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Behav. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 8 (August 2022) – 54 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study aspires to inform the design of online communication technologies and tools for training empathy—a quality expected in many modern professions such as leaders, educators, and social and healthcare providers. While empathetic ability is often being linked to the ability to automatically mimic others, this relationship has not been studied when capturing facial mimicry using video-based facial recognition technologies, as opposed to impractical electromyography. Further, the potential difference in empathetic ability across different demographic groups has often been ignored in previous study designs. To address these gaps, this study investigates whether empathetic ability varies with age, gender, and ethnicity and analyses the relationship between empathy and facial mimicry captured using a facial recognition technology. View this paper
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Article
Boredom in a Time of Uncertainty: State and Trait Boredom’s Associations with Psychological Health during COVID-19
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080298 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 500
Abstract
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, studies have demonstrated increases in boredom and its negative impact on mental health. This cross-sectional study examines state and trait boredom at four different points of the pandemic using an online sample of participants from the United States ( [...] Read more.
Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, studies have demonstrated increases in boredom and its negative impact on mental health. This cross-sectional study examines state and trait boredom at four different points of the pandemic using an online sample of participants from the United States (n = 783). The results showed significant increases in boredom proneness, state boredom, substance use, loneliness, and distress. Boredom was associated with increases in each of these variables and a greater likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19. Moreover, the increases in distress, loneliness, and substance use became non-significant when controlling for boredom. Boredom proneness remained associated with all adverse outcomes when accounting for state boredom. In contrast, the relationships between state boredom and most adverse outcomes lost significance when controlling for boredom proneness, and state boredom was positively associated with increased hope for the future. Overall, the results suggest that high boredom proneness is an important vulnerability factor for poor psychological health and risky behaviors during the pandemic. However, high levels of recent state boredom, independent of boredom proneness, do not predict similarly negative outcomes. State boredom may indicate the extent to which one remains hopeful that circumstances will improve without resorting to risky, potentially maladaptive coping strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boredom in the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Empirical Investigation of Work-Related Social Media Usage and Social-Related Social Media Usage on Employees’ Work Performance
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080297 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
The trend of using social media in the workplace is now becoming ubiquitous. Along witbenefits, social media also has negative consequences. Employees use social media for both work and social purposes. Therefore, using a quantitative approach, this study explores the impact of work-related [...] Read more.
The trend of using social media in the workplace is now becoming ubiquitous. Along witbenefits, social media also has negative consequences. Employees use social media for both work and social purposes. Therefore, using a quantitative approach, this study explores the impact of work-related social media usage and social-related social media usage on employees’ work performance. This study also investigates the mediating effect of extra-role behaviors on social media usage (professional and personal purpose) and work performance relationships. We examined survey data of 241 employees working in different organizations with the help of the partial least square (PLS) 3.0 version. Convenience sampling has been used to reach respondents. The outcomes of this study demonstrate that both professional and personal-related social media usage have a positive and significant impact on employees’ work performance. This study also highlighted that extra-role behavior positively and significantly mediates the relationship between social media usage (work and personal) and employees’ work performance. This study provides practical insights to managers, such as that, instead of banning social media usage in companies, there must be some limits and regulations for using social media that would facilitate firms to increase employees’ engagement and productivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Difficulties with Emotion Regulation during COVID-19 and Associations with Boredom in College Students
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080296 - 20 Aug 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
COVID-19 related restrictions resulted in a significant lifestyle change for many young adults in the United States. Although boredom and emotional self-regulation are clearly connected in empirical research, the question remains of what this association looks like in unique circumstances, such as early [...] Read more.
COVID-19 related restrictions resulted in a significant lifestyle change for many young adults in the United States. Although boredom and emotional self-regulation are clearly connected in empirical research, the question remains of what this association looks like in unique circumstances, such as early in COVID-19 pandemic at the height of restrictions. The purpose of the current study is to identify the association between boredom proneness and emotion regulation in college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. College students who completed a Boredom Coping Survey between October and December 2019 (n = 481) were recruited for a follow-up COVID-19 Boredom Survey in April 2020. Data from this sub-sample (n = 58) were used in a hierarchical regression predicting the role of boredom proneness on COVID-19 pandemic emotion regulation difficulties while controlling for age, sex, and COVID-19 related lifestyle changes. Findings indicated higher levels of emotion regulation difficulties were associated with higher levels of boredom proneness above and beyond demographic variables and COVID-19 lifestyle changes. Results are in line with prior theory and research on the importance of the environment or situational factors to the experience of boredom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boredom in the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Are You Happy? A Validation Study of a Tool Measuring Happiness
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080295 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1479
Abstract
This study aims at evaluating the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure experienced happiness—the Measure of Happiness (MH)—in a nonclinical sample composed of Italian adults from the general population. The MH was developed not only to provide a global measure of [...] Read more.
This study aims at evaluating the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure experienced happiness—the Measure of Happiness (MH)—in a nonclinical sample composed of Italian adults from the general population. The MH was developed not only to provide a global measure of happiness, but also and more importantly to identify the specific areas of the individual’s life that are related to the experienced happiness. A total of 787 adults filled the MH and other self-report questionnaires, in order to assess the factor structure, reliability and external validity of the measure. The factorial analysis identified the following five dimensions: Psychophysics Status, Financial Status, Relational Private Sphere, Socio-Relational Sphere, and Life Perspective. The scale so defined was administered to a second independent group of 421 participants for the (multigroup) confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A multigroup factor analysis based on gender confirmed the MH structure. The convergent validity of the MH was assessed by comparing the MH scores with a previously validated test of happiness and quality of life, as well as with dispositional constructs with which happiness is known to be negatively correlated, namely, anxiety and depression. The MH showed satisfactory psychometric properties and a strong significant positive relationship between the two measures of happiness, and a substantial negative association with the measures of anxiety and depression, supporting the validity of the MH to assess the construct of experienced happiness. The implications and possible applications of the MH are then discussed. Full article
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Article
Student Perceptions of the Resilience in a Confinement Due to COVID-19 in University of A Coruña: A Qualitative Research
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080294 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 405
Abstract
The home confinement caused by COVID-19 has caused university students to express feelings, negative experiences, and concerns about the confinement situation they were experiencing. This prompted the development of research on resilience, which shows that it is closely related to well-being. The general [...] Read more.
The home confinement caused by COVID-19 has caused university students to express feelings, negative experiences, and concerns about the confinement situation they were experiencing. This prompted the development of research on resilience, which shows that it is closely related to well-being. The general objective is to determine if resilience acts as a guarantor of personal growth and, therefore, of the self-perception of well-being. The research is developed with qualitative methodology and is framed in the interpretative phenomenological analysis approach and is framed in the hermeneutic-dialectical method. The selection of participants was carried out through an intentional sampling, by non-random methods, among university students. Fifty-two students participated, 41 are women (78.84%) and 11 men (21.15%), with an average age of 20.7 years. The information was collected through a diary card in which they had to collect their experiences and prepare a short speech identifying three temporal moments of confinement: beginning, during, and end. The information was collected between 16 April and 15 May 2020. An inductive analysis was carried out, and the emerging categories were defined: personal growth, resilience, and well-being. Personal growth materializes through three subcategories: personal changes, interpersonal changes, and changes in the philosophy of life. The university students showed that the vital transformation related with resilience acts as a guarantor of personal growth and self-perception of well-being. A voluntary, conscious, and intelligent evolution of people is detected, and personal changes, interpersonal changes, and changes in the philosophy of life are identified as factors of personal growth. Full article
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Article
Investigating Students’ Answering Behaviors in a Computer-Based Mathematics Algebra Test: A Cognitive-Load Perspective
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080293 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Computer-based testing is an emerging method to evaluate students’ mathematics learning outcomes. However, algebra problems impose a high cognitive load due to requiring multiple calculation steps, which might reduce students’ performance in computer-based testing. In order to understand students’ cognitive load when answering [...] Read more.
Computer-based testing is an emerging method to evaluate students’ mathematics learning outcomes. However, algebra problems impose a high cognitive load due to requiring multiple calculation steps, which might reduce students’ performance in computer-based testing. In order to understand students’ cognitive load when answering algebra questions in a computer-based testing environment, three perspectives, element interactivity, practice effect, and individual differences, were investigated in this study. Seven levels of algebra exam questions were created using unary and simultaneous linear equations, and the inverse efficiency scores were employed as a measure of cognitive load in the study. Forty undergraduate and graduate students were tested. There were four findings: (1) As the element interactivity of test materials increased, the cognitive load increased rapidly. (2) The high-efficiency group had a lower cognitive load than the low-efficiency group, suggesting that the high-efficiency group had an advantage in a computer-based testing environment. (3) “Practice” has a considerable effect on reducing cognitive load, particularly in level 6 and 7 test items. (4) The low-efficiency group can reduce but not eliminate the gap with the high-efficiency group; they may require additional experience in a computer-based testing environment in order to improve reducing their cognitive load. Full article
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Article
Only Words Count; the Rest Is Mere Chattering: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to the Verbal Expression of Emotional Experience
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080292 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 414
Abstract
The analysis of sequences of words and prosody, meter, and rhythm provided in an interview addressing the capacity to identify and describe emotions represents a powerful tool to reveal emotional processing. The ability to express and identify emotions was analyzed by means of [...] Read more.
The analysis of sequences of words and prosody, meter, and rhythm provided in an interview addressing the capacity to identify and describe emotions represents a powerful tool to reveal emotional processing. The ability to express and identify emotions was analyzed by means of the Toronto Structured Interview for Alexithymia (TSIA), and TSIA transcripts were analyzed by Natural Language Processing to shed light on verbal features. The brain correlates of the capacity to translate emotional experience into words were determined through cortical thickness measures. A machine learning methodology proved that individuals with deficits in identifying and describing emotions (n = 7) produced language distortions, frequently used the present tense of auxiliary verbs, and few possessive determiners, as well as scarcely connected the speech, in comparison to individuals without deficits (n = 7). Interestingly, they showed high cortical thickness at left temporal pole and low at isthmus of the right cingulate cortex. Overall, we identified the neuro-linguistic pattern of the expression of emotional experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric, Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
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Article
Relationship between Attachment to Pet and Post-Traumatic Growth after Pet Loss: Mediated Moderating Effect of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategy through Separation Pain
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080291 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The declining fertility rate and an aging population have accelerated the number of single-person households and nuclear families, and the number of households raising pets has naturally increased. However, pet owners experience great sorrow and trauma due to the death of their pets. [...] Read more.
The declining fertility rate and an aging population have accelerated the number of single-person households and nuclear families, and the number of households raising pets has naturally increased. However, pet owners experience great sorrow and trauma due to the death of their pets. The stronger the attachment to pets, the more severe the separation pain caused by pet loss. The purpose of this study was to analyze the moderating effect of a cognitive emotion regulation strategy mediated through separation pain on the relationship between attachment and post-traumatic growth after pet loss among owners. The study participants were 303 owners who have experienced pet loss. We analyzed the mediated moderating effects by PROCESS macro. The results showed that the adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy strengthened the effect of attachment to pets on post-traumatic growth and decreased the effect on separation pain. Conversely, the maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy weakened the effect of attachment to pets on post-traumatic growth and strengthened the effect on separation pain. The act of intentionally expanding the perspective on pet loss experience, switching into a more positive focus, and accepting reality will reduce the grief of its companions and become an opportunity for growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
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Article
The Protective Role of Mature Defense Mechanisms on Satisfaction with Life in the COVID-19 Era: A Moderated Mediation Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080290 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly influenced people’s lives, with non-negligible consequences for the perception of well-being. This study sought to examine the effect of anxiety, post-traumatic impairment, and mature defenses on life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. One thousand three hundred thirty-nine Italian individuals [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly influenced people’s lives, with non-negligible consequences for the perception of well-being. This study sought to examine the effect of anxiety, post-traumatic impairment, and mature defenses on life satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic. One thousand three hundred thirty-nine Italian individuals (30% male; 70% female; Mage = 34.70; SD = 11.83) completed an online survey enclosing the Satisfaction with Life Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory—Form X3, Impact of event scale—revised, and the Forty Item Defense Style Questionnaire. To test the hypothesized relationship, data were analyzed by applying a moderated-mediation analysis, a regression-based approach. Results showed that the negative effect of anxiety on life satisfaction was partially mediated by post-traumatic impairment, with a significant moderation effect of mature defenses on the relationship between post-traumatic impairment and life satisfaction. Specifically, with higher levels of mature defenses, the effects of post-traumatic impairment on consequences of the COVID-19 emergency on well-being. Furthermore, the protective role of mature defenses in facing post-traumatic impairment was shown. Such data may have applicative implications in different contexts in a management perspective of the different pandemic phases, contributing to more effective positive strength-based preventive actions to also support positive healthy organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality, Individual Differences and Psychological Health at Work)
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Article
The Association between Video Game Type and Aggressive Behaviors in Saudi Youth: A Pilot Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080289 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Video gaming is a popular source of entertainment among children and adolescents. Although the Middle East is home to one of the fastest growing communities of video game users, most of the research established on this topic has been carried out through small [...] Read more.
Video gaming is a popular source of entertainment among children and adolescents. Although the Middle East is home to one of the fastest growing communities of video game users, most of the research established on this topic has been carried out through small scale studies. Our aim in this study is to assess the prevalence of video game use and its association with aggressive behaviors among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study involving boys and girls (aged 15–18 years) in both private and public secondary high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Each participant completed a self-administered modified version of the aggression questionnaire, which consisted of 29 items scored on a 5-point Likert scale. This questionnaire assessed aggressive behaviors domains: physical aggression, anger, hostility, and verbal aggression and types of videogames and time of use. A total of 485 students were included in this study. The mean age of participants was 16.5 ± 0.9 years; 48% were boys. Adolescents who participated in action games had higher mean verbal (p < 0.01) and physical aggression (p < 0.01) scores. Adventure game players had significantly higher mean scores in all four types of aggressive behavior (p < 0.01). Participants who played simulation games had higher mean verbal aggressiveness (p < 0.01). Adolescents who participated in sports games had greater mean levels of anger (p = 0.01) and physical aggression (p = 0.01). Those who played strategy/puzzle games reported significantly higher mean scores of anger (p < 0.01), hostility (p = 0.01), and verbal aggression (p = 0.01). Females were more likely to show higher mean anger (p < 0.01) scores, whereas males were more likely to show higher mean physical aggression scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our results do suggest that playing video games increases adolescent aggressive behaviors, which has been supported by other studies. We recommend educating parents on the pros and cons of playing video games and that parents schedule and limit the time their children spend playing video games. Full article
Article
The Importance of Positive Psychological Factors among People Living with HIV: A Comparative Study
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080288 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
We aim to identify the differences in psychological well-being, resilience, and coping strategies between healthy subjects and HIV patients. The design followed in this work was empirical, not experimental, and cross-sectional with a correlational objective. The sample included a total of 399 participants [...] Read more.
We aim to identify the differences in psychological well-being, resilience, and coping strategies between healthy subjects and HIV patients. The design followed in this work was empirical, not experimental, and cross-sectional with a correlational objective. The sample included a total of 399 participants (199 patients with HIV and 200 without pathology). The instruments applied for data collection were as follows: a questionnaire on socio-demographic data, the Psychological Well-being Scale, the Resilience Scale and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. The study period was from February 2018 to January 2020. Patients with HIV had a significantly lower score than healthy subjects, in the resilience factors of perseverance and self-confidence. Subjects with HIV scored less in all dimensions of psychological well-being, with the exception of the dimension of autonomy. Finally, it was observed that HIV-positive subjects used rational coping strategies less frequently than healthy subjects, based on social support seeking and problem-solving coping. However, HIV patients scored higher in emotional coping strategies than healthy individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Psychology Research and Public Health)
Article
Effects of Ceftriaxone on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080287 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Ceftriaxone (CTX) exerts a neuroprotective effect by decreasing glutamate excitotoxicity. We further studied the underlying mechanisms and effects of CTX early post-treatment on behavior in a cerebral hypoperfusion rats. The rats’ common carotid arteries (2VO) were permanently ligated. CTX was treated after ischemia. [...] Read more.
Ceftriaxone (CTX) exerts a neuroprotective effect by decreasing glutamate excitotoxicity. We further studied the underlying mechanisms and effects of CTX early post-treatment on behavior in a cerebral hypoperfusion rats. The rats’ common carotid arteries (2VO) were permanently ligated. CTX was treated after ischemia. Biochemical studies were performed to assess antioxidative stress and inflammation. Behavioral and histological studies were then tested on the ninth week after vessel ligation. The 2VO rats showed learning and memory deficits as well as working memory impairments without any motor weakness. The treatment with CTX was found to attenuate white matter damage, MDA production, and interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha production, mainly in the hippocampal area. Moreover, CTX treatment could increase the expression of glia and the glial glutamate transporters, and the neuronal glutamate transporter. Taken together, our data indicate the neuroprotective mechanisms of CTX involving the upregulation of glutamate transporters’ expression. This increased expression contributes to a reduction in glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine production, thus resulting in the protection of neurons and tissue from further damage. The present study highlights the mechanism of the effect of CTX treatment and of the underlying ischemia-induced neuronal damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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Article
Talking about Health: A Topic Analysis of Narratives from Individuals with Schizophrenia and Other Serious Mental Illnesses
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080286 - 13 Aug 2022
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Individuals with schizophrenia have higher mortality and shorter lifespans. There are a multitude of factors which create these conditions, but one aspect is worse physical health, particularly cardiovascular and metabolic health. Many interventions to improve the health of individuals with schizophrenia have been [...] Read more.
Individuals with schizophrenia have higher mortality and shorter lifespans. There are a multitude of factors which create these conditions, but one aspect is worse physical health, particularly cardiovascular and metabolic health. Many interventions to improve the health of individuals with schizophrenia have been created, but on the whole, there has been limited effectiveness in improving quality of life or lifespan. One potential new avenue for inquiry involves a more patient-centric perspective; understanding aspects of physical health most important, and potentially most amenable to change, for individuals based on their life narratives. This study used topic modeling, a type of Natural Language Processing (NLP) on unstructured speech samples from individuals (n = 366) with serious mental illness, primarily schizophrenia, in order to extract topics. Speech samples were drawn from three studies collected over a decade in two geographically distinct regions of the United States. Several health-related topics emerged, primarily centered around food, living situation, and lifestyle (e.g., routine, hobbies). The implications of these findings for how individuals with serious mental illness and schizophrenia think about their health, and what may be most effective for future health promotion policies and interventions, are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behaviors and Outcomes across the Schizophrenia-Spectrum)
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Article
A Decoding Prediction Model of Flexion and Extension of Left and Right Feet from Electroencephalogram
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080285 - 13 Aug 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Detection of limb motor functions utilizing brain signals is a significant technique in the brain signal gain model (BSM) that can be effectively employed in various biomedical applications. Our research presents a novel technique for prediction of feet motor functions by applying a [...] Read more.
Detection of limb motor functions utilizing brain signals is a significant technique in the brain signal gain model (BSM) that can be effectively employed in various biomedical applications. Our research presents a novel technique for prediction of feet motor functions by applying a deep learning model with cascading transfer learning technique to use the electroencephalogram (EEG) in the training stage. Our research deduces the electroencephalogram data (EEG) of stroke incidence to propose functioning high-tech interfaces for predicting left and right foot motor functions. This paper presents a transfer learning with several source input domains to serve a target domain with small input size. Transfer learning can reduce the learning curve effectively. The correctness of the presented model is evaluated by the abilities of motor functions in the detection of left and right feet. Extensive experiments were performed and proved that a higher accuracy was reached by the introduced BSM-EEG neural network with transfer learning. The prediction of the model accomplished 97.5% with less CPU time. These accurate results confirm that the BSM-EEG neural model has the ability to predict motor functions for brain-injured stroke therapy. Full article
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Article
The Prediction of Consumer Behavior from Social Media Activities
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080284 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Consumer behavior variants are evolving by utilizing advanced packing models. These models can make consumer behavior detection considerably problematic. New techniques that are superior to customary models to be utilized to efficiently observe consumer behaviors. Machine learning models are no longer efficient in [...] Read more.
Consumer behavior variants are evolving by utilizing advanced packing models. These models can make consumer behavior detection considerably problematic. New techniques that are superior to customary models to be utilized to efficiently observe consumer behaviors. Machine learning models are no longer efficient in identifying complex consumer behavior variants. Deep learning models can be a capable solution for detecting all consumer behavior variants. In this paper, we are proposing a new deep learning model to classify consumer behavior variants using an ensemble architecture. The new model incorporates two pretrained learning algorithms in an optimized fashion. This model has four main phases, namely, data gathering, deep neural modeling, model training, and deep learning model evaluation. The ensemble model is tested on Facemg BIG-D15 and TwitD databases. The experiment results depict that the ensemble model can efficiently classify consumer behavior with high precision that outperforms recent models in the literature. The ensemble model achieved 98.78% accuracy on the Facemg database, which is higher than most machine learning consumer behavior detection models by more than 8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Behavioral Economics)
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Article
Small Pupils Lead to Lower Judgements of a Person’s Characteristics for Exaggerated, but Not for Realistic Pupils
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080283 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 463
Abstract
Our eyes convey information about a person. The pupils may provide information regarding our emotional states when presented along with different emotional expressions. We examined the effects of pupil size and vergence on inferring other people’s characteristics in neutral expression eyes. Pupil sizes [...] Read more.
Our eyes convey information about a person. The pupils may provide information regarding our emotional states when presented along with different emotional expressions. We examined the effects of pupil size and vergence on inferring other people’s characteristics in neutral expression eyes. Pupil sizes were manipulated by overlaying black disks onto the pupils of the original eye images. The disk area was then changed to create small, medium, and large pupils. Vergence was simulated by shifting the medium-sized disks nasally in one eye. Pupil sizes were exaggerated for Experiment 1 and followed values from the literature for Experiment 2. The first Purkinje image from the eye photos in Experiment 2 was kept to preserve image realism. The characteristics measured were sex, age, attractiveness, trustworthiness, intelligence, valence, and arousal. Participants completed one of two online experiments and rated eight eye pictures with differently sized pupils and with vergence eyes. Both experiments were identical except for the stimuli designs. Results from Experiment 1 revealed rating differences between pupil sizes for all characteristics except sex, age, and arousal. Specifically, eyes with extremely small pupil sizes and artificial vergence received the lowest ratings compared to medium and large pupil sizes. Results from Experiment 2 only indicated weak effects of pupil size and vergence, particularly for intelligence ratings. We conclude that the pupils can influence how characteristics of another person are perceived and may be regarded as important social signals in subconscious social interaction processes. However, the effects may be rather small for neutral expressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences)
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Article
Sound and Silence: The Effects of Environmental Conditions on State Boredom in an Online Study during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080282 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Boredom is a negative emotion commonly experienced in mundane situations. Boredom is thought to arise from a mismatch between individuals and their expectation for environmental stimulation. People attempt to reduce boredom by increasing the stimulation in their environment (e.g., turning on TV or [...] Read more.
Boredom is a negative emotion commonly experienced in mundane situations. Boredom is thought to arise from a mismatch between individuals and their expectation for environmental stimulation. People attempt to reduce boredom by increasing the stimulation in their environment (e.g., turning on TV or music). Theories of boredom suggest external stimulation may cue the individual to expect more stimulation than the mundane task offers—thereby increasing boredom. Researchers adapted lab-based tasks to online during the COVID-19 pandemic, which allowed participants to set the study’s environmental conditions. Our method involved data collected online during the COVID-19 pandemic. We tested whether 137 college-age participants who reported being alone in a noisy room experienced more boredom after a mundane task than those who were alone in a quiet room. Results showed individuals in a noisier environment reported more boredom following a repetitive task than those in a quieter environment. Some people, high in trait boredom, experience boredom more frequently or cannot tolerate it. Our results revealed that the effects of environmental condition remained after controlling for the influence of trait boredom. In the discussion, we describe links to extant boredom research and implications for researchers collecting data online and individuals attempting to mitigate boredom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Boredom in the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Adaptation of an Emotional Stroop Test for Screening of Suicidal Ideation in Portugal
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080281 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Cognitive instruments, especially those with emotional components, may be useful to address the limitations of self-report scales commonly used to assess suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to develop an emotional Stroop test for screening suicidal ideation in Portugal. The project [...] Read more.
Cognitive instruments, especially those with emotional components, may be useful to address the limitations of self-report scales commonly used to assess suicidal ideation. The aim of this study was to develop an emotional Stroop test for screening suicidal ideation in Portugal. The project was developed in five phases using different samples for each phase. The first two phases were focused on the formulation of the potential words that would compose the slides. For this purpose, five biology teachers (neutral slide) and five mental health professionals (positive and negative slides) were invited to help choose the words that were most representative for each slide. The third phase validated the words defined in the previous phase. In this phase, 300 university students participated (Mage = 21.66; SD = 3.67; 68% female). They rated the words on a Likert scale in terms of their frequency of use, familiarity, level of understanding, and degree of image evocation. In the fourth phase, the researchers developed the complete version of the test, which consists of three slides with neutral, positive, and negative emotional stimuli, consecutively. Finally, in the fifth phase, we validated the final version of the test through a comparative study between a clinical group and a non-clinical group, each one composed by 50 participants (Mage = 32; SD = 9.70; 55% female). Results indicated that the clinical group demonstrated significantly higher scores for depression and suicidal ideation and lower scores for the three Stroop tasks. Words related to negative emotions were strongly correlated with suicidal ideation. Finally, the three Stroop slides explained 74.1% of the variance in suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that this test can be a viable complementary measure in the psychological assessment of suicide ideation, and intervention in the field of suicide prevention in Portugal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Psychology Research and Public Health)
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Article
Photo Activity on Social Networking Sites and Body Dissatisfaction: The Roles of Thin-Ideal Internalization and Body Appreciation
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080280 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Objective: According to sociocultural theory, media is associated with detrimental effects on body image. Due to the popularity of social networking sites (SNS) and the prevalence of body image disturbance among young women, the association between them is worth further exploration. This study [...] Read more.
Objective: According to sociocultural theory, media is associated with detrimental effects on body image. Due to the popularity of social networking sites (SNS) and the prevalence of body image disturbance among young women, the association between them is worth further exploration. This study examined the relationship between photo activity on SNS and body dissatisfaction (BD) and the roles of thin-ideal internalization (TII) and body appreciation (BA) in this relation. Materials and Methods: A total of 746 Chinese female undergraduate students (mean age 20.34 ± 1.47 years) completed a questionnaire measuring SNS photo activity, TII, BD, and BA. Results: (1) Photo activity on SNS was positively associated with BD (r = 0.10, p < 0.01), and TII could mediate this relation (β = 0.07, 95% CI = [0.04, 0.10]). (2) Both the direct effect of SNS photo activity on BD (β = −0.08, p < 0.05) and the mediating effect of TII (β = −0.09, p < 0.01) were moderated by BA. Specifically, these associations were more pronounced for students with lower BA. Conclusion: People exposed to ideal photos or images can shape women’s body image perception via TII, whether in the age of traditional media or the Internet, and BA did not buffer the effect of ideal photos on internalization. Our findings could provide practical suggestions for rational photo activity on SNS and the intervention for BD. Full article
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Article
The Number of Monthly Night Shift Days and Depression Were Associated with an Increased Risk of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Emergency Physicians in South Korea
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080279 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 414
Abstract
This study aimed to report the prevalence and identify the factors associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among emergency physicians in South Korea. We analyzed the Korean Emergency Physicians Survey data from 15 January to 26 February 2021. EDS was evaluated using the [...] Read more.
This study aimed to report the prevalence and identify the factors associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among emergency physicians in South Korea. We analyzed the Korean Emergency Physicians Survey data from 15 January to 26 February 2021. EDS was evaluated using the Epworth sleepiness scale, and a score of 11 or more indicated the presence of EDS. We conducted univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to verify the associated factors. A total of 1307 participants responded to the survey, and the response rate was 61.3%. Nine hundred fifty-four participants were included in the study. Two hundred ninety-three participants were classified as the EDS group, and six hundred sixty-one were classified as the non-EDS group. The prevalence of EDS was 30.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 27.8–33.6%). Monthly night-shift days (odds ratio (OR) 1.106, 95% CI 1.028–1.191) and depression (OR 2.635, 95% CI 1.799–3.861) were significantly associated with an increased risk of EDS, and fair sleep quality (OR 0.560, 95% CI 0.318–0.985) was associated with a decreased risk of EDS. Almost one in three emergency physicians in South Korea suffer from daytime sleepiness. The number of monthly night-shift days and depression were associated with an increased risk of EDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personality, Individual Differences and Psychological Health at Work)
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Article
“Don’t Get Your Meat Where You Get Your Bread”: Beliefs and Advice about Workplace Romance
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080278 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
This investigation identified contemporary beliefs about workplace romance and compared how those beliefs have changed since 1986. Different kinds of advice about workplace romance, and how that advice was related to extant beliefs, were also evaluated. A nationwide sample (N = 259) [...] Read more.
This investigation identified contemporary beliefs about workplace romance and compared how those beliefs have changed since 1986. Different kinds of advice about workplace romance, and how that advice was related to extant beliefs, were also evaluated. A nationwide sample (N = 259) of organizational members with a variety of professional experiences responded to an anonymous online survey. Results indicated that there were three fundamental underlying beliefs about workplace romance: workplace romance is valuable, the right to demand privacy about workplace romance, and anti-workplace romance. Different types of advice—encouraging, warning, gender concern, and silence—were related to these existing beliefs. The substantial associations between beliefs and advice provide evidence for an implicit theory of workplace romance. Personal experience with such relationships was strongly related to the belief that workplace romance is valuable and the right to demand privacy about workplace romance. Additionally, personal experience was also associated with providing advice promoting workplace romance and advocating that employees should remain silent about engaging in such relationships. These results are discussed within the theoretical lens of boundary blending between the work sphere and the private sphere of social life. Full article
Article
Supporting Student Learning Needs in Tertiary Education: Institutional Support Structures Based on the Institutional Support Questionnaire
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080277 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 438
Abstract
This article presents and focuses on the Institutional Support Questionnaire (ISQ) that was developed and validated to complement the Learning Needs Questionnaire (LNQ). While the LNQ, validated and published earlier, assessed students’ perceived learning needs, the ISQ assesses students’ psychological perspectives of their [...] Read more.
This article presents and focuses on the Institutional Support Questionnaire (ISQ) that was developed and validated to complement the Learning Needs Questionnaire (LNQ). While the LNQ, validated and published earlier, assessed students’ perceived learning needs, the ISQ assesses students’ psychological perspectives of their institution, particularly how they perceive their institution supports their learning. Both questionnaires work in tandem to support resource optimisation efforts in establishing targeted academic support structures within teaching-focused tertiary institutions. This study found that the 42-item ISQ had adequate psychometric properties and that institutional support could be represented by four factors (i.e., academic competency support, teaching practices, tutors’ characteristics, and use of technology in instruction) that reflected in large part the factors characterised by the LNQ (i.e., perceived academic competency, time management, preferred tutors’ characteristics, and use of technology). Practical applications of the use of both the ISQ and LNQ (i.e., how both could be applied in a tertiary education setting to identify perceived students’ learning needs and whether an institution is providing adequate support to meet these needs) and limitations on their use are discussed. Full article
Article
The Spillover Effect of Life Satisfaction on Customer Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship and the Moderating Role of Competition Climate
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080276 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 353
Abstract
In the field of organizational management, research on employees’ life experiences is insufficient. It remains unclear how employees’ non-work experiences affect customer service quality. Building on the spillover theory (an individual’s experience in one domain can be transferred to another domain) and the [...] Read more.
In the field of organizational management, research on employees’ life experiences is insufficient. It remains unclear how employees’ non-work experiences affect customer service quality. Building on the spillover theory (an individual’s experience in one domain can be transferred to another domain) and the conservation of resources theory (individuals are motivated to protect their current resources and to acquire new resources), we aim to examine the impact of service employee’s life satisfaction on customer satisfaction while considering service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior (the discretionary extra-role behavior demonstrated by employees) as a mediating variable. To test our hypothesis, we collected multi-wave, multilevel, multisource data of 209 customer service employees from an insurance company. The results showed that service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior was an important mechanism by which employees’ overall life satisfaction positively affected customer satisfaction. In addition, this mediating effect was weaker for employees in higher competition climate groups. The study illustrates the critical contribution of the overall well-being of personnel to organizational business results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Social Media Exposure and Left-behind Children’s Tobacco and Alcohol Use: The Roles of Deviant Peer Affiliation and Parent–Child Contact
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080275 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 539
Abstract
The public has always been concerned about the problem behaviors of children and teenagers (such as cigarette and alcohol use), especially among disadvantaged groups (e.g., left-behind children in China); in the current information era, left-behind children’s use of social media also has increasingly [...] Read more.
The public has always been concerned about the problem behaviors of children and teenagers (such as cigarette and alcohol use), especially among disadvantaged groups (e.g., left-behind children in China); in the current information era, left-behind children’s use of social media also has increasingly expanded, which has diverse effects on their adaptation. Accordingly, the present study examined the association between exposure to relevant content on social media and left-behind children’s tobacco and alcohol use, as well as the underlying mechanisms—the mediating effect of deviant peer affiliation and the moderating effect of parent–child contact, the gender differences were also investigated. A sample of 515 Chinese left-behind children (Mage = 13.39 ± 2.52 years, 45.0% girls) was recruited to complete a set of questionnaires assessing the main variables. The results show that social media exposure was positively associated with tobacco and alcohol use and that deviant peer affiliation significantly mediated this relationship. Furthermore, parent–child interaction attenuated the link between social media exposure and cigarette and alcohol use among left-behind girls, but this moderating effect was not statistically significant among left-behind boys. The moderating role of parent–child contact in the association between deviant peer affiliation and tobacco and alcohol use was insignificant in both boys and girls. These findings may have significance in several ways—theoretically, they not only deepen our understanding of the risk factors and mechanism of tobacco and alcohol use among left-behind children in the current information era and the influences of social media use; practically, they provide direction for the health improvement of left-behind children of different genders. Full article
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Article
Agility and Innovativeness: The Serial Mediating Role of Helping Behavior and Knowledge Sharing and Moderating Role of Customer Orientation
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080274 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
This study aims to understand the mechanism whereby the Agile approach works by analyzing the effect of agility on innovativeness, the sequential mediating effect of helping behavior and knowledge sharing, and the moderating effect of customer orientation. Data for 323 Information and Communication [...] Read more.
This study aims to understand the mechanism whereby the Agile approach works by analyzing the effect of agility on innovativeness, the sequential mediating effect of helping behavior and knowledge sharing, and the moderating effect of customer orientation. Data for 323 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) companies and 964 non-ICT companies were collected and analyzed through online surveys. Bootstrapping analysis using Model No. 83 of the PROCESS macro confirmed that agility increases team members’ helping behaviors and strengthens knowledge sharing, which in turn has a positive effect on innovativeness. More specifically, helping behavior and knowledge sharing sequentially mediate the relationship between agility and innovativeness. In addition, the study verified that customer orientation moderates the effect of agility on helping behavior. This study is meaningful in showing that it is important to create a culture that pursues “customer value” while promoting mutually helping behavior and sharing knowledge when introducing Agile methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organizational Behaviors)
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Article
Development and Validation of a Measure of Passive Aggression Traits: The Passive Aggression Scale (PAS)
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080273 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Although passive aggression is known as a pathological personality trait, the concept is unclear, and there is a lack of tools to measure it comprehensively. Thus, this study developed and validated a tool for measuring passive-aggressive behaviors. Data on basic information about passive [...] Read more.
Although passive aggression is known as a pathological personality trait, the concept is unclear, and there is a lack of tools to measure it comprehensively. Thus, this study developed and validated a tool for measuring passive-aggressive behaviors. Data on basic information about passive aggression traits were collected from 20 experts using open-ended questions. To verify content validity, Delphi surveys were conducted twice with five experts. Data for item analysis were collected from 123 Korean adults. Reliability and validity were analyzed using data obtained from 408 Korean adults. The three-factor model for the passive aggression scale (PAS) showed satisfactory model fits. Cronbach’s αs for inducing criticism, avoiding/ignoring, and sabotaging subscales, and the total PAS, were 0.91, 0.91, 0.92, and 0.93, respectively. The test–retest coefficient of the PAS also indicates that this tool is reliable. Analyses of the criterion-related validity revealed that the PAS was closely correlated with the scores of some scales that measure passive aggression with a single factor. In addition, the correlations between the PAS, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory scores supported our understanding of the concept of passive aggression. This study highlights the utility of PAS as a useful and comprehensive measure of passive-aggressive behaviors to be adopted by researchers and clinicians. Full article
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Article
Resilience among Malaysian Community Pharmacists and General Medical Practitioners Using the 10-Item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): The First National Survey
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080272 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
With the growing importance of the healthcare sector, resilience has become a fundamental personal quality that healthcare professionals need to cultivate to cope with adverse events in daily work. Distress in the workplace cannot only impact the well-being of healthcare professionals but also [...] Read more.
With the growing importance of the healthcare sector, resilience has become a fundamental personal quality that healthcare professionals need to cultivate to cope with adverse events in daily work. Distress in the workplace cannot only impact the well-being of healthcare professionals but also negatively affect the capability to care effectively for others. This study was conducted to determine the score and level of resilience among private primary healthcare professionals and their relationships with independent variables. Sets of questionnaires on resilience based on the Connor–Davidson resilience scale-10 (CD-RISC-10) were completed by 164 general practitioners (GPs) and 87 community pharmacists (CPs). Inferential analysis was used to assess the difference, correlation, association, and predictor among dependent and independent variables. The validity and reliability of the study instrument were assessed using Modern Test Theory (MTT) and Classical Test Theory (CTT). The majority of GPs and CPs possessed the lowest resilience level. There were significant differences between CD-RISC-10 with gender, age, and years of experience in GPs as well as overall. Significant associations were found between CD-RISC-10 with all independent variables, except for the highest education level in GPs and overall. This study revealed significant correlations between independent variables with CD-RISC-10 in GPs and overall. However, there were nonsignificant differences, associations, and correlations among CPs between all independent variables and CD-RISC-10. Gender was the predictor of CD-RISC-10 in GPs, while age and years of experience were the predictors of CD-RISC-10 in GPs and overall. There was no predictor of independent variables for CPs. In multinomial logistics regression, years of experience and gender were the significant predictors of CD-RISC-10 among GPs. The CD-RISC-10 instrument had good validity and reliability. Overall, healthcare professionals showed a low level of resilience. This emphasized the need to cultivate and build resilience, as it is a desirable, important element when working in harsh and unprecedented healthcare settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Resilience Psychology)
Article
Breast Cancer Survivors’ Motivation to Participate in a Tailored Physical and Psychological Intervention: A Qualitative Thematic Analysis
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080271 - 07 Aug 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Purpose: Participants’ engagement in a project requires intrinsic motivations, which may evolve during the intervention thanks to lifestyle changes and positive challenges. Over the years, tailored programs based on physical activity and psychological sessions have been promoted to support the quality of life [...] Read more.
Purpose: Participants’ engagement in a project requires intrinsic motivations, which may evolve during the intervention thanks to lifestyle changes and positive challenges. Over the years, tailored programs based on physical activity and psychological sessions have been promoted to support the quality of life and well-being of breast cancer survivors. Personal expectations and needs are essential to predict participant adherence to the intervention as well as their possibility to reach positive outcomes. This study presents a preliminary understanding of the differences between motives and outcomes obtained after an integrated physical and psychological intervention conducted by professional trainers and psychologists. Methods: Forty-five women with a history of breast cancer answered some questions before and after the program, and the results were analyzed in accordance with the procedure of the thematic analysis. Results: Physical and psychological well-being are the two main themes that emerged from the participants. Interestingly, some differences emerged between the two data collections. Themes such as aesthetic evaluation interest and the need to learn psychological strategies disappeared at the end of the intervention; on the other hand, the need to make a distance from the illness experiences emerged as an obtained outcome. Conclusions: The discussion explains these differences and highlights the importance of considering breast cancer patients’ needs and motives to take part in interventions to promote quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Psychology)
Article
Men’s Physical Stature: Tackling Heightism and Challenges in Fashion Consumption
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080270 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 585
Abstract
In light of the limitations of previous research on fashion consumption by short men, the present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between male body image, height perceptions, clothing choice, garment fit, and heightism. In this study, 3D body scanning technology and [...] Read more.
In light of the limitations of previous research on fashion consumption by short men, the present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between male body image, height perceptions, clothing choice, garment fit, and heightism. In this study, 3D body scanning technology and in-depth interviews were employed to investigate the relational effects between men’s height, body image, and clothing consumption. In total, twelve men exhibiting a height of 5′ 8″ or less participated. The findings indicate that “heightism” is prevalent in today’s society. As well, the results reveal that overall appearance and physical stature become less important as people grow older. It is evident that short male consumers encounter challenges when they shop for fashionable and well-fitting clothing. They are underserved by the fashion industry and often impacted by judgmental biases. The study supports that garment alteration and buying clothes from the children’s section, or a bespoke tailor are not ideal solutions for short men. Furthermore, many of them just accept the fact that they are short and try to find ways to alleviate their frustration when consuming fashion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Consumption, Identity, Demographics and Self-Concept)
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Article
Building Information Modeling Learning Behavior of AEC Undergraduate Students in China
Behav. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs12080269 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 505
Abstract
With the popularization and application of Building Information Modeling (BIM), the demand for BIM technical talents in the construction industry is increasing. Exploring college students’ BIM technical learning behavior is of great practical significance to improve education activities. Based on the Unified Theory [...] Read more.
With the popularization and application of Building Information Modeling (BIM), the demand for BIM technical talents in the construction industry is increasing. Exploring college students’ BIM technical learning behavior is of great practical significance to improve education activities. Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), this research adds learning attitude variables to construct a theoretical model of influencing factors of college students’ BIM technology learning behavior. Chinese undergraduate students were asked to complete online questionnaires through peer-to-peer contact with sample colleges and universities. Finally, 1090 valid questionnaires were obtained. The students were sampled from research-oriented, applied research-oriented, application-oriented, and private research-oriented universities in seven regions of China: northeast, north, east, south, central, northwest, and southwest. The structural equation model was used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that college students’ BIM learning attitude, performance expectations, and social influence positively and directly impact their learning intention, which indirectly impacts their learning behavior. At the same time, promoting factors and learning intention demonstrate a significant positive and direct impact on learning behavior. Therefore, the following suggestions have been put forward to enhance college students’ learning motivation for BIM technology: increase the popularization of BIM technology in colleges and universities and improve the operation level of full-time BIM teachers. The latter enables colleges and universities to continuously and stably export qualified BIM technical talents to society and the market, resulting in a continuous industry development cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Educational Psychology)
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