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Article

Green-Sustainable Recovery of Phenolic and Antioxidant Compounds from Industrial Chestnut Shells Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Optimization and Evaluation of Biological Activities In Vitro

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Polytechnic of Porto—School of Engineering, REQUIMTE/LAQV, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4249-015 Porto, Portugal
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REQUIMTE/UCIBIO, MedTech-Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira nº. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
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REQUIMTE/LAQV, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
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DAFNAE, Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment, University of Padova, Viale dell’Università, 16, Legnaro, PD 35020, Italy
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DSF, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, via Marzolo 5, 35121 Padova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to the present work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030267
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 15 March 2020 / Accepted: 22 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue By-Products Valorization: Bioactive Compounds as Antioxidant Agents)
Chestnut processing industry generates large amounts of by-products, including leaves, burs and shells that are a source of bioactive compounds. The purpose of this study was to establish an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic and antioxidant compounds from industrial chestnut shells. A central composite design (CCD) was conducted to analyze the effects of time (4–46 min) and temperature (34–76 °C) in the antioxidant activity (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of chestnut shells extracts. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained at 70 °C for 40 min. The optimal extract was characterized regarding phenolic profile, radical scavenging capacity, and effects on intestinal and dermal cell lines. The optimal extract revealed high amounts of ellagic acid (40.4 µg/mg dw), followed by caffeic acid derivative (15.4 µg/mg dw) and epigallocatechin (15.3 µg/mg dw). Indeed, the extract exhibited the highest scavenging efficiencies against NO● (IC50 = 0.1 µg/mL) and HOCl (IC50 = 0.7 µg/mL) and did not conducted to a decrease on HaCaT and HFF-1 viability up to 100 μg/mL. Oppositely, a decrease on Caco-2 and HT29-MTX viability was observed. This study suggests that UAE could be a sustainable option to valorize chestnut shells as raw material for different industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: Castanea sativa shells; ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE); response surface Methodology; phenolics Castanea sativa shells; ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE); response surface Methodology; phenolics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lameirão, F.; Pinto, D.; F. Vieira, E.; F. Peixoto, A.; Freire, C.; Sut, S.; Dall’Acqua, S.; Costa, P.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Rodrigues, F. Green-Sustainable Recovery of Phenolic and Antioxidant Compounds from Industrial Chestnut Shells Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Optimization and Evaluation of Biological Activities In Vitro. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 267. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030267

AMA Style

Lameirão F, Pinto D, F. Vieira E, F. Peixoto A, Freire C, Sut S, Dall’Acqua S, Costa P, Delerue-Matos C, Rodrigues F. Green-Sustainable Recovery of Phenolic and Antioxidant Compounds from Industrial Chestnut Shells Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Optimization and Evaluation of Biological Activities In Vitro. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(3):267. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030267

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lameirão, Fátima, Diana Pinto, Elsa F. Vieira, Andreia F. Peixoto, Cristina Freire, Stefania Sut, Stefano Dall’Acqua, Paulo Costa, Cristina Delerue-Matos, and Francisca Rodrigues. 2020. "Green-Sustainable Recovery of Phenolic and Antioxidant Compounds from Industrial Chestnut Shells Using Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Optimization and Evaluation of Biological Activities In Vitro" Antioxidants 9, no. 3: 267. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030267

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