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Antioxidant Therapies in Traumatic Brain Injury

Neurotrauma and Ophthalmology Research Group, Institute of Inflammation and Aging, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
The Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801, USA
Department of Laboratories, Oasi Research Institute – IRCCS, Via Conte Ruggero 73, 94018 Troina (EN), Italy
UniCamillus, Saint Camillus International University of Health Sciences, Via di Sant’Alessandro 8, 00131 Rome, Italy
UOC Neurochirurgia, ASL Roma2, S. Eugenio Hospital, Piazzale dell’Umanesimo 10, 00144 Rome, Italy
Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Catholic University of Rome, Largo F.Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Scienze di laboratorio e infettivologiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Division of Medical Biochemistry, University of Catania, Via S.Sofia 97, 95123 Catania, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(3), 260;
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 22 March 2020
Due to a multiplicity of causes provoking traumatic brain injury (TBI), TBI is a highly heterogeneous pathology, characterized by high mortality and disability rates. TBI is an acute neurodegenerative event, potentially and unpredictably evolving into sub-chronic and chronic neurodegenerative events, with transient or permanent neurologic, cognitive, and motor deficits, for which no valid standardized therapies are available. A vast body of literature demonstrates that TBI-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress is involved in the development of both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Cellular defenses against this phenomenon are largely dependent on low molecular weight antioxidants, most of which are consumed with diet or as nutraceutical supplements. A large number of studies have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidant administration to decrease TBI-associated damage in various animal TBI models and in a limited number of clinical trials. Points of weakness of preclinical studies are represented by the large variability in the TBI model adopted, in the antioxidant tested, in the timing, dosages, and routes of administration used, and in the variety of molecular and/or neurocognitive parameters evaluated. The analysis of the very few clinical studies does not allow strong conclusions to be drawn on the real effectiveness of antioxidant administration to TBI patients. Standardizing TBI models and different experimental conditions, as well as testing the efficacy of administration of a cocktail of antioxidants rather than only one, should be mandatory. According to some promising clinical results, it appears that sports-related concussion is probably the best type of TBI to test the benefits of antioxidant administration. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; oxidative/nitrosative stress; low molecular weight antioxidants; concussion traumatic brain injury; oxidative/nitrosative stress; low molecular weight antioxidants; concussion
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Di Pietro, V.; Yakoub, K.M.; Caruso, G.; Lazzarino, G.; Signoretti, S.; Barbey, A.K.; Tavazzi, B.; Lazzarino, G.; Belli, A.; Amorini, A.M. Antioxidant Therapies in Traumatic Brain Injury. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 260.

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