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Antioxidants, Volume 9, Issue 3 (March 2020) – 81 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Ageing increases the risks of arterial stiffness mainly through the effects of oxidative stress. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Nutraceutical Characterization of Two Chickpea Accessions: Differential Effects on Hepatic Lipid Over-Accumulation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030268 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
Dietary habits are crucially important to prevent the development of lifestyle-associated diseases. Diets supplemented with chickpeas have numerous benefits and are known to improve body fat composition. The present study was undertaken to characterize two genetically and phenotypically distinct accessions, MG_13 and PI358934, [...] Read more.
Dietary habits are crucially important to prevent the development of lifestyle-associated diseases. Diets supplemented with chickpeas have numerous benefits and are known to improve body fat composition. The present study was undertaken to characterize two genetically and phenotypically distinct accessions, MG_13 and PI358934, selected from a global chickpea collection. Rat hepatoma FaO cells treated with a mixture of free fatty acids (FFAs) (O/P) were used as an in vitro model of hepatic steatosis. In parallel, a high-fat diet (HFD) animal model was also established. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that both chickpea accessions showed a significant antioxidant ability. However, only MG_13 reduced the lipid over-accumulation in steatotic FaO cells and in the liver of HFD fed mice. Moreover, mice fed with HFD + MG_13 displayed a lower level of glycemia and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) than HFD mice. Interestingly, exposure to MG_13 prevented the phosphorylation of the inflammatory nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) which is upregulated during HFD and known to be linked to obesity. To conclude, the comparison of the two distinct chickpea accessions revealed a beneficial effect only for the MG_13. These findings highlight the importance of studies addressing the functional characterization of chickpea biodiversity and nutraceutical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Green-Sustainable Recovery of Phenolic and Antioxidant Compounds from Industrial Chestnut Shells Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Optimization and Evaluation of Biological Activities In Vitro
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030267 - 24 Mar 2020
Viewed by 853
Abstract
Chestnut processing industry generates large amounts of by-products, including leaves, burs and shells that are a source of bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study was to establish an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic and antioxidant compounds from industrial chestnut shells. A central [...] Read more.
Chestnut processing industry generates large amounts of by-products, including leaves, burs and shells that are a source of bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study was to establish an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic and antioxidant compounds from industrial chestnut shells. A central composite design (CCD) was conducted to analyze the effects of time (4–46 min) and temperature (34–76 °C) in the antioxidant activity (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of chestnut shells extracts. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C for 40 min. The optimal extract was characterized regarding phenolic profile, radical scavenging capacity, and effects on intestinal and dermal cell lines. The optimal extract revealed high amounts of ellagic acid (40.4 µg/mg dw), followed by caffeic acid derivative (15.4 µg/mg dw) and epigallocatechin (15.3 µg/mg dw). Indeed, the extract exhibited the highest scavenging efficiencies against NO● (IC50 = 0.1 µg/mL) and HOCl (IC50 = 0.7 µg/mL) and did not conducted to a decrease on HaCaT and HFF-1 viability up to 100 μg/mL. Oppositely, a decrease on Caco-2 and HT29-MTX viability was observed. This study suggests that UAE could be a sustainable option to valorize chestnut shells as raw material for different industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue By-Products Valorization: Bioactive Compounds as Antioxidant Agents)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Melatonin Administration to Pregnant Ewes under Heat-Stress Conditions, in Redox Status and Reproductive Outcome
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030266 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 636
Abstract
Heat stress is a known promoter of reactive oxygen species generation, which may compromise pregnancy and foetal development. Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule that regulates various processes including pregnancy. Thus, it could be used to ameliorate the redox status of pregnant heat-stressed ewes [...] Read more.
Heat stress is a known promoter of reactive oxygen species generation, which may compromise pregnancy and foetal development. Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule that regulates various processes including pregnancy. Thus, it could be used to ameliorate the redox status of pregnant heat-stressed ewes and the outcome of their pregnancy. Sixty-eight ewes participated in the study, which were allocated into two equal groups, i.e., Melatonin (M) and Control (C) group. All ewes were exposed to heat stress from D0 to D120. In both groups, after oestrus synchronization of ewes, rams were introduced to them for mating (D16). In M group, starting with sponges’ insertion (D0), melatonin implants were administered four-fold every 40 days. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by means of ultrasonography. Daily evaluation of temperature humidity index (THI), rectal temperature, and breathing rate were performed throughout the study. Blood samples were collected repeatedly from D0 until weaning for assaying redox biomarkers. Milk yield was measured thrice during puerperium. The results showed that melatonin administration throughout pregnancy improved the redox status of heat-stressed ewes and increased the mean number and bodyweight of lambs born per ewe, as well as the milk production. Therefore, melatonin may be used as antioxidant regimen in heat-stressed ewes for improving their reproductive traits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenol Compounds from Brewer’s Spent Grain: Kinetic Study, Extract Characterization, and Concentration
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030265 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) was chemically characterized obtaining 52.1% of carbohydrates, 17.8% protein, 5.9% lipids, 13.5% insoluble lignin and 24.3% of water-soluble extractives. This work has been focused on the study of polyphenol extraction of the extractive fraction by water ultrasound-assisted extraction. Selected [...] Read more.
Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) was chemically characterized obtaining 52.1% of carbohydrates, 17.8% protein, 5.9% lipids, 13.5% insoluble lignin and 24.3% of water-soluble extractives. This work has been focused on the study of polyphenol extraction of the extractive fraction by water ultrasound-assisted extraction. Selected extraction conditions were 47 °C and 21.7 mL water/gdry-BSG. The effect of solvent polarity on polyphenol extraction was studied by using ethanol aqueous mixtures, from 20% to 100% ethanol. The kinetics of polyphenol extraction have been fitted to the power law and the Weibull models yielding mean values of the root mean square deviation lower than 7.5%. Extracts have been characterized in terms of quantification of individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and protein and sugar soluble fractions (glucose, xylose, and arabinose). Polyphenol profile has been compared with other hydrolytic techniques, such as acid, basic and enzymatic hydrolysis, showing that ultrasound was not as effective as basic hydrolysis to release the phenolic acids esterified to the cell wall. A further centrifuge ultrafiltration concentration step was able to yield a retentate enriched in the protein fraction while individual phenolic compounds where mainly transferred to the permeate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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Open AccessReview
The Benefits and Risks of Certain Dietary Carotenoids that Exhibit both Anti- and Pro-Oxidative Mechanisms—A Comprehensive Review
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030264 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Carotenoid pigments, particularly β-carotene and lycopene, are consumed in human foodstuffs and play a vital role in maintaining health. β-carotene is known to quench singlet oxygen and can have strong antioxidant activity. As such, it was proposed that β-carotene might reduce the risk [...] Read more.
Carotenoid pigments, particularly β-carotene and lycopene, are consumed in human foodstuffs and play a vital role in maintaining health. β-carotene is known to quench singlet oxygen and can have strong antioxidant activity. As such, it was proposed that β-carotene might reduce the risk of cancer. Epidemiological studies found inverse relationships between cancer risk and β-carotene intake or blood levels. However, clinical trials failed to support those findings and β-carotene supplementation actually increased lung cancer incidence in male smokers. Early experimental animal studies found dietary β-carotene inhibited UV-induced skin cancers. Later studies found that β-carotene supplementation exacerbated UV-carcinogenic expression. The discrepancies of these results were related to the type of diet the animals consumed. Lycopene has been associated with reduced risk of lethal stage prostate cancer. Other carotenoids, e.g., lutein and zeaxanthin, play a vital role in visual health. Numerous studies of molecular mechanisms to explain the carotenoids’ mode of action have centered on singlet oxygen, as well as radical reactions. In cellular systems, singlet oxygen quenching by carotenoids has been reported but is more complex than in organic solvents. In dietary β-carotene supplement studies, damaging pro-oxidant reactivity can also arise. Reasons for this switch are likely due to the properties of the carotenoid radicals themselves. Understanding singlet oxygen reactions and the anti-/pro-oxidant roles of carotenoids are of importance to photosynthesis, vision and cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevention of Doxorubicin-Induced Autophagy Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030263 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
Clinical use of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) promotes skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness, adversely affecting patient mobility and strength. Although the mechanisms responsible for DOX-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction remain unclear, studies implicate the significant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this pathology. [...] Read more.
Clinical use of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) promotes skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness, adversely affecting patient mobility and strength. Although the mechanisms responsible for DOX-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction remain unclear, studies implicate the significant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this pathology. Supraphysiological ROS levels can enhance protein degradation via autophagy, and it is established that DOX upregulates autophagic signaling in skeletal muscle. To determine the precise contribution of accelerated autophagy to DOX-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction, we inhibited autophagy in the soleus via transduction of a dominant negative mutation of the autophagy related 5 (ATG5) protein. Targeted inhibition of autophagy prevented soleus muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction acutely following DOX administration, which was associated with a reduction in mitochondrial ROS and maintenance of mitochondrial respiratory capacity. These beneficial modifications were potentially the result of enhanced transcription of antioxidant response element-related genes and increased antioxidant capacity. Specifically, our results showed significant upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha, nuclear respiratory factor-1, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate quinone dehydrogenase-1, and catalase in the soleus with DOX treatment when autophagy was inhibited. These findings establish a significant role of autophagy in the development of oxidative stress and skeletal muscle weakness following DOX administration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Astaxanthin Prevents Mitochondrial Impairment Induced by Isoproterenol in Isolated Rat Heart Mitochondria
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030262 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 664
Abstract
Mitochondria are considered to be a power station of the cell. It is known that they play a major role in both normal and pathological heart function. Alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics are one of the main causes of the origin and progression of [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are considered to be a power station of the cell. It is known that they play a major role in both normal and pathological heart function. Alterations in mitochondrial bioenergetics are one of the main causes of the origin and progression of heart failure since they have an inhibitory effect on the activity of respiratory complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Astaxanthin (AST) is a xanthophyll carotenoid of mainly marine origin. It has both lipophilic and hydrophilic properties and may prevent mitochondrial dysfunction by permeating the cell membrane and co-localizing within mitochondria. The carotenoid suppresses oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of diseases. In the present study, it was found that the preliminary oral administration of AST upregulated the activity of respiratory chain complexes and ATP synthase and the level of their main subunits, thereby improving the respiration of rat heart mitochondria (RHM) in the heart injured by isoproterenol (ISO). AST decreased the level of cyclophilin D (CyP-D) and increased the level of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in this condition. It was concluded that AST could be considered as a potential mitochondrial-targeted agent in the therapy of pathological conditions associated with oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. AST, as a dietary supplement, has a potential in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Iron and Advanced Glycation End Products: Emerging Role of Iron in Androgen Deficiency in Obesity
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030261 - 22 Mar 2020
Viewed by 822
Abstract
The literature suggests a bidirectional relationship between testosterone (T) and iron, but mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. We investigated effects of iron on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in obesity-related androgen deficiency. In total, 111 men were recruited, and iron biomarkers and [...] Read more.
The literature suggests a bidirectional relationship between testosterone (T) and iron, but mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. We investigated effects of iron on advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in obesity-related androgen deficiency. In total, 111 men were recruited, and iron biomarkers and N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) were measured. In an animal study, rats were fed a 50% high-fat diet (HFD) with (0.25, 1, and 2 g ferric iron/kg diet) or without ferric citrate for 12 weeks. Obese rats supplemented with >1 g iron/kg diet had decreased testicular total T compared to HFD alone. Immunohistochemical staining showed that >1 g of ferric iron increased iron and AGE retention in testicular interstitial tissues, which is associated with increased expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide. Compared with normal weight, overweight/obese men had lower T levels and higher rates of hypogonadism (19% vs. 11.3%) and iron overload (29.8% vs.15.9%). A correlation analysis showed serum total T was positively correlated with transferrin saturation (r = 0.242, p = 0.007) and cathepsin D (r = 0.330, p = 0.001), but negatively correlated with red blood cell aggregation (r = −0.419, p<0.0001) and CML (r = −0.209, p < 0.05). In conclusion, AGEs may partially explain the underlying relationship between dysregulated iron and T deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Biology of Glyoxalases )
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Open AccessReview
Antioxidant Therapies in Traumatic Brain Injury
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030260 - 22 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Due to a multiplicity of causes provoking traumatic brain injury (TBI), TBI is a highly heterogeneous pathology, characterized by high mortality and disability rates. TBI is an acute neurodegenerative event, potentially and unpredictably evolving into sub-chronic and chronic neurodegenerative events, with transient or [...] Read more.
Due to a multiplicity of causes provoking traumatic brain injury (TBI), TBI is a highly heterogeneous pathology, characterized by high mortality and disability rates. TBI is an acute neurodegenerative event, potentially and unpredictably evolving into sub-chronic and chronic neurodegenerative events, with transient or permanent neurologic, cognitive, and motor deficits, for which no valid standardized therapies are available. A vast body of literature demonstrates that TBI-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in the development of both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Cellular defenses against this phenomenon are largely dependent on low molecular weight antioxidants, most of which are consumed with diet or as nutraceutical supplements. A large number of studies have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidant administration to decrease TBI-associated damage in various animal TBI models and in a limited number of clinical trials. Points of weakness of preclinical studies are represented by the large variability in the TBI model adopted, in the antioxidant tested, in the timing, dosages, and routes of administration used, and in the variety of molecular and/or neurocognitive parameters evaluated. The analysis of the very few clinical studies does not allow strong conclusions to be drawn on the real effectiveness of antioxidant administration to TBI patients. Standardizing TBI models and different experimental conditions, as well as testing the efficacy of administration of a cocktail of antioxidants rather than only one, should be mandatory. According to some promising clinical results, it appears that sports-related concussion is probably the best type of TBI to test the benefits of antioxidant administration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nitrosative Stress Biomarkers in the Non-Stimulated and Stimulated Saliva, as well as Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Periodontitis: Review and Clinical Study
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030259 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
Diagnosis of periodontopathy is complex and includes defining the cause, type, stage, and grade of periodontitis. Therefore, alternative diagnostic methods are sought to indicate the progression of inflammation or to determine the effectiveness of therapy. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers can be particularly [...] Read more.
Diagnosis of periodontopathy is complex and includes defining the cause, type, stage, and grade of periodontitis. Therefore, alternative diagnostic methods are sought to indicate the progression of inflammation or to determine the effectiveness of therapy. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers can be particularly useful because they most likely reflect the disease process of the periodontal tissues. However, the difficulty of collecting GCF for testing is the reason for the limited use in diagnostics. Because periodontitis is the primary source of nitrogen free radicals in the oral cavity, the aim of the study was to evaluate the biomarkers of nitrosative stress (nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and S-nitrosothiols) in GCF, non-stimulated and stimulated saliva of 90 patients with periodontitis. The study group was divided into two subgroups, depending on the stage of the disease severity. We showed a significantly higher concentration of all assessed biomarkers in the non-stimulated and stimulated saliva of patients with periodontitis. However, significant changes in GCF has been shown only for peroxynitrite. The studied biomarkers did not correlate with clinical periodontal status, which probably results from their short-duration activity and the impact on a few factors in the oral cavity. Saliva and gingival fluid are not very useful in the differential diagnosis of periodontitis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid β-d-Glucosyl Ester and Cimidahurinine with Antimelanogenesis and Antioxidant Effects from Pyracantha angustifolia via Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030258 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
This study evaluated bioactivity-guided fractionation as a means to identify therapeutic phytochemicals from Pyracantha angustifolia that can attenuate melanogenesis and oxidation. Seven compounds with inhibitory effects on melanin production and tyrosinase (TYR) activity, and ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging activities, which have not been [...] Read more.
This study evaluated bioactivity-guided fractionation as a means to identify therapeutic phytochemicals from Pyracantha angustifolia that can attenuate melanogenesis and oxidation. Seven compounds with inhibitory effects on melanin production and tyrosinase (TYR) activity, and ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging activities, which have not been reported as whitening materials, were isolated from the n-butanol fraction from P. angustifolia leaves (PAL). Among the seven compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid β-d-glucosylester (HG), and cimidahurinine (CH) had strong inhibitory effects on melanin production and TYR activity, as well as ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging activities. Western blot analysis showed that HG and CH suppressed tyrosinase-related protein (TYRP)-1 and TYRP-2 expression. Moreover, HG and CH inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-treated B16F10 cells. These results suggest that P. angustifolia containing active compounds, such as HG and CH, is a potent therapeutic candidate for the development of hypopigmenting agents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Global Evolutionary Analysis of 11 Gene Families Part of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Gene Network in Four Eucalyptus Species
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030257 - 21 Mar 2020
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Eucalyptus is a worldwide hard-wood species which increasingly focused on. To adapt to various biotic and abiotic stresses, Eucalyptus have evolved complex mechanisms, increasing the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by numerous ROS controlling enzymes. To better analyse the ROS gene [...] Read more.
Eucalyptus is a worldwide hard-wood species which increasingly focused on. To adapt to various biotic and abiotic stresses, Eucalyptus have evolved complex mechanisms, increasing the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by numerous ROS controlling enzymes. To better analyse the ROS gene network and discuss the differences between four Eucalyptus species, ROS gene network including 11 proteins families (1CysPrx, 2CysPrx, APx, APx-R, CIII Prx, Diox, GPx, Kat, PrxII, PrxQ and Rboh) were annotated and compared in an expert and exhaustive manner from the genomic data available from E. camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. grandis, and E. gunnii. In addition, a specific sequencing strategy was performed in order to determine if the missed sequences in at least one organism are the results of gain/loss events or only sequencing gaps. We observed that the automatic annotation applied to multigenic families is the source of miss-annotation. Base on the family size, the 11 families can be categorized into duplicated gene families (CIII Prx, Kat, 1CysPrx, and GPx), which contain a lot of gene duplication events and non-duplicated families (APx, APx-R, Rboh, DiOx, 2CysPrx, PrxII, and PrxQ). The gene family sizes are much larger in Eucalyptus than most of other angiosperms due to recent gene duplications, which could give higher adaptability to environmental changes and stresses. The cross-species comparative analysis shows gene gain and loss events during the evolutionary process. The 11 families possess different expression patterns, while in the Eucalyptus genus, the ROS families present similar expression patterns. Overall, the comparative analysis might be a good criterion to evaluate the adaptation of different species with different characters, but only if data mining is as exhaustive as possible. It is also a good indicator to explore the evolutionary process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Molecules with Antioxidant Function)
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Open AccessArticle
The Interaction between Antioxidants Content and Allergenic Potency of Different Raspberry Cultivars
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030256 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Food allergies are a very serious problem among consumers. The most common food allergies involve animal products, but they can also involve fruits such as berries. We aimed to determine whether organic farming is useful for the production of high-quality and safe fruits. [...] Read more.
Food allergies are a very serious problem among consumers. The most common food allergies involve animal products, but they can also involve fruits such as berries. We aimed to determine whether organic farming is useful for the production of high-quality and safe fruits. Three varieties of raspberries ‘Laszka’, ‘Glen Ample’ and ‘Polka’ from organic and conventional production (neighboring farms) were collected over the two years of the experiment. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out, and the content of Bet v1 and profilin was determined. The organic raspberries contained a lower level of phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins. Conventional fruits were characterized by a higher allergenic potency than organic ones. We found a strong link between their anthocyanin content and the allergy status of conventional raspberry fruits. Therefore, organically produced raspberries are safer for consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rosemary Diterpenes and Flavanone Aglycones Provide Improved Genoprotection against UV-Induced DNA Damage in a Human Skin Cell Model
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030255 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
Overexposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major cause of a variety of cutaneous disorders, including sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancers. UVB radiation (290–320 nm) causes multiple forms of DNA damage, p53 induction, protein and lipid oxidation, and the generation of harmful [...] Read more.
Overexposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the major cause of a variety of cutaneous disorders, including sunburn, photoaging, and skin cancers. UVB radiation (290–320 nm) causes multiple forms of DNA damage, p53 induction, protein and lipid oxidation, and the generation of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years, botanicals containing polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as skin photoprotective agents have emerged. This study evaluated the protective effects of two formulations against UVB-induced damage in a skin cell model. One of the formulations (F2) contained a combination of citrus and olive extracts and the other one (F1) also contained a rosemary extract. The antioxidant capacity of both formulations was estimated by different in vitro methods, and the cell viability, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and DNA damage were studied in UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes. Both formulations exerted photoprotective effects on skin cells and decreased mitochondrial depolarization and DNA damage. F1 which contained iridoids, rosemary diterpenes, glycosides and aglycones of citrus flavanones, and monohydroxylated flavones exhibited higher cellular photoprotective effects and mitochondrial membrane potential restoration, as well as an enhanced capacity to decrease DNA double strand breaks and the DNA damage response. In contrast, F2, which contained mostly iridoids, citrus flavanone aglycones, and mono- and dihydroxylated flavones, exhibited a higher capacity to decrease intracellular ROS generation and radical scavenging capacity related to metal ion chelation. Both formulations showed a similar capability to decrease the number of apoptotic cells upon UVB radiation. Based on our results and those of others, we postulate that the stronger capacity of F1 to protect against UVB-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes is related to the presence of rosemary diterpenes and citrus flavanone aglycones. Nevertheless, the presence of the dihydroxylated flavones in F2 may contribute to inhibiting the generation of metal-related free radicals. To confirm the efficacy of these formulations as potential candidates for oral/topical photoprotection, human trials are required to circumvent the limitations of the cellular model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant, and Antidiabetic Potential Exerted by Millet Grain Varieties
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030254 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
This study evaluated the potential antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vitro of four millet grain varieties cultivated in South Korea. The free fractions were tested for their total antioxidant capacity using 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS+) and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the potential antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in vitro of four millet grain varieties cultivated in South Korea. The free fractions were tested for their total antioxidant capacity using 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS+) and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays, followed by α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation inhibition assays. The total phenolics, flavonoids, and condensed tannins in the free fractions ranged from 107.8 to 136.4 mg ferulic acid equivalent (FAE)/100 g, 101.3 to 115.8 mg catechin equivalent (CE)/100 g, and 17.65 to 59.54 mg catechin equivalent (CE)/100 g, respectively. Finger Italian millet had the highest total phenolic content (136.4 mg FAE/100 g) and flavonoid content (115.8 mg CE/100 g). Barnyard and finger Italian millet showed the highest DPPH (IC50 = 359.6 µg/mL and 436.25 µg/mL, respectively) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 362.40 µg/mL and 381.65 µg/mL, respectively). Similarly, finger Italian millet also exhibited significantly lower IC50 values for the percentage inhibition of α-glucosidase (18.07 µg/mL) and α-amylase (10.56 µg/mL) as compared with acarbose (IC50 = 59.34 µg/mL and 27.73 µg/mL, respectively) and AGEs formation (33.68 µg/mL) as compared with aminoguanidine (AG) (52.30 µg/mL). All eight phenolic compounds identified in finger Italian millet were flavonoids, with flavanols being the predominant subclass. Taken together, millet flavonoids play important roles in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, and hence finger Italian millet has the potential to be developed as a functional food. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidant Properties and Protective Effects of Some Species of the Annonaceae, Lamiaceae, and Geraniaceae Families against Neuronal Damage Induced by Excitotoxicity and Cerebral Ischemia
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030253 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 547
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the antioxidant activities of extracts obtained from three plant families and evaluate their therapeutic effect on strokes. Ethanol extracts were obtained from either the leaf or the aerial parts of plants of the families Annonaceae (Annona cherimola, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the antioxidant activities of extracts obtained from three plant families and evaluate their therapeutic effect on strokes. Ethanol extracts were obtained from either the leaf or the aerial parts of plants of the families Annonaceae (Annona cherimola, A. diversifolia, A. muricata, A. purpurea, and A. reticulata), Lamiaceae (Salvia amaríssima and S. polystachya), and Geraniaceae (Geranium niveum and G. mexicanum). Extracts were analyzed in terms of hydroxyl radical (OH•), peroxyl radical (ROO•), and superoxide anion (O2). The efficiency of the extracts to prevent neuronal death induced by excitotoxicity was tested with the tetrazolium assay, the O2 scavenging capacity was evaluated with the dihydroethidium dye, and the protective effect of the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity was tested on a stroke experimental model. The extracts’ IC50 values (μg/mL) of scavenging varied from 98.9 to 155.04, 4.5 to 102.4, and 20.2 to 118.97 for OH•, ROO•, and O2, respectively. In the excitotoxicity model, Annonaceae extracts were highly cytotoxic while Lamiaceae and Geraniaceae reduced intracellular O2 production and protect neurons against oxidative stress. Salvia polystachya reduced cerebral damage, as well as improved survival and behavior after ischemia. Our results encouraged the use of plant extracts as natural antioxidants to minimize neuronal injury following stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Botanical Antioxidants and Neurological Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Constitution, Phytochemical and Macronutrient Content in Three Species of Microgreens as Modulated by Natural Fiber and Synthetic Substrates
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030252 - 20 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
The present study examined the modulatory effects of natural fiber substrates (agave fiber, coconut fiber and peat moss) and synthetic alternatives (capillary mat and cellulose sponge) on the nutritive and phytochemical composition of select microgreens species (coriander, kohlrabi and pak choi) grown in [...] Read more.
The present study examined the modulatory effects of natural fiber substrates (agave fiber, coconut fiber and peat moss) and synthetic alternatives (capillary mat and cellulose sponge) on the nutritive and phytochemical composition of select microgreens species (coriander, kohlrabi and pak choi) grown in a controlled environment. Polyphenols were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS, major carotenoids by HPLC-DAD, and macro-minerals by ion chromatography. Microgreens grown on peat moss had outstanding fresh and dry yield but low dry matter content. Natural fiber substrates increased nitrate and overall macro-mineral concentrations in microgreens compared to synthetic substrates. The concentrations of chlorophylls, carotenoids and ascorbate were influenced primarily by species. On the contrary, variability in polyphenols content was wider between substrates than species. Out of twenty phenolic compounds identified, chlorogenic acid and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside were most abundant. Hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives accounted for 49.8% of mean phenolic content across species, flavonol glycosides for 48.4% and flavone glycosides for 1.8%. Peat moss provided optimal physicochemical conditions that enhanced microgreens growth rate and biomass production at the expense of phenolic content. In this respect, the application of controlled stress (eustress) on microgreens growing on peat moss warrants investigation as a means of enhancing phytochemical composition without substantial compromise in crop performance and production turnover. Finally, nitrate deprivation practices should be considered for microgreens grown on natural fiber substrates in order to minimize consumer exposure to nitrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Induced by Interleukin-6 via JAK/STAT3 Pathways Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene in Hepatoma Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030251 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has several important roles in hepatocytes in terms of anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and antioxidant properties. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine associated with liver regeneration and protection against injury. The aim of this study was to determine the potential crosstalk between [...] Read more.
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has several important roles in hepatocytes in terms of anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and antioxidant properties. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine associated with liver regeneration and protection against injury. The aim of this study was to determine the potential crosstalk between HO-1 and IL-6, and to elucidate the signaling pathways involved in the induction of HO-1 by IL-6 in human hepatoma cells. Ectopic overexpression of HO-1 not only attenuated cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, but also blocked the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 and the pyocyanin in HepG2 or Hep3B cells. IL-6 expression was negatively regulated by HO-1, while IL-6 induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and HO-1 gene expression in HepG2 cells. The co-transfected HO-1 reporter vector and a protein inhibitor of the activated STAT3 (PIAS3) expression vector blocked the IL-6-induced HO-1 reporter activity. Both interferon γ and interleukin-1β treatments induced STAT1 but not STAT3 phosphorylation, which had no effects on the HO-1 expression. Treatments of AG490 and luteolin blocked the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways which attenuated IL-6 activation on the HO-1 expression. Our results indicated that HO-1 is the antitumor gene induced by IL-6 through the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathways; moreover, a feedback circuit may exist between IL-6 and HO-1 in hepatoma cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Postbiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Serum and Ruminal Antioxidant Activity and Upregulates Hepatic Antioxidant Enzymes and Ruminal Barrier Function in Post-Weaning Lambs
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030250 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 654
Abstract
Postbiotics from Lactobacillus plantarum have been reported to improve growth performance, nutrient utilization, immune status and gut health in livestock. However, there is scarce information on the antioxidant activity of postbiotics and its modulation of antioxidant activity and rumen barrier function in animals. [...] Read more.
Postbiotics from Lactobacillus plantarum have been reported to improve growth performance, nutrient utilization, immune status and gut health in livestock. However, there is scarce information on the antioxidant activity of postbiotics and its modulation of antioxidant activity and rumen barrier function in animals. We investigated the antioxidant activity of postbiotics from L. plantarum RG14, RG11 and TL1 and dietary effects in post-weaning lambs on serum and ruminal antioxidant activity, hepatic antioxidant enzymes and ruminal barrier function. Postbiotic RG14 showed the highest antioxidant activity in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay and was chosen to be evaluated in animal trials. Twelve post-weaning Dorper lambs were allotted to the control group and postbiotic group (0.9% (v/w) postbiotic RG14). The improvement in antioxidant activity of the postbiotic group was observed by greater glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in serum and ruminal fluid and lower serum TBARS. The findings were strengthened by the upregulation of hepatic GPX1, GPX4 and copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in the postbiotic group. Lambs received postbiotics had higher regulation of rumen barrier function through upregulation of tight junction protein (TJP), occludin (OCLD), claudin-1 (CLDN1) and CLDN4. The current study demonstrated that dietary postbiotics enhanced the serum and ruminal fluid antioxidant activity, reduced the serum lipid peroxidation and upregulated hepatic antioxidant enzymes and ruminal barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Animal Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Antioxidant Potential of Seaweed Extracts for Enrichment of Convenience Food
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030249 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in natural antioxidants as replacements of synthetic compounds because of increased safety concerns and worldwide trend toward the usage of natural additives in foods. One of the richest sources of natural antioxidants, nowadays largely [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in natural antioxidants as replacements of synthetic compounds because of increased safety concerns and worldwide trend toward the usage of natural additives in foods. One of the richest sources of natural antioxidants, nowadays largely studied for their potential to decrease the risk of diseases and to improve oxidative stability of food products, are edible brown seaweeds. Nevertheless, their antioxidant mechanisms are slightly evaluated and discussed. The aims of this study were to suggest possible mechanism(s) of Fucus vesiculosus antioxidant action and to assess its bioactivity during the production of enriched rye snacks. Chemical and cell-based assays indicate that the efficient preventive antioxidant action of Fucus vesiculosus extracts is likely due to not only the high polyphenol content, but also their good Fe2+-chelating ability. Moreover, the data collected during the production of Fucus vesiculosus-enriched rye snacks show that this seaweed can increase, in appreciable measure, the antioxidant potential of enriched convenience cereals. This information can be used to design functional foods enriched in natural antioxidant ingredients in order to improve the health of targeted consumers. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Effect of Acupuncture on Oxidative Stress Induced by Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030248 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
In this article, we review how acupuncture regulates oxidative stress to prevent ischemia–reperfusion injury. We electronically searched databases, including PubMed, Clinical Key and the Cochrane Library, from their inception to November 2019 by using the following medical subject headings and keywords: acupuncture, ischemia-reperfusion [...] Read more.
In this article, we review how acupuncture regulates oxidative stress to prevent ischemia–reperfusion injury. We electronically searched databases, including PubMed, Clinical Key and the Cochrane Library, from their inception to November 2019 by using the following medical subject headings and keywords: acupuncture, ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, and antioxidants. We concluded that acupuncture is effective in treating oxidation after ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition to increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and downregulating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), acupuncture also repairs the DNA, lipids, and proteins attacked by ROS and mediates downstream of the ROS pathway to apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Brain)
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Open AccessArticle
Germinated Riceberry Rice Enhanced Protocatechuic Acid and Vanillic Acid to Suppress Melanogenesis through Cellular Oxidant-Related Tyrosinase Activity in B16 Cells
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030247 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
The anti-melanogenic bioactivities of phytophenolic compounds have been well recognized. Riceberry rice contains a rich source of phenolic compounds that act as melanin inhibitors through their antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase properties. Germination has been shown to be an effective process to improve targeted phenolic [...] Read more.
The anti-melanogenic bioactivities of phytophenolic compounds have been well recognized. Riceberry rice contains a rich source of phenolic compounds that act as melanin inhibitors through their antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase properties. Germination has been shown to be an effective process to improve targeted phenolic compounds. In this study, germinated riceberry rice extract was tested for antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was determined while the tyrosinase inhibitory effect was screened by the in vitro mushroom tyrosinase assay. Cytotoxicity of germinated riceberry rice extract was investigated in B16 cells before evaluating its activities on cellular tyrosinase, melanogenesis, melanin excretion, morphological appearance, and cellular oxidants. Germinated riceberry rice extract showed increased potency of antioxidants and was also twice as effective for mushroom tyrosinase inhibition when compared with ungerminated riceberry rice extract. In B16 cells, the extract inhibited cellular tyrosinase, melanogenesis, and cellular oxidants in a dose-dependent manner when compared with untreated cells. Germinated riceberry rice extract also displayed an effect on B16 cells morphology by reducing the number of melanin- containing cells and their dendriticity. Additionally, the germination of riceberry rice dominantly enhanced two phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, which have the potential for antioxidant-associated hyperpigmentation control. Thus, the restricted germination of riceberry rice tended to promote protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid, which dominantly displayed antioxidants and tyrosinase-related melanogenic inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Skin Protection)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Enrichment of Corn Oil With alpha- or gamma-Tocopherol on Its In Vitro Digestion Studied by 1H NMR and SPME-GC/MS; Formation of Hydroperoxy-, Hydroxy-, Keto-Dienes and Keto-E-epoxy-E-Monoenes in the More alpha-Tocopherol Enriched Samples
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030246 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
The aim of this study is the analysis of the in vitro digestion of corn oil, and of the effect of its enrichment with three levels of gamma- and alpha-tocopherol, by using, for the first time, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is the analysis of the in vitro digestion of corn oil, and of the effect of its enrichment with three levels of gamma- and alpha-tocopherol, by using, for the first time, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and a solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The attention is focused on the hydrolysis degree, the degradation of oil’s main components, the occurrence of oxidation reactions and main compounds formed, as well as on the bioaccessibility of oil’s main components, of compounds formed in the oxidation, and, of gamma- and alpha-tocopherol. The lipolysis levels reached are high and show a similar pattern in all cases. The oxidation of corn oil components during in vitro digestion is proven, as is the action of gamma-tocopherol as an antioxidant and alpha-tocopherol as a prooxidant. In the more alpha-tocopherol enriched samples, hydroperoxy-, hydroxy-, and keto-dienes, as well as keto-epoxy-monoenes and aldehydes, are generated. The bioaccessibility of the oil’s main components is high. The compounds formed in the oxidation process during in vitro digestion can also be considered bioaccessible. The bioaccessibility of alpha-tocopherol is smaller than that of gamma-tocopherol. The concentration of this latter compound remains unchanged during the in vitro digestion of the more alpha-tocopherol enriched oil samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for the Controlled Release of 5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-Carboxylic Acid, a Melanin-Related Metabolite with Potent Antioxidant Activity
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030245 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 652
Abstract
The ability of gelatin-based hydrogels of incorporating and releasing under controlled conditions 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA), a melanin-related metabolite endowed with marked antioxidant properties was investigated. The methyl ester of DHICA, MeDHICA, was also tested in view of its higher stability, and different solubility [...] Read more.
The ability of gelatin-based hydrogels of incorporating and releasing under controlled conditions 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA), a melanin-related metabolite endowed with marked antioxidant properties was investigated. The methyl ester of DHICA, MeDHICA, was also tested in view of its higher stability, and different solubility profile. Three types of gelatin-based hydrogels were prepared: pristine porcine skin type A gelatin (HGel-A), a pristine gelatin cross-linked by amide coupling of lysines and glutamic/aspartic acids (HGel-B), and a gelatin/chitosan blend (HGel-C). HGel-B and HGel-C differed in the swelling behavior, showed satisfactorily high mechanical strength at physiological temperatures and well-defined morphology. The extent of incorporation into all the gelatins tested using a 10% w/w indole to gelatin ratio was very satisfactory ranging from 60 to 90% for either indoles. The kinetics of indole release under conditions of physiological relevance was evaluated up to 72 h. The highest values were obtained with HGel-B and HGel-C for MeDHICA (90% after 6 h), and an appreciable release was observed for DHICA reaching 30% and 40% at 6 h for HGel-B and HGel-C, respectively. At 72 h, DHICA and MeDHICA were released at around 30% from HGel-A at pH 7.4, with an increase up to 40% at pH 5.5 in the case of DHICA. DHICA incorporated into HGel-B proved fairly stable over 6 h whereas the free compound at the same concentration was almost completely oxidized. The antioxidant power of the indole loaded gelatins was monitored by chemical assays and proved unaltered even after prolonged storage in air, suggesting that the materials could be prepared in advance with respect to their use without alteration of their efficacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antioxidants Reduce Muscular Dystrophy in the dy2J/dy2J Mouse Model of Laminin α2 Chain-Deficient Muscular Dystrophy
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030244 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin α2 chain-deficiency (LAMA2-CMD) is a severe neuromuscular disorder without a cure. Using transcriptome and proteome profiling as well as functional assays, we previously demonstrated significant metabolic impairment in skeletal muscle from LAMA2-CMD patients and mouse models. Reactive oxygen [...] Read more.
Congenital muscular dystrophy with laminin α2 chain-deficiency (LAMA2-CMD) is a severe neuromuscular disorder without a cure. Using transcriptome and proteome profiling as well as functional assays, we previously demonstrated significant metabolic impairment in skeletal muscle from LAMA2-CMD patients and mouse models. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase when oxygen homeostasis is not maintained and, here, we investigate whether oxidative stress indeed is involved in the pathogenesis of LAMA2-CMD. We also analyze the effects of two antioxidant molecules, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and vitamin E, on disease progression in the dy2J/dy2J mouse model of LAMA2-CMD. We demonstrate increased ROS levels in LAMA2-CMD mouse and patient skeletal muscle. Furthermore, NAC treatment (150 mg/kg IP for 6 days/week for 3 weeks) led to muscle force loss prevention, reduced central nucleation and decreased the occurrence of apoptosis, inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress in LAMA2-CMD muscle. In addition, vitamin E (40 mg/kg oral gavage for 6 days/week for 2 weeks) improved morphological features and reduced inflammation and ROS levels in dy2J/dy2J skeletal muscle. We suggest that NAC and to some extent vitamin E might be potential future supportive treatments for LAMA2-CMD as they improve numerous pathological hallmarks of LAMA2-CMD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Diet Supplementation with Pomegranate and Bitter Melon on Lipidomic Profile of Serum and Cancerous Tissues of Rats with Mammary Tumours
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030243 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 656
Abstract
The aim of this study was to present overall lipid profile of organisms with ongoing neoplastic process and applied diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and bitter melon extract (BME). The following were quantified in serum and cancerous tissues of rats suffering [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to present overall lipid profile of organisms with ongoing neoplastic process and applied diet supplementation with pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and bitter melon extract (BME). The following were quantified in serum and cancerous tissues of rats suffering from mammary tumours: fatty acids, conjugated fatty acids and sterols, their oxidised metabolites (malondialdehyde and oxysterols) and lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The obtained results indicate that abnormalities in lipid metabolism accompany neoplastic process. These differences concern all classes of lipids and most pathways of their transformation, with the special emphasis on lipid peroxidation and LOX-mediated metabolism. Cancer process appears to be so detrimental that it may conceal positive influence of dietary modifications. The lack of anticarcinogenic properties of PSO and BME in this model may be due to their antioxidant properties or elevated levels of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which change CLA isomer activity from anti- to pro-tumorigenic. As CLA are the product of conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) endogenous metabolism, high CLA levels may be explained by applied diet enrichment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Variations in Anthocyanin Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of 12 Genotypes of Mulberry (Morus spp.) Fruits and Their Changes during Processing
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030242 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 674
Abstract
Mulberry fruits are known as rich sources of anthocyanins and are consumed in syrup form after the addition of sugar and acid; however, there is little information on the anthocyanin composition and antioxidant activity of mulberries of different cultivars and their changes during [...] Read more.
Mulberry fruits are known as rich sources of anthocyanins and are consumed in syrup form after the addition of sugar and acid; however, there is little information on the anthocyanin composition and antioxidant activity of mulberries of different cultivars and their changes during processing. To address this, the antioxidant activity and anthocyanin composition of 12 cultivar mulberry fruit cultivars were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole time-of-flight. Additionally, different quantities of citric acid were used to evaluate antioxidant activities and anthocyanin composition of mulberry syrup. Sixteen anthocyanins were identified in mulberry fruits using accurate mass spectrometry. Several anthocyanins were tentatively identified for the first time in mulberry fruits and include: malvidin hexoside, cyanidin malonyl hexose hexoside, cyanidin pentoside, cyanidin malonyl hexoside, petunidin deoxyhexose hexoside, and cyanidin deoxyhexoside. The major anthocyanin in mulberries was cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, followed by cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside. Morus Alba L. Iksu showed the highest cyanidin-3-O-glucoside content (8.65 mg/g dry weight) among 12 mulberry fruit cultivars. As citric acid levels increased, mulberry syrup showed significantly higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments in Bioactive Molecules Evaluation)
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Open AccessReview
Nitrates/Nitrites in Food—Risk for Nitrosative Stress and Benefits
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030241 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
In the context of impact on human health, nitrite/nitrate and related nitrogen species such as nitric oxide (NO) are a matter of increasing scientific controversy. An increase in the content of reactive nitrogen species may result in nitrosative stress—a deleterious process, which can [...] Read more.
In the context of impact on human health, nitrite/nitrate and related nitrogen species such as nitric oxide (NO) are a matter of increasing scientific controversy. An increase in the content of reactive nitrogen species may result in nitrosative stress—a deleterious process, which can be an important mediator of damage to cell structures, including lipids, membranes, proteins and DNA. Nitrates and nitrites are widespread in the environment and occur naturally in foods of plant origin as a part of the nitrogen cycle. Additionally, these compounds are used as additives to improve food quality and protect against microbial contamination and chemical changes. Some vegetables such as raw spinach, beets, celery and lettuce are considered to contain high concentrations of nitrates. Due to the high consumption of vegetables, they have been identified as the primary source of nitrates in the human diet. Processed meats are another source of nitrites in our diet because the meat industry uses nitrates/nitrites as additives in the meat curing process. Although the vast majority of consumed nitrates and nitrites come from natural vegetables and fruits rather than food additives, there is currently a great deal of consumer pressure for the production of meat products free of or with reduced quantities of these compounds. This is because, for years, the cancer risks of nitrates/nitrites have been considered, since they potentially convert into the nitrosamines that have carcinogenic effects. This has resulted in the development and rapid expansion of meat products processed with plant-derived nitrates as nitrite alternatives in meat products. On the other hand, recently, these two ions have been discussed as essential nutrients which allow nitric oxide production and thus help cardiovascular health. Thus, this manuscript reviews the main sources of dietary exposure to nitrates and nitrites, metabolism of nitrites/nitrates, and health concerns related to dietary nitrites/nitrates, with particular emphasis on the effect on nitrosative stress, the role of nitrites/nitrates in meat products and alternatives to these additives used in meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Bisphenol A on Oxidative Stress in the Rat Brain
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030240 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
We investigated the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on oxidative stress and tau-related proteins in adult rat brains. BPA (10 mg/L) was administered to rats for eight weeks through their drinking water. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity for hydroxyl radicals in [...] Read more.
We investigated the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on oxidative stress and tau-related proteins in adult rat brains. BPA (10 mg/L) was administered to rats for eight weeks through their drinking water. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity for hydroxyl radicals in the plasma was reduced after two weeks. In the hippocampus, four and eight weeks of BPA increased the ratio of oxidized DJ-1/DJ-1 (PARK7). The ratio of phosphorylated-GSK3β/GSK3β and phosphorylated-AKT/AKT increased after one week of BPA treatment. The ratio of phosphorylated JNK/JNK and phosphorylated-ERK/ERK increased after eight weeks of BPA; the elevation could be related to tau phosphorylation. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in the hippocampus decreased after eight weeks of BPA treatment. At that time, SOD1 was significantly induced, but no changes in SOD2 expression were apparent in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the ratio of phosphorylated-tau (PHF-1, Ser396/ Ser404) to total tau level did not change. However, PHF-1 or other sites of tau could be phosphorylated after eight weeks in the hippocampi of rats. BPA induced systemic oxidative stress and could change ROS-induced signaling pathways in the brain. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction possibly is not responsible for oxidative stress and neurodegeneration due to low doses of BPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Food Additives and Other Exposomes)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Fermentation on the Recovery of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds from Sea Bass Byproducts
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030239 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
The aim of the present research was to obtain antioxidant compounds through the fermentation of fish byproducts by bacteria isolated from sea bass viscera. To that purpose, bacteria from sea bass stomach, intestine, and colon were isolated. With the selected bacteria, growing research [...] Read more.
The aim of the present research was to obtain antioxidant compounds through the fermentation of fish byproducts by bacteria isolated from sea bass viscera. To that purpose, bacteria from sea bass stomach, intestine, and colon were isolated. With the selected bacteria, growing research was undertaken, fermenting different broths prepared with sea bass meat or byproducts. After the fermentation, the antioxidant activity, phenolic acids, and some proteins were evaluated. The main phenolic acids obtained were DL-3-phenyl-lactic acid and benzoic acid at a maximum concentration of 466 and 314 ppb, respectively. The best antioxidant activity was found in the extracts obtained after the fermentation of fish byproducts broth by bacteria isolated from the colon (6502 μM TE) and stomach (4797 μM TE). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between phenolic acids obtained after the fermentation process and the antioxidant activity of the samples. It was also concluded that the lactic acid bacteria isolated from sea bass had an important proteolytic capacity and were able to synthesize phenolic acids with antioxidant capacity. This work has shown the relevance of fermentation as a useful tool to valorize fish byproducts, giving them an added economic value and reducing their environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2020)
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