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Adm. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 27 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Is It Necessary to Centralize Power in the CEO to Ensure Environmental Innovation?
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010027 - 05 Mar 2021
Abstract
Using data from a sample of 4863 international firms corresponding to the period 2002–2017, this paper examines the role that chief executive officer (CEO) power plays in environmental innovation and the impact that these strategies have on financial performance. Both issues have been [...] Read more.
Using data from a sample of 4863 international firms corresponding to the period 2002–2017, this paper examines the role that chief executive officer (CEO) power plays in environmental innovation and the impact that these strategies have on financial performance. Both issues have been the subject of considerable debate in the literature, with opposite views and contradictory findings. The results indicate that investing in environmental innovations related to the use of clean technologies, ecological production processes, and the design, manufacture and commercialization of environmentally sustainable products requires that CEOs have a greater degree of power in order to support projects that do not entail a higher return in the short and medium terms. Additionally, the results show that the negative economic effect of eco-innovation reverses in the fourth and fifth years after environmental innovations were implemented. Thus, this study supports the view regarding a “bright side” of CEO power with regard to corporate sustainability. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Institutional, Economic, and Socio-Economic Determinants of the Entrepreneurial Activity of Nations
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010026 - 04 Mar 2021
Abstract
This empirical study analyses the effects of institutional, economic, and socio-economic determinants on total entrepreneurial activity in the contexts of developed and developing countries. It fills a gap in the literature, regarding the lack of empirical studies about the relationships among entrepreneurial activity, [...] Read more.
This empirical study analyses the effects of institutional, economic, and socio-economic determinants on total entrepreneurial activity in the contexts of developed and developing countries. It fills a gap in the literature, regarding the lack of empirical studies about the relationships among entrepreneurial activity, corruption, commercial freedom, economic growth, innovativeness, inward foreign direct investment, unemployment, households, and non-profit institutions serving households (NPISHs)’ final consumption expenditure, age dependency ratio, education index, and life expectancy at birth. The empirical application uses annual panel data for the 2003–2018 period, with a total sample of 21 countries, analysed in a two-stage empirical application, including preliminary analysis and a quantile regression model. New empirical evidence is provided, revealing a significantly positive role played by commercial freedom, innovativeness, inward foreign direct investment, households, and NPISHs’ final consumption expenditure and education on entrepreneurial activity. Corruption, unemployment, age dependency ratio, and life expectancy at birth have a significantly negative influence on entrepreneurial activity. In terms of implications, greater government control is recommended, in order to foster the quality of nations’ institutional environment. Additionally, suggested is the launch of new incentives to stimulate research and development activities aimed at registering international patents with a global impact, sourced from new ventures and transnational collaboration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Leadership: A Four Decade Review of the Literature and Trainings
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010025 - 04 Mar 2021
Abstract
This paper reviews the fourth decade of self-leadership research. Two previous reviews of self-leadership from 2006 and 2010 are summarized, and the paper applies categories from those reviews to examine recent research in the field. This paper also covers new topics and trends [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the fourth decade of self-leadership research. Two previous reviews of self-leadership from 2006 and 2010 are summarized, and the paper applies categories from those reviews to examine recent research in the field. This paper also covers new topics and trends in self-leadership research. In previous review articles, new theoretical models for extending self-leadership models were proposed. Therefore, this paper continues that tradition by proposing a new model—the Meta-Performance Model—that offers self-leadership as a skillset for enhancing the individual performance of leaders who seek improvement through professional certification programs. Self-leadership and professional certification programs are often treated as a stand alone topics. However, this paper contends professionals would benefit from combining self-leadership training with other professional improvement programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Leadership)
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Open AccessArticle
NGO–Public Administration Relationships in Tackling the Homelessness Problem in the Czech Republic and Poland
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010024 - 01 Mar 2021
Abstract
Recently, the role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Poland and the Czech Republic has increased, which has translated into a growing tendency to change the procedures for social assistance provision. However, the relationships between public administration and non-governmental organisations differ in both countries. [...] Read more.
Recently, the role of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Poland and the Czech Republic has increased, which has translated into a growing tendency to change the procedures for social assistance provision. However, the relationships between public administration and non-governmental organisations differ in both countries. The Najam Four-C’s Model is used in this paper to describe how NGOs and public administration approach the problem of homelessness in the Czech Republic and Poland. To explore this issue, the authors conducted interviews with public servants and NGOs’ mangers in both countries. The findings show that, as far as homelessness is concerned, NGOs and state authorities function on the basis of complementarity in Poland as well as in the Czech Republic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evidence-Based Public Policy Making)
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Open AccessArticle
New Age Informality: Hispanics and the Sharing Economy
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010023 - 01 Mar 2021
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to advance understanding of the Hispanic contribution to the engagement and production of the sharing and informal economies in the US. The study is situated within the domains of the sharing economy and informality within a broader [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to advance understanding of the Hispanic contribution to the engagement and production of the sharing and informal economies in the US. The study is situated within the domains of the sharing economy and informality within a broader frame of entrepreneurship. Specifically, Hispanic participation rates, rationale for engagement, and the major drivers of involvement in the production of the sharing and informal economies are analyzed. To evaluate this, data are reported from a nationally representative subsample of Hispanics derived from the US Federal Reserve Board’s Enterprising and Informal Work Activities Survey (EIWA) conducted in the late fall of 2015. The finding is that more than one-third of Hispanics engage in EIWA. Hispanics participate in EIWA primarily as a means to earn extra income or as a key avenue to earn a living. By choice, relatively affluent Hispanics have the largest stake in sharing and informal economies. However, it is the lowest income Hispanics that engage in EIWA out of necessity. The major drivers of EIWA participation among Hispanics are revealed. This is the first known study with a nationally representative sample of Hispanics focused on participation rates, rationale for engagement, and drivers of involvement in the production of new age sharing and informal economies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Production of Digital Public Services in Austrian Public Administrations
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010022 - 27 Feb 2021
Abstract
In the digital transformation of public administrations, objectives are no longer simply the implementation of new technology, but the involvement of all stakeholders into the process of digitalization. The Digital Roadmap of the Austrian government emphasizes the need of co-production of public services [...] Read more.
In the digital transformation of public administrations, objectives are no longer simply the implementation of new technology, but the involvement of all stakeholders into the process of digitalization. The Digital Roadmap of the Austrian government emphasizes the need of co-production of public services as a key element to public service delivery and, subsequently, innovation of the public sector. To understand how co-production in digital service delivery is implemented in Austria, we conducted interviews with 41 experts from public administrations in order to understand who is involved in such processes, how they are involved, and what outcomes are to be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights of Value Co-creation in Public Sector)
Open AccessArticle
The Nefarious Hierarchy: An Alternative New Theory of the Firm
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010021 - 26 Feb 2021
Abstract
We propose a new theory of the firm based on the premise that ‘the firm’ characterizes a factor-integrative form of doing business that is often the most effective and efficient structure for doing well by doing bad. We define the terms and [...] Read more.
We propose a new theory of the firm based on the premise that ‘the firm’ characterizes a factor-integrative form of doing business that is often the most effective and efficient structure for doing well by doing bad. We define the terms and requirements involved for such a theory, and fulfill those requirements by explaining what it is ‘to do bad’, and why and when the firm form is especially fitted to that. We do so by building upon basic premises about ‘bad-ness’ and by leveraging the logic of market failures. From this base, we argue a new reason for the firm form to exist and yet be limited in its growth. This leads to six related propositions regarding the relationships between ‘bad’ firms, tolerant contexts and realized social harms. We discuss how to test the ideas, and what the implications are for research on the firm, strategy and entrepreneurship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strategic Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Value Co-Creation Process and Measurement in 4.0 SMEs: An Exploratory Research in a B2B Marketing Innovation Context
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010020 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 175
Abstract
The purpose of this exploratory research is to contribute to the lack of empirical research exploring techniques and protocols that can be used to measure the level of value obtained from using these technologies in the various marketing processes and in a business-to-business [...] Read more.
The purpose of this exploratory research is to contribute to the lack of empirical research exploring techniques and protocols that can be used to measure the level of value obtained from using these technologies in the various marketing processes and in a business-to-business (B2B) context. By doing so, firms operating in fast changing dynamic environments can develop the right means to continuously adapt, integrate, reconfigure, and redeploy resources and capabilities to become more competitive and disruptive in their offerings. The phenomenon of interest is described by applying a case study qualitative approach to three 4.0 companies which use virtual reality (VR)/augmented reality (AR) technologies and by carrying out ten in-depth interviews to managers in those organizations. Results show that some small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are more rigorous about performance and tracking metrics compared to other companies providing similar technological services. In this line, results show two stages where potential value can be generated and measured when utilizing VR/AR technologies. The first is during testing and development of VR/AR simulations. In this stage, only the ones with strong research and academic background have been developing and using tracking systems, guidelines, and protocols as resources to measure the value obtained from using these technologies in marketing innovation processes. The second moment where value creation can be measured is during the implementation of the VR/AR simulation with the target user. Further research is needed to develop standardization guidelines and protocols that guarantee the success of the simulations delivered to the hiring firms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Samsung vs. Apple: How Different Communication Strategies Affect Consumers in Portugal
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010019 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 181
Abstract
It is indisputable that technology is present in everyday life. In this digital era, brands need to adapt to the changing pace of the needs and desires of society to distinguish themselves from their adversaries, especially in the electronic environment. Hence, they must [...] Read more.
It is indisputable that technology is present in everyday life. In this digital era, brands need to adapt to the changing pace of the needs and desires of society to distinguish themselves from their adversaries, especially in the electronic environment. Hence, they must have well-defined and successful marketing and advertising strategies to achieve a place on the podium of preference of consumers. This work intends to understand how the communication strategies of Apple and Samsung affect the decisions of consumers in Portugal to buy electronic devices. To this end, a survey was conducted, and the responses of 700 individuals who reside in Portugal were analysed through descriptive and inferential (chi-square test of independence) statistics. The survey results show that cost-benefit, price, technical specifications, and performance are the characteristics that weigh the most when purchasing electronic devices, as well as the perceived prestige of the brand. Additionally, an association was found between having only one device and having more products of the brand, with Apple users having more frequently more than one of the brand’s products than Samsung users. We thus concluded that Apple consumers are more loyal. It was also found that the store where the devices are brought is not independent, in Portugal, of the brand of the devices. Apple users buy more brand products from the brand store, both physical and online, than Samsung users. Finally, advertisements and word-of-mouth were found to be fundamental for consumers to acknowledge brand devices, and the degree in which this happens is also not independent of the brand, in Portugal, as a chi-square independence test showed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strategic Management)
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Consumers’ Discontinuance Intention of Remote Mobile Payments during Post-Adoption Usage: An Empirical Study
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010018 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Despite being critical to continuous technology usage, research on remote mobile payments (m-payments) post-adoption usage has received much less attention. Furthermore, information systems usage research has traditionally been positively oriented, generally assuming that the inhibiting and enabling factors influencing technology usage as being [...] Read more.
Despite being critical to continuous technology usage, research on remote mobile payments (m-payments) post-adoption usage has received much less attention. Furthermore, information systems usage research has traditionally been positively oriented, generally assuming that the inhibiting and enabling factors influencing technology usage as being the opposite sides of one dimension, which may result in overlooking antecedents to technology continuance. Therefore, this study aims to explore the inhibiting factors that may directly influence customers’ intention to discontinue m-payments during post-adoption usage. Drawing on behavioral theories, information systems, and marketing research, this study explores the inhibiting factors directly influencing consumers’ intentions to discontinue using m-payments. Survey data were collected from 254 current users in the UK and the PLS-SEM technique is employed to test hypotheses. The results show that poor quality of system, information, and service, as usage inhibitors, directly influence consumers’ discontinuance intentions. Importantly, usage frequency is found to have no moderating effect on the inhibitors of continuance intention, supporting the notion about different and asymmetric effects that negative factors can have on technology usage compared to positive ones. This interesting finding suggests that negative user experience will have different and asymmetric effects on intentions to use m-payments than positive user experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Customer Services and Customer Satisfaction)
Open AccessArticle
Employee Well-Being Evaluation and Proposal of Activities to Increase the Level of Health’s Area—The Czech Case
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010017 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 268
Abstract
Well-being and its evaluation, is currently considered one of the key trends in the practice of companies in the world and in the Czech Republic. Research in the field of well-being confirms that there is a positive correlation between a company’s well-being and [...] Read more.
Well-being and its evaluation, is currently considered one of the key trends in the practice of companies in the world and in the Czech Republic. Research in the field of well-being confirms that there is a positive correlation between a company’s well-being and the company’s performance. Satisfied and healthy employees contribute to the prosperity of the company through their higher work productivity and efficiency, and indirectly, through reduced incapacity for work and presenteeism. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the employees’ well-being of a specific company in the Czech Republic and propose activities for increasing the level of the most problematic of five areas of employees’ well-being. The authors formulated two research questions and two hypotheses. Research questions were answered on the basis of the evaluation of an online questionnaire survey among 463 production staff of the company, hypotheses were statistically confirmed. The main results of this article include the identification of the most problematic area of well-being—the area of health—as well as the proposal of specific activities to improve the level of this area, the introduction which should achieve higher level of employees work productivity. The benefits of well-being show that companies should pay attention to it. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Creating or Destructing Value in Use? Handling Cognitive Impairments in Co-Creation with Serious and Chronically Ill Users
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010016 - 15 Feb 2021
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Theoretically based on public service logic (PSL), this article addresses how users’ cognitive impairments can affect co-creation processes and value outcomes in a public sector environment, and how the service providers can handle this issue. It directs attention to value creation in the [...] Read more.
Theoretically based on public service logic (PSL), this article addresses how users’ cognitive impairments can affect co-creation processes and value outcomes in a public sector environment, and how the service providers can handle this issue. It directs attention to value creation in the context of vulnerable and unwilling service users and contributes to understanding how cognitive gaps between public health care services and users inhibit value co-creation. Based on qualitative interview data, findings substantiate that cognitive impairments reduce the users’ health literacy and therefore affect both their ability and willingness to participate in co-creation. The study recognizes that there is a built-in asymmetry between the involved actors and that failing to reduce this asymmetry through adequate facilitation by the service providers, can result in co-destruction of value in use. It is acknowledged that the users might not be cognitively able to determine whether they actually come better or worse off in the end. Therefore, it is suggested that the service provider might need to play a larger role in determining what is positive or negative value in use. Hence, this article adds to PSL by clearly emphasizing the key role played by public service organizations (PSOs) in facilitating the value creation process, which takes place during service delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights of Value Co-creation in Public Sector)
Open AccessViewpoint
Entrepreneurship Education Challenges for Green Transformation
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010015 - 14 Feb 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Associated with global climate agreements and the European Union’s focus on climate-neutral goals by 2050, the development of Green Transformation competencies in society has become topical. This viewpoint paper proposes a conceptual model for applying Entrepreneurship Education (EE) to designing an integrated transdisciplinary, [...] Read more.
Associated with global climate agreements and the European Union’s focus on climate-neutral goals by 2050, the development of Green Transformation competencies in society has become topical. This viewpoint paper proposes a conceptual model for applying Entrepreneurship Education (EE) to designing an integrated transdisciplinary, Green Transformation Competence framework. In line with this, EE is seen as a tool for developing an active, informed, responsible, yet sustainable, living ecosystem-oriented and green orientation of citizens in the education system. Nevertheless, this viewpoint recognises several challenges for further research. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Contextualized Behavior for Improving Managerial and Entrepreneurial Decision-Making
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010014 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Since the conceptualization of bounded rationality by Herbert Simon (1947), management scholars started investigating how people—managers and entrepreneurs—really make decisions within (and for) organizations [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managerial and Entrepreneurial Decision Making: Emerging Issues)
Open AccessArticle
Detecting Bid-Rigging in Public Procurement. A Cluster Analysis Approach
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010013 - 10 Feb 2021
Viewed by 271
Abstract
This paper analyses the public procurement auctions for snow removal contracts to find out whether bid-rigging occurred. Due to the limited participation in the auction processes, detection of anticompetitive agreements was possible. The econometric analysis used in our study supported the findings of [...] Read more.
This paper analyses the public procurement auctions for snow removal contracts to find out whether bid-rigging occurred. Due to the limited participation in the auction processes, detection of anticompetitive agreements was possible. The econometric analysis used in our study supported the findings of a cartel agreement. Cluster analysis, statistical hypothesis, normality and symmetry and nonparametric tests reveal two types of auctions: competitive and noncompetitive bids. The aim of this paper is to analyze the public procurement auctions with nonparametric statistical methods. Our findings are in line with the literature in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue E-administration—Its Use and Spread)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Self-Management Practices on Entrepreneurial Psychological States
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010012 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 362
Abstract
It is well-known that entrepreneurs lead extremely busy lives. While research literature reports the stressors of entrepreneurial careers, few empirical studies have examined the actual management of the demands that entrepreneurs face in their daily lives. In this paper, we conducted a study [...] Read more.
It is well-known that entrepreneurs lead extremely busy lives. While research literature reports the stressors of entrepreneurial careers, few empirical studies have examined the actual management of the demands that entrepreneurs face in their daily lives. In this paper, we conducted a study of 472 small business owners and tested hypotheses on the roles of three self-management practices—exercise, work overload, and attention to detail—on stress, security, and job satisfaction. Exercise, work overload, and attention to detail serve as three important self-management practices that are largely under the decision-making of the individual entrepreneur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Leadership)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Administrative Sciences in 2020
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010011 - 01 Feb 2021
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Peer review is the driving force of journal development, and reviewers are gatekeepers who ensure that Administrative Science maintains its standards for the high quality of its published papers [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Closing the Gap between Graduates’ Skills and Employers’ Requirements: A Focus on the Strategic Management Capstone Business Course
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010010 - 26 Jan 2021
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Strategic management has long been the capstone course for business majors at most colleges and universities globally. As originally designed, the capstone course sought to teach students an array of skills and tools needed to actually perform strategic planning, primarily through integration and [...] Read more.
Strategic management has long been the capstone course for business majors at most colleges and universities globally. As originally designed, the capstone course sought to teach students an array of skills and tools needed to actually perform strategic planning, primarily through integration and application of functional business concepts and techniques. Times have changed, however, and business schools have come under scrutiny regarding their ineffectiveness in developing graduates’ skills commensurate with employers’ requirements. Such criticism is justified as academics teaching the capstone business course have partitioned their instruction efforts to focus increasingly on theory rather than practical applications. After a pertinent evaluation of current academic research, we illuminate how and why increased focus on practice is needed in strategic-management pedagogy. We delineate how the once well-designed business capstone course has evolved into a course that too often fails to impart practical competencies to graduating students. To facilitate closing the gap between graduates’ skills and employers’ requirements, we present a strategic management pedagogical model designed to promote student learning and development of hard and soft skills related to actually doing strategic planning. The proposed model can help reduce the gap between graduates’ skills and employers’ requirements with the intended purpose to provide increased interest for teaching practical tools that were developed by practitioners. Such tools include the BCG matrix, developed by the Boston Consulting Group, and the Internal-External (IE) portfolio matrix derived from the General Electric (GE) Business Screen developed by Jack Welch, former CEO of GE. The proposed model also reveals the process of including both internal and external aspects into strategic decision making as evidenced by countless organizations performing Strength-Weakness-Opportunity-Threat (SWOT) analyses. The proposed model significantly enhances previous theory-based approaches for teaching the capstone strategic-management course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Competences: The Role of Higher Education Institutions)
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Open AccessArticle
Simplification of Administrative Procedure on the Example of the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary (V4 Countries)
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010009 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 390
Abstract
The article deals with the idea of simplification of administrative procedure on the example of legal regulation that can be found in Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. This legal regulation comes from the same or similar evolution and legal conditions. General [...] Read more.
The article deals with the idea of simplification of administrative procedure on the example of legal regulation that can be found in Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Hungary. This legal regulation comes from the same or similar evolution and legal conditions. General legal regulation of administrative procedure is represented by so called Code of Administrative Procedure. Existence of such code in all mentioned countries might be regarded as a first step towards simplification. Using research methods—dogmatic, normative, and, namely, comparative—the article examines concrete examples of simplification in mentioned countries that have similar approaches in solving this demand. This article mentions possible views (or addressees) on the need of simplifications as well as possible limits of this issue. In this sense, the protection of the public interest and protection of rights of individuals presents certain limitations to simplification. Legal regulation of administrative procedure is complicated. Although each legal regulation is in detail specific, we can find some common solutions in particular legal regulation of simplifications. Such results of this article might be useful (not only) for further comparison in European countries. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship among Family Business, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance: An Empirical Assessment in the Tourism Sector
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010008 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Tourism has been the subject of great attention of policy makers. The centrality of the sector derives from multiple factors, including the high number of subjects employed within the supply chain, the contribution to developing nations’ economic growth, and the environmental implications of [...] Read more.
Tourism has been the subject of great attention of policy makers. The centrality of the sector derives from multiple factors, including the high number of subjects employed within the supply chain, the contribution to developing nations’ economic growth, and the environmental implications of establishing new productive activities. Under this scenario, family holdings play a central role as the main types of organisations active in the sector. In this sense, an understanding of these companies’ financial performance cannot disregard the understanding of the governance mechanisms that characterize the same given the potential divergence between “family” and “business” objectives. The research aims to encourage the development of new empirical evidence about this business model, providing specific contributions regarding the role of family members in companies’ decision-making mechanisms. For our purposes, an empirical analysis based on the evaluation of 343 Italian hotels was built. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Employability of Highly Skilled Migrant Women in STEM: Insights from Labor Market Intermediaries’ Professionals
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010007 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 523
Abstract
While global economies are in a tremendous need for talented workers that could fill vacancies in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, available evidence shows that highly skilled migrants with a background in these fields are not protected from brain waste and [...] Read more.
While global economies are in a tremendous need for talented workers that could fill vacancies in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, available evidence shows that highly skilled migrants with a background in these fields are not protected from brain waste and deskilling. In this paper, we add to the previous literature on the employability of highly skilled migrant women from the specific—and under-investigated—perspective of labor market intermediaries. We specifically investigate what the barriers and resources are for employability of highly skilled migrant women in STEM, as perceived by labor market intermediaries’ professionals; and what the training needs are that labor market intermediaries’ professionals perceive to effectively work with this target group. We use unique explorative survey data collected in 2018 in five countries (Greece, Hungary, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom) from professionals working in diverse labor market intermediary organizations. We find that these professionals perceive the employability of migrant women in STEM as rather low, and strongly determined by migrant women’s psychological capital. Professionals in Southern Europe perceive structural barriers as more important than those in other countries. Professionals display training needs related to ad-hoc mentoring and networking competences for this specific target group. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Examining the Influence of Store Environment in Hedonic and Utilitarian Shopping
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010006 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Much of the literature on the attractiveness and pleasantness of retail stores has focused on the critical influence of store atmosphere or ambient attributes, which influence customer satisfaction and store choice. However, little is known about the environmental cues that influence customers’ satisfaction [...] Read more.
Much of the literature on the attractiveness and pleasantness of retail stores has focused on the critical influence of store atmosphere or ambient attributes, which influence customer satisfaction and store choice. However, little is known about the environmental cues that influence customers’ satisfaction in different shopping contexts. In this context, the present research aims to answer the following questions: “Are the store atmospheric variables equally relevant in hedonic and utilitarian shopping?”; and further: “Does the influence of store environment on customer satisfaction vary depending on the type of shopping?”. For this purpose an empirical research is developed through PLS Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) based on data obtained from hedonic (n = 210) and utilitarian (n = 267) shopping contexts. Results indicate that customers perceive differently store atmospherics in utilitarian and in hedonic shopping. More precisely, findings report that customer satisfaction is driven by internal ambient and merchandise layout in hedonic shopping contexts; while the external ambient and the merchandise layout are major atmospheric cues in utilitarian shopping. Interestingly, store crowding does not influence customers’ satisfaction. This study provides a deeper understanding into the specific store attributes that influence customer satisfaction, which could be used by retailers to differentiate themselves from competitors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Skilled Migrant and Non-Migrant Women and Men: How Do Differences in Quality of Employment Arise?
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010005 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Research shows that highly skilled migrant women often have poor quality jobs or no employment. This paper addresses two research gaps. First, it provides a comparative perspective that examines differences and commonalities in the quality of employment of four highly skilled groups: migrant- [...] Read more.
Research shows that highly skilled migrant women often have poor quality jobs or no employment. This paper addresses two research gaps. First, it provides a comparative perspective that examines differences and commonalities in the quality of employment of four highly skilled groups: migrant- and non-migrant women and men. Four statistical indicators are examined to grasp these differences: employment rates, income, adequacy of paid work, and employment status. The results highlight the role of gender and country of birth: Swiss-born men experience the best employment quality, and foreign-born women the worst. Second, it offers a family perspective to study how the employment trajectories of skilled migrant women develop in time and place in relation to their partners’. The qualitative life-course analysis indicates that skill advancement is more favourable for migrant and non-migrant men than for migrant and non-migrant women. However, skill advancement for migrant women depends greatly on the strategies enacted by domestic partners about how to divide paid employment and family work, and where to live. The statistical study draws on recent data from Swiss labour market surveys. The life-course analysis focuses on 77 biographical interviews with tertiary-educated individuals. Participatory Minga workshops are used to validate the study results. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Performance Driven Culture in the Public Sector: The Case of Nordic Countries
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010004 - 05 Jan 2021
Viewed by 478
Abstract
Public sector organizations face a lack of efficiency and ineffectiveness in providing their mandates due to fear of change among the public service workers. Public sector managers can instill a high performance-driven culture in employees of the public sector. For this reason, the [...] Read more.
Public sector organizations face a lack of efficiency and ineffectiveness in providing their mandates due to fear of change among the public service workers. Public sector managers can instill a high performance-driven culture in employees of the public sector. For this reason, the study aims to define a set of key characteristics of organizational culture that contribute to effective performance measurement and management of public sector organizations. The qualitative research method is employed in this paper using case study comparative analysis. To get the objectives of the study, selected local governments from three different Nordic countries are analyzed. As discovered from the case study analysis, these local governments have successfully constructed and implemented performance measurement and management systems. Concurrently, they practice performance-driven culture key characteristics to achieve their organizational targets without any significant difficulties. Three key characteristics (strong performance-driven leadership, report and communicate performance, review and discuss performance) are used in all selected local governments, and one (the reward system) is missing. All four key characteristics are employed only in Helsinki, which is a benchmark for other local governments. This study’s results can thus serve as an example of best practice for other public sector organizations within Europe. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Perceived Discrimination of Highly Educated Latvian Women Abroad
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010003 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to answer the question of what factors lead to an increase in perceived discrimination in the workplace among highly educated Latvian women abroad. Although highly educated migrant women are privileged with regard to education, nonetheless, they face [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to answer the question of what factors lead to an increase in perceived discrimination in the workplace among highly educated Latvian women abroad. Although highly educated migrant women are privileged with regard to education, nonetheless, they face discrimination, lower wages, inferior working conditions, de-skilling and brain waste while working abroad. Based on the discussion on the relationship between sociocultural integration and discriminatory practices or perceived discrimination, and two competing theoretical propositions regarding the effects of integration on perceptions and experiences of discrimination, the article tests if attachment to the host country is related to perceived discrimination at work. The data source used for the analysis is a subsample of a quantitative survey of Latvian emigrants. The subsample (n = 2332) includes Latvian women with a tertiary education who are first-generation emigrants from Latvia and who were working at the time of the survey. Results from binary logistic regression analyses reveal that a low attachment to the host country, financial difficulties coping with daily expenses, problems with recognition of an education certificate and lack of a written contract with the employer increase the likelihood of highly educated Latvian women abroad to claim unfair treatment in the workplace. Full article
Open AccessArticle
What Determines the Entrepreneurial Intentions of Highly-Skilled Women with Refugee Experience? An Empirical Analysis in the Context of Sweden
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010002 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 689
Abstract
One of the main challenges faced by refugee hosting states is the labour market integration of newcomers, which can be achieved to some extent through the creation of small businesses. This paper analyses the individual level determinants of the entrepreneurial intentions of highly-skilled [...] Read more.
One of the main challenges faced by refugee hosting states is the labour market integration of newcomers, which can be achieved to some extent through the creation of small businesses. This paper analyses the individual level determinants of the entrepreneurial intentions of highly-skilled women with refugee experience. The study adds a new perspective to the conversation about highly-skilled migrant women analysed so far, mostly as family reunion migrants joining economic migrants. It also contributes to the relatively new research on refugee entrepreneurship by adopting an unusual perspective for looking at highly skilled women. The empirical analysis embedded in the context of Sweden is two-fold. First, it is done in SPSS on the sample (N = 98) drawn from the 2017 Swedish Invandrarindex data set with the use of binary logistic regression. Second, the findings from the quantitative analysis are nuanced with the analysis of two case studies based on SSI with Syrian women having refugee experience. The results show that the gender variable does not predict the effect on entrepreneurial intentions. The findings confirm the importance of previous self-employment and leadership experience and indicate the potential importance of entrepreneurial role models, the cultural aspect of entrepreneurial intentions and the role of an encouraging environment in the host country. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Debureaucratization Limits in Administrative Procedures Codification: Lessons from Slovenia
Adm. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Viewed by 425
Abstract
This article explores bureaucratization and its boundaries in the framework of cutting red tape in the regulation of administrative procedures. Law is not an end in itself but should contribute to predictable and thus better relations in society. In this sense, the priority [...] Read more.
This article explores bureaucratization and its boundaries in the framework of cutting red tape in the regulation of administrative procedures. Law is not an end in itself but should contribute to predictable and thus better relations in society. In this sense, the priority protection of public interest—which is characteristic of administrative relations between individual holders of rights and obligations and administrative bodies—presents certain limitations to simplification. Through qualitative research methods (dogmatic, normative, and comparative methods, as well as case studies), this article examines examples of debureaucratization in Slovenia provided by the amendments to the General Administrative Procedure Act. In most cases, e.g., in waiving the right to appeal or broad fiction of service, modifications were not appropriate since constitutional guarantees cannot be subject to “debureaucratization”. However, crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic call for even greater simplification. The approach to address bureaucratization as an obstacle to the economy should therefore be holistic and proportionate. Debureaucratization should be implemented in individual administrative areas rather than by an umbrella law that ensures fundamental administrative principles, and through process optimization rather than deregulation. The results of the analysis are useful for comparable, particularly Central European countries. Full article
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