategies in oncology. Medical gas plasma technology recently gained attention due to its antitumor activity. Gas plasmas act via the local deposition of a plethora of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote the oxidative cancer cell death. The immunological consequences of plasma-mediated tumor cell death are only poorly understood, however. To this end, we exposed two prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3) to gas plasma in vitro, and investigated the immunomodulatory effects of the supernatants in as well as of direct co-culturing with two human myeloid cell lines (THP-1, HL-60). After identifying the cytotoxic action of the kINPen plasma jet, the supernatants of plasma-treated prostate cancer cells modulated myeloid cell-related mitochondrial ROS production and their metabolic activity, proliferation, surface marker expression, and cytokine release. Direct co-culture amplified differentiation-like surface marker expression in myeloid cells and promoted their antitumor-toxicity in the gas plasma over the untreated control conditions. The results suggest that gas plasma-derived ROS not only promote prostate cancer cell death but also augment myeloid cell activity and cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
A Global Study by 1H NMR Spectroscopy and SPME-GC/MS of the in Vitro Digestion of Virgin Flaxseed Oil Enriched or not with Mono-, Di- or Tri-Phenolic Derivatives. Antioxidant Efficiency of These Compounds
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040312 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The effect of enriching virgin flaxseed oil with dodecyl gallate, hydroxytyrosol acetate or gamma-tocopherol on its in vitro digestion is studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The extent and pattern of the [...] Read more.
The effect of enriching virgin flaxseed oil with dodecyl gallate, hydroxytyrosol acetate or gamma-tocopherol on its in vitro digestion is studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The extent and pattern of the lipolysis reached in each sample is analyzed, as is the bioaccessibility of the main oil components. None of the phenolic compounds provokes inhibition of the lipase activity and all of them reduce the lipid oxidation degree caused by the in vitro digestion and the bioaccessibility of oxidation compounds. The antioxidant efficiency of the three tested phenols is in line with the number of phenolic groups in its molecule, and is dose-dependent. The concentration of some minor oil components such as terpenes, sesquiterpenes, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol is not modified by in vitro digestion. Contrarily, gamma-tocopherol shows very low in vitro bioaccessibility, probably due to its antioxidant behavior, although this increases with enrichment of the phenolic compounds. Oxidation is produced during in vitro digestion even in the presence of a high concentration of gamma-tocopherol, which remains bioaccessible after digestion in the enriched samples of this compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
The Antioxidant Content of Coffee and Its In Vitro Activity as an Effect of Its Production Method and Roasting and Brewing Time
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040308 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. The high production and health properties of coffee make it one of the best among daily drinks. Coffee is wrongly identified as only a stimulant because of its caffeine content. On the [...] Read more.
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. The high production and health properties of coffee make it one of the best among daily drinks. Coffee is wrongly identified as only a stimulant because of its caffeine content. On the other hand, coffee is one of the best sources of other bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. Organic coffee is produced without artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Not only the high quality of beans but also roasting and brewing times guarantee the best taste and quality of coffee beverages. The aim of the present experiment was to determine the best level of roasting and brewing time for organic and conventional coffee. The experiment was carried out with Peru coffee beans from organic and conventional farms. The contents of caffeine and bioactive compounds were measured in different roasted and brewed coffee drinks. The obtained results showed that the conventional coffee contained significantly more caffeine, total flavonoids, and quercetin derivatives than the organic coffee. On the other hand, the organic coffee was characterized by a higher level of almost all bioactive compounds. The best level of roasting was determined to be medium, and the optimal brewing time was 3 minutes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Effects of Nanoliposomal Formulation Prepared from Salvia aramiensis Rech. f. Extract
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040293 - 01 Apr 2020
Abstract
Salvia aramiensis Rech. f. is a species that grows only in Hatay, Turkey and is used as a traditional stomachic tea. Neither the chemical composition nor the potential bioactivity of the plant has been investigated before. Antioxidant activity (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Radical (DPPH) [...] Read more.
Salvia aramiensis Rech. f. is a species that grows only in Hatay, Turkey and is used as a traditional stomachic tea. Neither the chemical composition nor the potential bioactivity of the plant has been investigated before. Antioxidant activity (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Radical (DPPH) and 2,2’-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+●) radical scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation) of 70% methanol, 70% ethanol extracts, and 2% infusion obtained from S. aramiensis aerial parts were determined. The effect of 70% methanol extract on collagenase and elastase enzyme inhibition and its chemical composition via chromatographic methods (LC-MS/MS and HPLC) were analyzed. Nanoliposomes were developed with 70% methanol extract, were characterized, and were evaluated. The key parameters for the most active 70% methanol extract included the following DPPHEC50: 28.4 µg/mL, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/ABTS: 1.77 ± 0.09 mmol/L/Trolox. Furthermore 70% methanol extract showed more than 50% inhibition on collagenase and elastase enzymes at all the concentrations. The main component of the extract, rich in phenolic compounds, has been identified as rosmarinic acid; 83.7 µg/mL extract was released from the nanoliposomal formulation. The extract and its formulation are found to be nontoxic on the L929 fibroblast cell line. This study successfully developed a long-term antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory formulation containing S. aramiensis, which has been used safely among the public for years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Astaxanthin Prevents Mitochondrial Impairment Induced by Isoproterenol in Isolated Rat Heart Mitochondria
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030262 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Mitochondria are considered to be a power station of the cell. It is known that they play a major role in both normal and pathological heart function. Alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics are one of the main causes of the origin and progression of [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are considered to be a power station of the cell. It is known that they play a major role in both normal and pathological heart function. Alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics are one of the main causes of the origin and progression of heart failure since they have an inhibitory effect on the activity of respiratory complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid of mainly marine origin. It has both lipophilic and hydrophilic properties and may prevent mitochondrial dysfunction by permeating the cell membrane and co-localizing within mitochondria. The carotenoid suppresses oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of diseases. In the present study, it was found that the preliminary oral administration of AST upregulated the activity of respiratory chain complexes and ATP synthase and the level of their main subunits, thereby improving the respiration of rat heart mitochondria (RHM) in the heart injured by isoproterenol (ISO). AST decreased the level of cyclophilin D (CyP-D) and increased the level of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in this condition. It was concluded that AST could be considered as a potential mitochondrial-targeted agent in the therapy of pathological conditions associated with oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. AST, as a dietary supplement, has a potential in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Enrichment of Corn Oil With alpha- or gamma-Tocopherol on Its In Vitro Digestion Studied by 1H NMR and SPME-GC/MS; Formation of Hydroperoxy-, Hydroxy-, Keto-Dienes and Keto-E-epoxy-E-Monoenes in the More alpha-Tocopherol Enriched Samples
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030246 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of this study is the analysis of the in vitro digestion of corn oil, and of the effect of its enrichment with three levels of gamma- and alpha-tocopherol, by using, for the first time, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is the analysis of the in vitro digestion of corn oil, and of the effect of its enrichment with three levels of gamma- and alpha-tocopherol, by using, for the first time, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and a solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The attention is focused on the hydrolysis degree, the degradation of oil’s main components, the occurrence of oxidation reactions and main compounds formed, as well as on the bioaccessibility of oil’s main components, of compounds formed in the oxidation, and, of gamma- and alpha-tocopherol. The lipolysis levels reached are high and show a similar pattern in all cases. The oxidation of corn oil components during in vitro digestion is proven, as is the action of gamma-tocopherol as an antioxidant and alpha-tocopherol as a prooxidant. In the more alpha-tocopherol enriched samples, hydroperoxy-, hydroxy-, and keto-dienes, as well as keto-epoxy-monoenes and aldehydes, are generated. The bioaccessibility of the oil’s main components is high. The compounds formed in the oxidation process during in vitro digestion can also be considered bioaccessible. The bioaccessibility of alpha-tocopherol is smaller than that of gamma-tocopherol. The concentration of this latter compound remains unchanged during the in vitro digestion of the more alpha-tocopherol enriched oil samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Fermentation on the Recovery of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds from Sea Bass Byproducts
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030239 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The aim of the present research was to obtain antioxidant compounds through the fermentation of fish byproducts by bacteria isolated from sea bass viscera. To that purpose, bacteria from sea bass stomach, intestine, and colon were isolated. With the selected bacteria, growing research [...] Read more.
The aim of the present research was to obtain antioxidant compounds through the fermentation of fish byproducts by bacteria isolated from sea bass viscera. To that purpose, bacteria from sea bass stomach, intestine, and colon were isolated. With the selected bacteria, growing research was undertaken, fermenting different broths prepared with sea bass meat or byproducts. After the fermentation, the antioxidant activity, phenolic acids, and some proteins were evaluated. The main phenolic acids obtained were DL-3-phenyl-lactic acid and benzoic acid at a maximum concentration of 466 and 314 ppb, respectively. The best antioxidant activity was found in the extracts obtained after the fermentation of fish byproducts broth by bacteria isolated from the colon (6502 μM TE) and stomach (4797 μM TE). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between phenolic acids obtained after the fermentation process and the antioxidant activity of the samples. It was also concluded that the lactic acid bacteria isolated from sea bass had an important proteolytic capacity and were able to synthesize phenolic acids with antioxidant capacity. This work has shown the relevance of fermentation as a useful tool to valorize fish byproducts, giving them an added economic value and reducing their environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Arils Juice and Peel Decoction of Fifteen Varieties of Punica granatum L.: A Focus on Anthocyanins, Ellagitannins and Polysaccharides
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030238 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 7
Abstract
Pomegranate is receiving renewed commercial and scientific interest, therefore a deeper knowledge of the chemical composition of the fruits of less studied varieties is required. In this work, juices from arils and decoctions from mesocarp plus exocarp were prepared from fifteen varieties. Samples [...] Read more.
Pomegranate is receiving renewed commercial and scientific interest, therefore a deeper knowledge of the chemical composition of the fruits of less studied varieties is required. In this work, juices from arils and decoctions from mesocarp plus exocarp were prepared from fifteen varieties. Samples were submitted to High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Diode Array Detector–Mass Spectrometry, spectrophotometric and colorimetric CIEL*a*b* analyses. Antioxidant, antiradical and metal chelating properties, inhibitory activity against tyrosinase and α-amylase enzymes were also evaluated. All varieties presented the same main phenols; anthocyanins and ellagitannins were widely variable among varieties, with the richest anthocyanin content in the juices from the Wonderful and Soft Seed Maule varieties (approx. 660 mg/L) and the highest ellagitannin content in the peel of the Black variety (approx. 133 mg/g dry matter). A good correlation was shown between the colour hue and the delphinidin/cyanidin ratio in juices (R2 = 0.885). Total polysaccharide yield ranged from 3% to 12% of the peels’ dry weight, with the highest content in the Black variety. Decoctions (24.44–118.50 mg KAE/g) showed better in vitro antioxidant properties and higher inhibitory capacity against tyrosinase than juices (not active-16.56 mg KAE/g); the inhibitory capacity against α-amylase was similar and quite potent for juices and decoctions. Knowledge about the chemical composition of different pomegranate varieties will allow for a more aware use of the different parts of the fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory State
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030236 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. MetS is also characterized by an increase of oxidative stress which contributes to impaired inflammation, vascular function, and atherosclerosis. The aim was to assess the oxidative stress and inflammatory [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. MetS is also characterized by an increase of oxidative stress which contributes to impaired inflammation, vascular function, and atherosclerosis. The aim was to assess the oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in plasma and PBMCs in adults with or without MetS. Antioxidant and inflammatory parameters were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 80 men and 80 women over 55 to 80-years-old residing in the Balearic Islands without previously documented cardiovascular disease. Circulating leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, basophils, and monocytes were higher in MetS subjects with respect to those without MetS. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were higher in MetS subjects in both genders, but the superoxide dismutase activity was lower. The myeloperoxidase plasma activity was higher in the MetS male subjects. Higher activities and protein levels of catalase and glutathione reductase in PBMCs were observed in MetS subjects in both genders. Obtained data show that MetS is associated with oxidative stress and a proinflammatory state and with high antioxidant defenses in PBMCs probably derived from a pre-activation state of immune cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Contribution of Flavonoids and Iridoids to the Hypoglycaemic, Antioxidant, and Nitric Oxide (NO) Inhibitory Activities of Arbutus unedo L.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020184 - 22 Feb 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
This study aims at investigating the contribution of two classes of compounds, flavonoids and iridoids, to the bioactivity of Arbutus unedo L. leaves and fruits. The impact of different extraction procedures on phytochemicals content and hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities [...] Read more.
This study aims at investigating the contribution of two classes of compounds, flavonoids and iridoids, to the bioactivity of Arbutus unedo L. leaves and fruits. The impact of different extraction procedures on phytochemicals content and hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities of A. unedo fresh and dried plant materials was investigated. Ellagic acid 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, and norbergenin were identified for the first time in this genus by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Three iridoids (gardenoside, geniposide, unedoside) are specifically identified in the leaves. Interestingly, asperuloside was extracted only from dried fruits by ethanol with Soxhlet apparatus. Extracts were screened for their potential antioxidant activities by using the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Activity Power (FRAP), and β-carotene bleaching tests. Based on the Global Antioxidant Score (GAS) calculation, the most promising antioxidant extract was obtained by hydroalcoholic maceration of dried leaves that showed half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.42 and 0.98 μg/mL in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. The hypoglycaemic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. Extracts obtained by ethanol ultrasound extraction of fresh leaves and hydroalcoholic maceration of fresh fruits (IC50 of 19.56 and 28.42 μg/mL, respectively) are more active against α-glucosidase than the positive control acarbose (IC50 of 35.50 μg/mL). Fruit extracts exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Oxidative Stress and Vascular Dysfunction in the Retina: Therapeutic Strategies
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080761 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Many retinal diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular (AMD) degeneration, are associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. ROS are important intracellular signaling molecules that regulate numerous physiological actions, including vascular reactivity and neuron function. However, excessive ROS formation [...] Read more.
Many retinal diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular (AMD) degeneration, are associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. ROS are important intracellular signaling molecules that regulate numerous physiological actions, including vascular reactivity and neuron function. However, excessive ROS formation has been linked to vascular endothelial dysfunction, neuron degeneration, and inflammation in the retina. ROS can directly modify cellular molecules and impair their function. Moreover, ROS can stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) causing inflammation and cell death. However, there are various compounds with direct or indirect antioxidant activity that have been used to reduce ROS accumulation in animal models and humans. In this review, we report on the physiological and pathophysiological role of ROS in the retina with a special focus on the vascular system. Moreover, we present therapeutic approaches for individual retinal diseases targeting retinal signaling pathways involving ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant Properties and Reported Ethnomedicinal Use of the Genus Echium (Boraginaceae)
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080722 - 09 Aug 2020
Abstract
The genus Echium L. from the Boraginaceae family consists of 67 recognised species. The genus is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, having been documented in the traditional medicine of the area since 300 B.C. Current pharmacological studies have validated early ethnomedicinal properties showing [...] Read more.
The genus Echium L. from the Boraginaceae family consists of 67 recognised species. The genus is widely distributed in the Mediterranean, having been documented in the traditional medicine of the area since 300 B.C. Current pharmacological studies have validated early ethnomedicinal properties showing that Echium spp. possesses antioxidant, analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. Nevertheless, only limited papers report specifically on the phytochemistry of this genus. Furthermore, the potential of utilising extracts from Echium species as natural antioxidant preparations has been significantly neglected. For the first time, this review comprehensively describes and discusses the presence of recorded Echium species with ethnomedicinal uses, their antioxidative properties in vitro and in vivo when available, and major phytochemical components recognised as potent antioxidants, as well as the possibilities and opportunities for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant Potential of Psychotropic Drugs: From Clinical Evidence to In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment and toward a New Challenge for in Silico Molecular Design
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080714 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Due to high oxygen consumption, the brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, which is considered an important element in the etiopathogenesis of several mental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression and dependencies. Despite the fact that it is not established yet whether oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Due to high oxygen consumption, the brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, which is considered an important element in the etiopathogenesis of several mental disorders, including schizophrenia, depression and dependencies. Despite the fact that it is not established yet whether oxidative stress is a cause or a consequence of clinic manifestations, the intake of antioxidant supplements in combination with the psychotropic therapy constitutes a valuable solution in patients’ treatment. Anyway, some drugs possess antioxidant capacity themselves and this aspect is discussed in this review, focusing on antipsychotics and antidepressants. In the context of a collection of clinical observations, in vitro and in vivo results are critically reported, often highlighting controversial aspects. Finally, a new challenge is discussed, i.e., the possibility of assessing in silico the antioxidant potential of these drugs, exploiting computational chemistry methodologies and machine learning. Despite the physiological environment being incredibly complex and the detection of meaningful oxidative stress biomarkers being all but an easy task, a rigorous and systematic analysis of the structural and reactivity properties of antioxidant drugs seems to be a promising route to better interpret therapeutic outcomes and provide elements for the rational design of novel drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Structure–Biological Activity Relationships of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds: Health Properties and Bioavailability
Antioxidants 2020, 9(8), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9080685 - 01 Aug 2020
Abstract
Extra-virgin olive oil is regarded as functional food since epidemiological studies and multidisciplinary research have reported convincing evidence that its intake affects beneficially one or more target functions in the body, improves health, and reduces the risk of disease. Its health properties have [...] Read more.
Extra-virgin olive oil is regarded as functional food since epidemiological studies and multidisciplinary research have reported convincing evidence that its intake affects beneficially one or more target functions in the body, improves health, and reduces the risk of disease. Its health properties have been related to the major and minor fractions of extra-virgin olive oil. Among olive oil chemical composition, the phenolic fraction has received considerable attention due to its bioactivity in different chronic diseases. The bioactivity of the phenolic compounds could be related to different properties such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, although the molecular mechanism of these compounds in relation to many diseases could have different cellular targets. The aim of this review is focused on the extra-virgin olive oil phenolic fraction with particular emphasis on (a) biosynthesis, chemical structure, and influence factors on the final extra-virgin olive oil phenolic composition; (b) structure–antioxidant activity relationships and other molecular mechanisms in relation to many diseases; (c) bioavailability and controlled delivery strategies; (d) alternative sources of olive biophenols. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive review was developed, with particular emphasis on in vitro and in vivo assays as well as clinical trials. This report provides an overview of extra-virgin olive oil phenolic compounds as a tool for functional food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
Open AccessReview
The Potential of Lactobacillus spp. for Modulating Oxidative Stress in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Antioxidants 2020, 9(7), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070610 - 10 Jul 2020
Abstract
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is crucial for food digestion and nutrient absorption in humans. However, the GI tract is usually challenged with oxidative stress that can be induced by various factors, such as exogenous pathogenic microorganisms and dietary alterations. As a part of [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is crucial for food digestion and nutrient absorption in humans. However, the GI tract is usually challenged with oxidative stress that can be induced by various factors, such as exogenous pathogenic microorganisms and dietary alterations. As a part of gut microbiota, Lactobacillus spp. play an important role in modulating oxidative stress in cells and tissues, especially in the GI tract. Oxidative stress is linked with excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can be formed by a few enzymes, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs). The redox mechanisms of Lactobacillus spp. may contribute to the downregulation of these ROS-forming enzymes. In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) are two common transcription factors, through which Lactobacillus spp. modulate oxidative stress as well. As oxidative stress is closely associated with inflammation and certain diseases, Lactobacillus spp. could potentially be applied for early treatment and amelioration of these diseases, either individually or together with prebiotics. However, further research is required for revealing their mechanisms of action as well as their extensive application in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
Open AccessReview
A Review of the Potential Benefits of Plants Producing Berries in Skin Disorders
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060542 - 20 Jun 2020
Abstract
During the last 30 years, berries have gained great attention as functional food against several risk factors in chronic diseases. The number of related publications on Pubmed rose from 1000 items in 1990 to more than 11,000 in 2019. Despite the fact that [...] Read more.
During the last 30 years, berries have gained great attention as functional food against several risk factors in chronic diseases. The number of related publications on Pubmed rose from 1000 items in 1990 to more than 11,000 in 2019. Despite the fact that a common and clear definition of “berries” is not shared among different scientific areas, the phytochemical pattern of these fruits is mainly characterized by anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols, and tannins, which showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in humans. Skin insults, like wounds, UV rays, and excessive inflammatory responses, may lead to chronic dermatological disorders, conditions often characterized by long-term treatments. The application of berries for skin protection is sustained by long traditional use, but many observations still require a clear pharmacological validation. This review summarizes the scientific evidence, published on EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Scholar, to identify extraction methods, way of administration, dose, and mechanism of action of berries for potential dermatological treatments. Promising in vitro and in vivo evidence of Punica granatum L. and Vitis vinifera L. supports wound healing and photoprotection, while Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. and Vaccinium spp. showed clear immunomodulatory effects. Oral or topical administrations of these berries justify the evaluation of new translational studies to validate their efficacy in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
Open AccessReview
The AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Plays a Role in Antioxidant Defense and Regulation of Vascular Inflammation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060525 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of global deaths and life years spent with a severe disability. Endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress are early precursors of atherosclerotic processes in the vascular wall, all of which are hallmarks in the development of cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of global deaths and life years spent with a severe disability. Endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress are early precursors of atherosclerotic processes in the vascular wall, all of which are hallmarks in the development of cardiovascular diseases and predictors of future cardiovascular events. There is growing evidence that inflammatory processes represent a major trigger for endothelial dysfunction, vascular oxidative stress and atherosclerosis and clinical data identified inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor on its own. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central enzyme of cellular energy balance and metabolism that has been shown to confer cardio-protection and antioxidant defense which thereby contributes to vascular health. Interestingly, AMPK is also redox-regulated itself. We have previously shown that AMPK largely contributes to a healthy endothelium, confers potent antioxidant effects and prevents arterial hypertension. Recently, we provided deep mechanistic insights into the role of AMPK in cardiovascular protection and redox homeostasis by studies on arterial hypertension in endothelial and myelomonocytic cell-specific AMPK knockout (Cadh5CrexAMPKfl/fl and LysMCrexAMPKfl/fl) mice. Using these cell-specific knockout mice, we revealed the potent anti-inflammatory properties of AMPK representing the molecular basis of the antihypertensive effects of AMPK. Here, we discuss our own findings in the context of literature data with respect to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of AMPK in the specific setting of arterial hypertension as well as cardiovascular diseases in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of Nutri(epi)genomics in Achieving the Body’s Full Potential in Physical Activity
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060498 - 07 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Physical activity represents a powerful tool to achieve optimal health. The overall activation of several molecular pathways is associated with many beneficial effects, mainly converging towards a reduced systemic inflammation. Not surprisingly, regular activity can contribute to lowering the “epigenetic age”, acting as [...] Read more.
Physical activity represents a powerful tool to achieve optimal health. The overall activation of several molecular pathways is associated with many beneficial effects, mainly converging towards a reduced systemic inflammation. Not surprisingly, regular activity can contribute to lowering the “epigenetic age”, acting as a modulator of risk toward several diseases and enhancing longevity. Behind this, there are complex molecular mechanisms induced by exercise, which modulate gene expression, also through epigenetic modifications. The exercise-induced epigenetic imprint can be transient or permanent and contributes to the muscle memory, which allows the skeletal muscle adaptation to environmental stimuli previously encountered. Nutrition, through key macro- and micronutrients with antioxidant properties, can play an important role in supporting skeletal muscle trophism and those molecular pathways triggering the beneficial effects of physical activity. Nutrients and antioxidant food components, reversibly altering the epigenetic imprint, have a big impact on the phenotype. This assigns a role of primary importance to nutri(epi)genomics, not only in optimizing physical performance, but also in promoting long term health. The crosstalk between physical activity and nutrition represents a major environmental pressure able to shape human genotypes and phenotypes, thus, choosing the right combination of lifestyle factors ensures health and longevity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Sobriety and Satiety: Is NAD+ the Answer?
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050425 - 14 May 2020
Abstract
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential pyridine nucleotide that has garnered considerable interest in the last century due to its critical role in cellular processes associated with energy production, cellular protection against stress and longevity. Research in NAD+ has been reinvigorated by [...] Read more.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential pyridine nucleotide that has garnered considerable interest in the last century due to its critical role in cellular processes associated with energy production, cellular protection against stress and longevity. Research in NAD+ has been reinvigorated by recent findings that components of NAD+ metabolism and NAD-dependent enzymes can influence major signalling processes associated with the neurobiology of addiction. These studies implicate raising intracellular NAD+ levels as a potential target for managing and treating addictive behaviour and reducing cravings and withdrawal symptoms in patients with food addiction and/or substance abuse. Since clinical studies showing the use of NAD+ for the treatment of addiction are limited, this review provides literature evidence that NAD+ can influence the neurobiology of addiction and may have benefits as an anti-addiction intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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