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Behav. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2020) – 20 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The article is a continuation of our work exploring biopsychosocial factors that impact the mental [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Physiological Responses Following a Bout of Vigorous Exercise in Military Soldiers and First Responders with PTSD: An Exploratory Pilot Study
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020059 - 13 Feb 2020
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Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and debilitating condition associated with psychological conditions and chronic diseases that may be underpinned by dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. The objective of this pilot [...] Read more.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and debilitating condition associated with psychological conditions and chronic diseases that may be underpinned by dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. The objective of this pilot study was to determine psychological, ANS [heart rate variability (HRV)], HPA (salivary cortisol) and inflammatory (salivary C-Reactive Protein) responses to a bout of vigorous exercise in male first responders, military veterans and active duty personnel with (n = 4) and without (n = 4) PTSD. Participants (50.1 ± 14.8 years) performed a thirteen-minute, vigorous intensity (70%–80% of heart rate max), one-on-one boxing session with a certified coach. Physiological and psychological parameters were measured before, during, immediately after to 30 min post-exercise, and then at 24 h and 48 h post. The effect sizes demonstrated large to very large reductions in HRV that lasted up to 48 h post-exercise in the PTSD group compared with unclear effects in the trauma-exposed control (TEC) group. There were unclear effects for depression, anxiety and stress as well as salivary biomarkers for both groups at all time-points. Findings may reflect stress-induced changes to the ANS for PTSD sufferers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interconnection between Driving Style, Traffic Locus of Control, and Impulsivity in Bulgarian Drivers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020058 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
The need for research in the field of transport psychology in Bulgaria has become more tangible in recent years, due to both the increased public intolerance to aggressive driving and the very high number of injuries and fatalities in road accidents in the [...] Read more.
The need for research in the field of transport psychology in Bulgaria has become more tangible in recent years, due to both the increased public intolerance to aggressive driving and the very high number of injuries and fatalities in road accidents in the country. The main objective of this study is to investigate the interconnection between Driving style, Traffic locus of control, and the Impulsivity in Bulgarian drivers. A research is conducted in order to examine the relations between the constructs in Bulgarian sample (n = 456, male = 204; female = 252; average age = 37). The results show that there are significant correlations between impulsivity and all driving styles. Positive correlations were found with the maladaptive driving styles, while the adaptive driving style was negatively associated with impulsivity. Correlations between the traffic locus of control and the driving styles were also found. These results provide a very good opportunity for further research in this area as well as for the development of prevention and training programs in the field of road safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Team Role Adoption and Distribution in Engineering Project Meetings
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020057 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
Team communication plays a vital role in engineering management, however, there is a paucity of work that examines how team roles emerge as a response to the communicative processes between participants. This research explored role adoption using qualitative methods comprising observations, questionnaires and [...] Read more.
Team communication plays a vital role in engineering management, however, there is a paucity of work that examines how team roles emerge as a response to the communicative processes between participants. This research explored role adoption using qualitative methods comprising observations, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Five student teams doing final year projects at a university in New Zealand were observed during the academic year and then interviewed at the final stage of project completion. A number of team roles in the engineering context were identified for students and their supervisors: Explorer; Initiator; Facilitator; Active and Passive Information Provider; Outsider; Active and Passive Connector; Passive Collector; Arbitrator; Gatekeeper and Representative. Personal factors, such as social sensitivity, were correlated with the choice of team behaviour pattern. In addition, the team roles could be arranged in circular order to create a circumplex, the two axes of which were identified as Personal Agency/Communion and Social engagement/Social disengagement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ethno-National Attitudes as Intercultural Competence Predictors in University Students: Gender Differences
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020056 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
The search for predictors of intercultural competence (ICC) development is one of the important challenges of modern psychology in connection with globalization in all the spheres of modern life, including university education. The purpose of the present research is to show that the [...] Read more.
The search for predictors of intercultural competence (ICC) development is one of the important challenges of modern psychology in connection with globalization in all the spheres of modern life, including university education. The purpose of the present research is to show that the ethno-national attitudes (ENA), which Khukhlaev et al. consider as an individual’s predisposition to assess the nationality/ethnicity can determine the severity of ICC features in male and female university students. The sample includes 219 (75% female) first–third year Russian university students. ICC was measured with the author’s modification of the intercultural sensitivity scale (ISS) by Khuhlaev and Chibisova. ISS is based on the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, (DMIS) by Bennett and includes 4 subscales: Minimization, Absolutization, Ambivalence, Acceptance. ENA (Nationalistic, Patriotic, Neutral, Negativistic) were determined with the “Scale of ethno-national attitudes” by Khukhlaev, Kuznetsov, and Tkachenko. Descriptive statistics methods, Wilcoxon W-test, and multiple regression analysis were used for statistical analysis in the R software environment, version 3.5.2. The findings of our research showed that Nationalistic and Patriotic ENA are the strongest predictors of studied ICC scales and have an opposite negative impact on Acceptance and Absolutization in both male and female students. This fact should be taken into account in the context of ICC developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Assessing Mothers’ Postpartum Depression From Their Infants’ Cry Vocalizations
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020055 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3748
Abstract
Postpartum Depression (PPD), a condition that affects up to 15% of mothers in high-income countries, reduces attention to the needs of the child and is among the first causes of infanticide. PPD is usually identified using self-report measures and therefore it is possible [...] Read more.
Postpartum Depression (PPD), a condition that affects up to 15% of mothers in high-income countries, reduces attention to the needs of the child and is among the first causes of infanticide. PPD is usually identified using self-report measures and therefore it is possible that mothers are unwilling to report PPD because of a social desirability bias. Previous studies have highlighted the presence of significant differences in the acoustical properties of the vocalizations of infants of depressed and healthy mothers, suggesting that the mothers’ behavior can induce changes in infants’ vocalizations. In this study, cry episodes of infants (N = 56, 157.4 days ± 8.5, 62% firstborn) of depressed (N = 29) and non-depressed (N = 27) mothers (mean age = 31.1 years ± 3.9) are analyzed to investigate the possibility that a cloud-based machine learning model can identify PPD in mothers from the acoustical properties of their infants’ vocalizations. Acoustic features (fundamental frequency, first four formants, and intensity) are first extracted from recordings of crying infants, then cloud-based artificial intelligence models are employed to identify maternal depression versus non-depression from estimated features. The trained model shows that commonly adopted acoustical features can be successfully used to identify postpartum depressed mothers with high accuracy (89.5%). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sleep in the Social World of College Students: Bridging Interpersonal Stress and Fear of Missing Out with Mental Health
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020054 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3153
Abstract
Introduction: The college years are characterized by psychosocial and biological phenomena that may impact mental health, such as heightened sensitivity to social stressors and compromises in sleep quantity and quality. The current study uses a biopsychosocial approach to examine the associations among interpersonal [...] Read more.
Introduction: The college years are characterized by psychosocial and biological phenomena that may impact mental health, such as heightened sensitivity to social stressors and compromises in sleep quantity and quality. The current study uses a biopsychosocial approach to examine the associations among interpersonal stress, Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), insomnia, and mental health. Methods: Survey data were collected from 283 undergraduate students (90% female) with a mean age of 21.4 years. A path analysis was utilized to test a mediational model linking interpersonal stress and FoMO with mental health through a mediator of insomnia. We hypothesized that higher levels of interpersonal stress and FoMO would be associated with higher levels of insomnia symptoms, which would in turn be associated with poorer mental health. Results: As predicted, insomnia partially mediated significant associations of interpersonal stress and FoMO with mental health. The association of interpersonal stress with insomnia and mental health was more robust than the association of FoMO with these variables. Conclusions: The pathway from interpersonal stress and/or FoMO, through insomnia, to compromises in mental health may be modifiable through behavioral interventions focusing on coping skills, sleep hygiene, and even technology-related habit changes. Recommendations to help disrupt this pathway, particularly among college students, are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Religiosity and Psychotic Ideation in Stable Schizophrenia: A Role for Empathic Perspective-Taking
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020053 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2155
Abstract
The relationship between religiosity and different components of empathy was explored in schizophrenia patients. A total of 81 stable schizophrenia patients and 95 controls from the nearby community completed self-reported questionnaires assessing religiosity and empathy (through the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI). Patients with [...] Read more.
The relationship between religiosity and different components of empathy was explored in schizophrenia patients. A total of 81 stable schizophrenia patients and 95 controls from the nearby community completed self-reported questionnaires assessing religiosity and empathy (through the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI). Patients with schizophrenia showed higher religiousness than controls and they presented less perspective-taking and empathic concern but increased personal distress in IRI scores. Regression analyses unveiled an association between religiosity and perspective-taking in schizophrenics after adjusting for age, gender, and psychotic symptoms. In conclusion, religiosity in patients with schizophrenia may be linked to variations in perspective- taking as a component of empathy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Executive Functions and Language Production in 5–6-Year-Old Children: Insights from Working Memory and Storytelling
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020052 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2372
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between working memory capacity and narrative abilities in 5–6-year-old children. 269 children were assessed on their visual and verbal working memory and performed in a story retelling and a story creation (based on a single picture and on [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationship between working memory capacity and narrative abilities in 5–6-year-old children. 269 children were assessed on their visual and verbal working memory and performed in a story retelling and a story creation (based on a single picture and on a series of pictures) tasks. The stories were evaluated on their macrostructure and microstructure. The results revealed a significant relationship between both components (verbal and visual) of working memory and the global indicators of a story’s macrostructure—such as semantic completeness, semantic adequacy, programming and narrative structure—and with the indicators of a story’s microstructure, such as grammatical accuracy and number of syntagmas. Yet, this relationship was systematically stronger for verbal working memory, as compared to visual working memory, suggesting that a well-developed verbal working memory leads to lexically and grammatically more accurate language production in preschool children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
Student Disaffection: The Contribution of Greek In-service Kindergarten Teachers in Engaging Each Preschooler in Learning
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020051 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1973
Abstract
Engaging each student in learning comprises a continuous challenge and concern for the contemporary teacher. Educational research confirms the alarming increase of the disengaged students, relating student disaffection to adverse effects on students’ academic development. In the present research through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, [...] Read more.
Engaging each student in learning comprises a continuous challenge and concern for the contemporary teacher. Educational research confirms the alarming increase of the disengaged students, relating student disaffection to adverse effects on students’ academic development. In the present research through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, we investigate 80 Greek in-service kindergarten teachers’ opinions with regards to the significance of engaging the disengaged students in learning activities in preschool environments. The interviews based on Creswell’s (2009) interview model, incorporate open-ended and close-ended questions that offer a well-rounded view of the subject. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis of teachers’ opinions show that engaging each disengaged preschooler has multiple benefits on students’ academic development, class climate, and cohesion, and teacher’s self-efficacy, as well. Specifically, teachers’ engaging actions offer students the opportunity to develop their abilities, self-efficacy, and sense of belonging. The interviewees also recognise that increased student engagement levels decisively affect teachers—students’ interactions, offering at the same time clear feedback to the teacher. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Professional Training of Future Preschool Teachers in the Field of Artistic and Aesthetic Education by Means of Contextual Learning Technologies
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020050 - 04 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2031
Abstract
The article deals with the development peculiarities of the subject artistic competence of future preschool teachers in the field of artistic and aesthetic education of children by means of contextual educational technologies. The students in question were being observed during the classes of [...] Read more.
The article deals with the development peculiarities of the subject artistic competence of future preschool teachers in the field of artistic and aesthetic education of children by means of contextual educational technologies. The students in question were being observed during the classes of Fundamentals of the Fine Arts with Methodology, the lessons of Decorative Arts with Methodology, as well as the Artistic Production and Design Fundamentals sessions. The purpose of the article is to reveal the methodology of contextual learning technologies’ implementation into the process of future preschool educators training and check their effectiveness in the realm of children’s artistic and aesthetic education experimentally. In the course of the research, we used such methods as analysis and synthesis of psychological, pedagogical, and art sources, as well as studying and generalization of the current state of future preschool teachers professional training in the field of artistic and aesthetic education. We also employed analysis, comparison, and classification with the aim of determining the essential characteristics, criteria, and levels of future preschool teachers’ subject competence in artistic and aesthetic education. Another approach that we turned to was that of pedagogical experiment with the further qualitative and quantitative analysis of its results using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistical criterion. The outcomes of the experiment brought about a need for the implementation of contextual learning technologies into the development of future preschool educators’ subject competence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Children’s Creativity and Personal Adaptation Resources
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020049 - 03 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2036
Abstract
The study provides insights into the aspects of creativity, the structure of psychometric intelligence, and personal adaptation resources of senior preschool children. Creativity and intelligence are presented as general adaptation resources. Existing studies of creative ability and creativity as integral individual characteristics in [...] Read more.
The study provides insights into the aspects of creativity, the structure of psychometric intelligence, and personal adaptation resources of senior preschool children. Creativity and intelligence are presented as general adaptation resources. Existing studies of creative ability and creativity as integral individual characteristics in the context of adaptation are analyzed. The aim is to identify varied sets of creativity and personal adaptation resource markers that differentiate groups of children in order to determine possible strategies for adaptation, preservation, and development of their creative abilities at the beginning of lyceum schooling. It embraces the use of the E. Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) (figural version), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), and the G. Rorschach Test. A sample of the study consisted of 122 children, aged 6–7 and enrolled in a school. The average IQ score among the children was above 115 (M = 133.7, σ = 9.9). The entire sample was divided into four groups by the originality-elaboration ratio according to the TTCT. The correctness of the children’s division into the groups according to the markers of creativity and personal adaptation resources is confirmed by the discriminant analysis. We have identified the factor structure of creativity, intelligence, and personal adaptation resources in the entire sample of children and in each of the groups. In the group of preschoolers with high originality and elaboration, the resulting structure integrated the components of creativity with personal adaptation resources and intelligence scores. In the group of children with a low level of originality and elaboration, the markers of creativity, intelligence, and personal adaptation resources are not interlinked. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
What Makes a Partner Ideal, and for Whom? Compatibility Tests, Filter Tests, and the Mating Stability Matrix
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020048 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
We introduce a typological characterization of possible human heterosexual couples in terms of the concordance-opposition of the orientations of their active and receptive areas as defined by the tie-up theory. We show that human mating incentives, as characterized by widely adopted approaches, such [...] Read more.
We introduce a typological characterization of possible human heterosexual couples in terms of the concordance-opposition of the orientations of their active and receptive areas as defined by the tie-up theory. We show that human mating incentives, as characterized by widely adopted approaches, such as Becker’s marriage market approach, only capture very specific instances of actual couples thus characterized. Our approach allows us to instead explore how super-cooperation among partners vs. convenience vs. constriction may be regarded as alternatives modes of couple formation and cohesion, leading to very different types of couples with different implications in terms of stability and resilience. Our results may have interesting implications for future experimental research and for individual and family counseling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Sleep Curtailment Increases Sweet Taste Preference, Appetite and Food Intake in Healthy Young Adults: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020047 - 01 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2266
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the effect of acute sleep curtailment on sweet taste preference, appetite and food intake, and the correlation between food intake and sweet taste preference or active ghrelin using a randomized crossover design (5 h sleep curtailment vs. 8 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the effect of acute sleep curtailment on sweet taste preference, appetite and food intake, and the correlation between food intake and sweet taste preference or active ghrelin using a randomized crossover design (5 h sleep curtailment vs. 8 h control). Twenty-four participants (11 men) aged 21.4 ± 1.0 years, with BMI 19.8 ± 1.7 kg/m2, who habitually slept 5 h/night or more experienced interventions lasting three consecutive nights. Participants came into the laboratory for testing on day 4. Fasting blood tests were conducted at 8:00 a.m. to measure active ghrelin and leptin levels. Sweet taste preference was assessed by presenting five different concentration sucrose solutions at 9:00 a.m. Ad libitum intake at breakfast was assessed for 30 min from 9:30 a.m. Sweet taste preference was higher following sleep curtailment than control. Active ghrelin was likewise higher following sleep curtailment than control. Leptin did not differ between conditions. Energy intake was higher following sleep curtailment than control, being derived primarily from carbohydrates. However, sweet taste preference and active ghrelin did not correlate with energy intake. These results suggest that acute consecutive sleep curtailment increases sweet taste preference, active ghrelin, and energy intake in healthy young adults. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Factors which Influence Risk Taking and the Evolution of Social-Identity in Stroke Narratives: A Thematic Synthesis
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020046 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
Background: The disruption of a stroke can impact an individual’s sense of social identity. A comprehensive review is required to understand the factors and processes that influence changes in social identity following a stroke. Aims: To undertake a review of literature to discover [...] Read more.
Background: The disruption of a stroke can impact an individual’s sense of social identity. A comprehensive review is required to understand the factors and processes that influence changes in social identity following a stroke. Aims: To undertake a review of literature to discover a process of social identity evolution for people with stroke and identify the factors which influence it. Methods: A meta-ethnographic approach to review was undertaken and a subtle realist viewpoint was assumed. Studies were included if they documented experiences and perceptions relating to stroke. Eight electronic databases were searched from January 2009 until January 2019. Quality assessment and synthesis techniques were applied. Findings: Out of the 18 papers included, a total of 251 (141/251, 56% male, 109/251, 43% female, 1/251, 0.4% undisclosed) individuals were included within the synthesis. The evolution of social-identity model was developed and identified with five key stages to represent a process that individuals with stroke can experience. Factors which influence the process were identified and direct implications for clinical practice are given. Conclusion: This review has highlighted the major themes within the evolution of social identity and management strategies for risk taking to achieve a desired future. Further research is required to consider how these findings may be tested in clinical practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Program “Reflexion 1”—the Condition of Intensive Formation of Metacognitive Skills in Elementary School
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020045 - 30 Jan 2020
Viewed by 2132
Abstract
Metacognitive skills associated with reflexive actions in solving problems are an essential condition for the successful mastering of school programs and a strong indicator of the intellectual development of primary school-aged children. The purpose of this empirical research is to study the influence [...] Read more.
Metacognitive skills associated with reflexive actions in solving problems are an essential condition for the successful mastering of school programs and a strong indicator of the intellectual development of primary school-aged children. The purpose of this empirical research is to study the influence of the author’s program of non-educational content, “Reflexion 1”, on the formation of reflexive actions in solving problems for children aged 9 years. Thirty-two classes were conducted (once a week, outside school hours) with the experimental group of students from September to May, according to the specified program. The results show that the lessons in the “Reflexion 1” program contribute to a significant increase in the number of children aged 9 years with substantial reflexive actions in solving problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Emotional Attitude to Own Appearance and Appearance of the Spouse: Analysis of Relationships with the Relationship of Spouses to Themselves, Others, and the World
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020044 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2155
Abstract
The study analyzed the relationship of attitudes toward one’s appearance and appearance of the partner with attitude toward the own personality and that of the other persons’ in married men and women. The empirical object of the study included 52 married couples in [...] Read more.
The study analyzed the relationship of attitudes toward one’s appearance and appearance of the partner with attitude toward the own personality and that of the other persons’ in married men and women. The empirical object of the study included 52 married couples in a registered (26 couples) and unregistered (26 couples) marriage with a duration from 5 months to 26 years (M = 7.31; SD = 6.78). The age of the respondents was 20–45 years old (M = 30.26; SD = 7.31; all are residents of the Russian Federation; Russians). Methods included the following questionnaires: (1) “History of the couples’ relationships”; (2) “Estimated and informative interpretation of one’s appearance and its compliance with gender–age constructs”; (3) “Color test of relationships”; (4) “Method of diagnosing interpersonal relationships”; (5) “Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior questionnaire”. Empirical data were analyzed with Spearman correlation analysis, Mann–Whitney U-test, Kruskal–Wallis H-test. The results were as follows: (1) in men and women the attitude to their appearance is related to the attitude to themselves; attitude to the spouse’s appearance is associated with the attitude to him or her; (2) in women, the assessment of their appearance is related to the attitude to their appearance; in men, the assessment of their appearance is related to the attitude to appearance of their spouses; (3) women’s attitude to their appearance is associated with the need for inclusion, while in the men’s case it is associated with the need for love; (4) men who emotionally reject their mothers are dissatisfied with the appearance of their wives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Low-Doses of Caffeine and Taurine on Convulsive Seizure Parameters in Rats
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020043 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2050
Abstract
Introduction: Caffeine, an adenosine-receptor blocker, is believed to have neuronal excitatory effects, while Taurine, a mammalian amino acid, was shown to have neuroinhibitory effects. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of [...] Read more.
Introduction: Caffeine, an adenosine-receptor blocker, is believed to have neuronal excitatory effects, while Taurine, a mammalian amino acid, was shown to have neuroinhibitory effects. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of low doses of Caffeine and Taurine on the seizure threshold in rats. Methods: Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 280) were divided randomly into five groups (control, acute caffeine intake, acute taurine intake, chronic caffeine intake and chronic taurine intake), with five subgroups per group according to five different doses of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) injections. Each subgroup consisted of eight rats. Data was entered and analyzed using Microsoft EXCEL and AddinsoftTM XLSTAT (Version 2012.6.06; New York, NY, USA). p-value = 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: There was a significant decrease in the latency of PTZ-induced seizures with both acute (p-value < 0.05) and chronic (p-value < 0.01) Caffeine treatment groups. Chronic exposure to Caffeine exhibited an increase in the probability of seizures (p-value < 0.05). However, acute exposure to Caffeine did not show a significant impact on the probability of seizures. Neither acute nor chronic exposures to Taurine had an effect on the probability of seizures, nor on the latency of PTZ-induced seizures. Discussion: Our study found that acute as well as chronic exposure to low doses of Caffeine (50 and 80 mg/kg) reduces the threshold, and hence increases the likelihood for seizures since it favors a state of neuronal hyper excitability through blocking of all adenosine receptors. On the other hand, acute or chronic exposure to Taurine did not show a significant effect on the PTZ-induced seizures parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Formation of Future Educators’ Professional Training for Introducing Social Experience by Means of Innovative Technologies of Education to Senior Preschoolers
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020042 - 25 Jan 2020
Viewed by 2022
Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to reveal the peculiarities of the introduction of innovative education technologies in the process of training future pre-school teachers in the field of the socialization of preschoolers, and to verify their effectiveness by experimental means. During the [...] Read more.
The purpose of the paper is to reveal the peculiarities of the introduction of innovative education technologies in the process of training future pre-school teachers in the field of the socialization of preschoolers, and to verify their effectiveness by experimental means. During the research, the methods of analysis and synthesis of philosophical, psychological and pedagogical sources in the field of professional training of the future teacher were used: modeling and designing, to determine the theoretical and methodological foundations of the research and development of innovative technology for the training of future teachers to familiarize preschoolers with social environments; studying and generalizing the current state of the professional training of future teachers of pre-school institutions to familiarize preschoolers with social reality; comparison and classification to determine the essential characteristics, criteria and levels of readiness of future pre-school teachers for the socialization of preschoolers; pedagogical experiment with qualitative and quantitative analysis of results, in particular, the statistical criterion of K. Pearson (x2). The results of the diagnosis led to the need to implement innovative educational technologies into the process of the professional training of future teachers of pre-school educational institutions in three stages: diagnostic and propaedeutic, motivational, activity–creative. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
Open AccessArticle
A Short Empathy Paradigm to Assess Empathic Deficits in Schizophrenia
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020041 - 24 Jan 2020
Viewed by 2325
Abstract
Empathy is important for successful social interaction and maintaining relationships. Several studies detected impairments in empathic abilities in schizophrenia, with some even indicating a broader deficit in several components, including emotion recognition, perspective taking, and affective responsiveness. The aim of our study was [...] Read more.
Empathy is important for successful social interaction and maintaining relationships. Several studies detected impairments in empathic abilities in schizophrenia, with some even indicating a broader deficit in several components, including emotion recognition, perspective taking, and affective responsiveness. The aim of our study was to validate a short version of the previous empathy paradigm as a reliable and easily applicable method to assess empathic deficits in patients with schizophrenia potentially within clinical routine. To do so, we applied the short version to 30 patients (14 females) diagnosed with schizophrenia meeting the DSM-5 criteria and 30 well-matched healthy controls (14 females). The data analysis indicates a significant empathic deficit in patients due to worse performance in all three domains. We managed to replicate most of the findings of our previous study. In contrary to the previous study, significant correlations between performance in the empathy tasks and psychopathology occurred: the severity of negative symptoms was negatively associated with performance in the emotion recognition task and the affective responsiveness task. Gender did not significantly affect performance in the empathy tasks. Regarding the results, our short empathy paradigm appears to be a valid method in assessing empathic impairments in schizophrenia that may be useful in clinical routine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
If People Are Attached to Plants, Do They Love Other People? Case of the Russian Youth
Behav. Sci. 2020, 10(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs10020040 - 22 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
People’s attachment to the plant world makes a great contribution to the maintenance of psychological well-being. At the same time, little is known regarding the contribution of attitudes to plants to people’s morality; the current study is aimed at filling this gap. We [...] Read more.
People’s attachment to the plant world makes a great contribution to the maintenance of psychological well-being. At the same time, little is known regarding the contribution of attitudes to plants to people’s morality; the current study is aimed at filling this gap. We assumed that the more positive the attitude to plants is, the higher the level of moral motives is. The survey was conducted on the Russian sample; 257 participants (students from Moscow universities, 199 female, Mage = 21.1, SDage = 2.5) were recruited. The following tools were used: a questionnaire People and Plants (PaP) consisting of five sub-scales (joy, esthetics, practice, closeness to nature, and ecology) and Moral Motives Model scale (MMM scale) including six sub-scales (self-restraint, not harming, social order, self-reliance (industriousness), helping/fairness, and social justice). It was found that all parameters of the positive attitudes to plants, except practice, were strongly positively connected with moral motives. Multi-regression analysis allowed developing certain models demonstrating the contribution of attachment to the plant world to people’s morality. The proscriptive motives (especially self-restraint) are more sensitive to attitudes to flora as compared to prescriptive motives; prescriptive motive self-reliance was not predicted by the attitude to flora at all. Moreover, the findings seem to be gender-sensitive (predictions are higher in females). The obtained results are discussed referring to the reverence for life ethics by Schweitzer, deep ecology by Næss, biophilia hypothesis by Wilson, and psychology of moral expansiveness by Crimston et al. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue XVI European Congress of Psychology)
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