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Open AccessArticle

Nitrosative Stress Biomarkers in the Non-Stimulated and Stimulated Saliva, as well as Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Periodontitis: Review and Clinical Study

1
Department of Periodontology, Wrocław Medical University, 50-425 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Experimental Dentistry Laboratory, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
3
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-222 Bialystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9030259
Received: 24 February 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 21 March 2020
Diagnosis of periodontopathy is complex and includes defining the cause, type, stage, and grade of periodontitis. Therefore, alternative diagnostic methods are sought to indicate the progression of inflammation or to determine the effectiveness of therapy. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers can be particularly useful because they most likely reflect the disease process of the periodontal tissues. However, the difficulty of collecting GCF for testing is the reason for the limited use in diagnostics. Because periodontitis is the primary source of nitrogen free radicals in the oral cavity, the aim of the study was to evaluate the biomarkers of nitrosative stress (nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and S-nitrosothiols) in GCF, non-stimulated and stimulated saliva of 90 patients with periodontitis. The study group was divided into two subgroups, depending on the stage of the disease severity. We showed a significantly higher concentration of all assessed biomarkers in the non-stimulated and stimulated saliva of patients with periodontitis. However, significant changes in GCF has been shown only for peroxynitrite. The studied biomarkers did not correlate with clinical periodontal status, which probably results from their short-duration activity and the impact on a few factors in the oral cavity. Saliva and gingival fluid are not very useful in the differential diagnosis of periodontitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: periodontal disease; nitrosative stress; saliva; gingival crevicular fluid; salivary diagnostics periodontal disease; nitrosative stress; saliva; gingival crevicular fluid; salivary diagnostics
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Toczewska, J.; Konopka, T.; Zalewska, A.; Maciejczyk, M. Nitrosative Stress Biomarkers in the Non-Stimulated and Stimulated Saliva, as well as Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients with Periodontitis: Review and Clinical Study. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 259.

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