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Soc. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 3 (March 2019)

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Open AccessArticle An Approach to Understand Rural Advisory Services in a Decentralised Setting
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030103
Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 26 March 2019
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Abstract
As populations increase, so do the challenges in feeding the world. Rural Advisory Services (RAS) contribute positively to food security by ensuring rural populations have access to vital knowledge increasing yields and rural incomes. For historical reasons however, national RAS have often developed [...] Read more.
As populations increase, so do the challenges in feeding the world. Rural Advisory Services (RAS) contribute positively to food security by ensuring rural populations have access to vital knowledge increasing yields and rural incomes. For historical reasons however, national RAS have often developed into complex networks of stakeholders which can confuse, and even in some cases provide conflicting advice. In order to improve internal and external knowledge of an advisory service, this article investigates the benefits and limitations of an approach that combines qualitative and quantitative stakeholder perception activities at a local and national level. Local and national workshops were held using focus group and open fora techniques in order to portray and visualise a crop health advisory system in Pakistan, a dynamic and complex case study. The approach manages to expose key differences between local and national perceptions of a crop health RAS: whilst both local and national workshop participants decidedly agree on the importance of local (provincial and district level) extension departments, local perceptions clearly identified the strength and value of private sector and community level interactions. At the national workshop, interpretations of ground level activities were vague, yet their mentions of microcredit initiatives, large scale Non-Government Organisation activities and semi-autonomous institutions demonstrate knowledge at a different scale. This approach demonstrates the value of an accessible methodology to measure and understand RAS. Whilst this approach is a key component in assessing the system’s dynamism prior to any future development initiative, it needs to refine its integration of gendered perceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
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Open AccessArticle Victimization, Social Structure and Psychosocial Variables: The Case of Spain in 1999 and 2016
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030102
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
This article reviews the research on the factors influencing victimization and explores the case of Spain. The first section presents a comparative analysis of the data for 1999 and 2016 in terms of perceptions, profiles and the most significant sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables. [...] Read more.
This article reviews the research on the factors influencing victimization and explores the case of Spain. The first section presents a comparative analysis of the data for 1999 and 2016 in terms of perceptions, profiles and the most significant sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables. The second section shows an explanatory analysis based on multivariate logistical regression models, using as independent variables sociodemographic and psychosocial items, and the dependent variable is whether one is described as one is described as a victim or no in the 2016 survey. The results point towards an explanatory model of victimization in which sociodemographic variables play a less important role, whereas psychosocial variables related to lifestyle and subjective perceptions make a significant contribution to greater understanding of the nature of being the victim of a crime and offer suggestions on how to improve Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
Open AccessArticle What Works in Democratic Dialogue?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030101
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 12 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
As the global world produces new social problems and the continuously changing environment of work organizations calls for new modes of operation, there emerges a need for discussion forums to analyze and find practical solutions, involving the people concerned. This article examines, within [...] Read more.
As the global world produces new social problems and the continuously changing environment of work organizations calls for new modes of operation, there emerges a need for discussion forums to analyze and find practical solutions, involving the people concerned. This article examines, within the framework of realist evaluation, the potential of democratic dialogue, a Nordic method of workplace development, to generate outcomes that are put into practice in work organizations. Democratic dialogue is seen as a social program that, by providing the participants with new resources and new reasoning in work conferences and other dialogue forums, enables them to make new choices. The focus is on three Finnish action research networks applying democratic dialogue, and the recompilation of these cases along the Context-Mechanism-Outcomes formula of realist evaluation. Changes in the organizational patterns of communication, linked to the criteria of democratic dialogue and the design of work conferences, are identified and examined through the lenses of varied organizational concepts that elaborate the underlying processes generating change. The article suggests further research to compare cases with the same starting points but differing outcomes to trace the finer distinctions in the preconditions for accomplishing the desired objectives. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing 21st Century Video Data on Situational Dynamics—Issues and Challenges in Video Data Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030100
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
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Abstract
Since the turn of the millennium researchers have access to an ever-increasing pool of novel types of video recordings. People use camcorders, mobile phone cameras, and even drones to film and photograph social life, and many public spaces are under video surveillance. More [...] Read more.
Since the turn of the millennium researchers have access to an ever-increasing pool of novel types of video recordings. People use camcorders, mobile phone cameras, and even drones to film and photograph social life, and many public spaces are under video surveillance. More and more sociologists, psychologists, education researchers, and criminologists rely on such visuals to observe and analyze social life as it happens. Based on qualitative or quantitative techniques, scholars trace situations or events step-by-step to explain a social process or outcome. Recently, a methodological framework has been formulated under the label Video Data Analysis (VDA) to provide a reference point for scholars across disciplines. Our paper aims to further contribute to this effort by detailing important issues and potential challenges along the VDA research process. The paper briefly introduces VDA and the value of 21st century visuals for understanding social phenomena. It then reflects on important issues and potential challenges in five steps of conducting VDA, and formulate guidelines on how to conduct a VDA: From setting up the research, to choosing data sources, assessing their validity, to analyzing the data and presenting the findings. These reflections aim to further methodological foundations for studying situational dynamics with 21st century video data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transportation or Narrative Completion? Attentiveness during Binge-Watching Moderates Regret
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030099
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
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Abstract
Extant results on the binge-watching outcomes have been mixed. This study sought to examine the crucial factor of attentiveness that might help to enhance viewer experience and mitigate post-binge regret, as well as differentiate the motivation of narrative transportation from narrative completion. While [...] Read more.
Extant results on the binge-watching outcomes have been mixed. This study sought to examine the crucial factor of attentiveness that might help to enhance viewer experience and mitigate post-binge regret, as well as differentiate the motivation of narrative transportation from narrative completion. While narrative transportation involves a viewer getting unconsciously swept away by the story, the motivation of narrative completion is a more self-aware, cognizant effort to progress through the story. A survey (N = 800) determined that the degree to which an individual pays attention to a show may either increase or decrease subsequent regret, depending on the motivation for binge-watching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Always On Anywhere: Streaming Television and Its Effects)
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Open AccessReview Influence of Family Variables on Cyberbullying Perpetration and Victimization: A Systematic Literature Review
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030098
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
In recent years, the number of studies conducted on the influence of family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization has increased, especially in terms of relational family processes. The present review investigates the role played by family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. [...] Read more.
In recent years, the number of studies conducted on the influence of family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization has increased, especially in terms of relational family processes. The present review investigates the role played by family variables on cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. A systematic literature review was conducted in five databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, ERIC, and Web of Science) from October 2016 to October 2018. During this brief period of time, the number of publications on family variables and cyberbullying, both perpetration and victimization, has significantly increased. We eventually reviewed 34 studies which rigorously met the selection criteria of our research. For the analysis of the results, we distinguish between two types of variables according to the following possibilities of pedagogical intervention: Structural (contextual family variables and individual parental processes), and dynamic (relational family processes). Our review found evidence that there is more controversy around structural variables than around dynamic variables. The most consistent variables are family communication and the quality of the family relationship. However, there is a perceived need for clarifying the influence that different structural variables, parental educational styles, and parental mediation exert on the prevention and consolidation of cyberbullying perpetration and cybervictimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Family, Bullying and Cyberbullying)
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Open AccessArticle Peculiarities of Prosecution and Indictment of the President of the Slovak Republic: Is Current Legal Regulation Really Sufficient?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030097
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
In a democratic state following the principle of rule of law, every person (including state authorities) must bear a legal liability for an unlawful act committed. However, recent socio-political events in Slovakia have brought to the forefront a number of legal questions regarding [...] Read more.
In a democratic state following the principle of rule of law, every person (including state authorities) must bear a legal liability for an unlawful act committed. However, recent socio-political events in Slovakia have brought to the forefront a number of legal questions regarding the liability of the head of the state for his unlawful acts. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to examine the current legal regulation of presidential liability, which belongs to one of the controversial issues of the Slovak legal order. At the same time, it is an issue which is not a frequented subject of legal science (jurisprudence) research. Therefore, its examination and critical evaluation is necessary. However, the aim of the paper is not only to point out to the current legal regulation of this relatively unexplored legal institution, but also to show its seamy sides and to present a comprehensible and reasonable legal opinion relating to key characteristics of legal liability of the President of the Slovak Republic. The authors are of the opinion that the legal regulation of the liability of the President of the Slovak Republic is extremely brief. In addition, it contains a number of ambiguities and questions which, in the future, can cause a lot of complications in the eventual prosecution of the president. For this reason, it is more than desirable to resolve at least some of the issues referred to in the paper before the dispute arises. In every democratic state it is essential that the terms of application of legal institutions or legal provisions are understandable, clear, and certain. In the case of the institution of liability of the Slovak President, this requirement is certainly not fulfilled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Contemporary Politics and Society)
Open AccessArticle How May Public Transport Influence the Practice of Everyday Life among Younger and Older People and How May Their Practices Influence Public Transport?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030096
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
This paper examines public transport use through the lens of practice to understand the perspectives of two categories of public transport users: Younger and older people. In taking this approach, we assume that the forms of mobility in a society are dependent on [...] Read more.
This paper examines public transport use through the lens of practice to understand the perspectives of two categories of public transport users: Younger and older people. In taking this approach, we assume that the forms of mobility in a society are dependent on citizens’ everyday practices and on the structures of the cities, landscapes, etc. Transport needs and accessibility may vary depending on contexts (i.e., where and how we live) and on the various resources of groups of citizens. Results indicated that younger people are repeatedly referred to public transport to meet their mobility needs, while older people are more often car-dependent. Local variations, among both younger and older people, indicate higher confidence in public transport in big and medium-sized cities and a greater desire for car ownership in small cities. For the transition to sustainable mobility, e.g., public transport, transport associations and local governments should be responsive to the practice of everyday life among citizens: e.g., younger people’s leisure activities in afternoons and weekends, and older people’s wish for accessible transport service outside the dominant flow of passengers and their daily commuting practice. The data come from Sweden, specifically from focus groups with teenagers aged 14–16 years and retired people aged 63–97 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Transport and Social Psychology)
Open AccessArticle Deciding on Discipline: The Importance of Parent Demeanor in the Transmission of Discipline Practices
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030095
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Although child abuse is a social problem in the United States, many cases go unreported because there is not a consensus as to what disciplinary actions are deemed abusive. Thus, it is paramount to understand the demarcation between physical punishment and physical abuse [...] Read more.
Although child abuse is a social problem in the United States, many cases go unreported because there is not a consensus as to what disciplinary actions are deemed abusive. Thus, it is paramount to understand the demarcation between physical punishment and physical abuse among parents and their use of certain forms of discipline. This study examines how discipline experienced by adolescent respondents affects their choice of discipline practices in adulthood. A random sample of residents was selected from three South Carolina counties using the 2016 state voter registration list. Respondents were mailed a survey asking questions pertaining to their disciplinary practices and experiences. Analyses were conducted using the ordinary least squares regression. Those who experienced abusive discipline as a child were significantly less likely to report that they use the same discipline techniques as their parents. However, adding parenting traits into the model revealed a mediation effect. Abusive discipline no longer plays a significant role in how respondents discipline their own children once the perceived demeanor of their parent is taken into consideration. These findings suggest that disciplinary techniques are less important than a parent’s attitude when correcting their children’s behavior. Implications for the current research, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Community Science as a Pathway for Resilience in Response to a Public Health Crisis in Flint, Michigan
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030094
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
While the story of the Flint water crisis has frequently been told, even sympathetic analyses have largely worked to make invisible the significant actions of Flint residents to protect and advocate for their community. Leaving the voices of these stakeholders out of narratives [...] Read more.
While the story of the Flint water crisis has frequently been told, even sympathetic analyses have largely worked to make invisible the significant actions of Flint residents to protect and advocate for their community. Leaving the voices of these stakeholders out of narratives about the crisis has served to deepen distrust in the community. Our project responds to these silences through a community-driven research study aimed explicitly at elevating the frame of Flint residents in and around the Flint water crisis. This paper describes the coming together of the research team, the overall project design for each of the three research efforts, and lessons learned. The three sub-projects include: (1) a qualitative analysis of community sentiment provided during 17 recorded legislative, media, and community events, (2) an analysis of trust in the Flint community through nine focus groups across demographic groups (African American, Hispanic, seniors, and youth) of residents in Flint, and (3) an analysis of the role of the faith-based community in response to public health crises through two focus groups with faith based leaders from Flint involved with response efforts to the water crisis. Our study offers insight for understanding trust in crisis, which could be valuable to other communities and researchers seeking to address similar situations. The project offers community science as a model for considering community engagement in research as part of the process of resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaged Scholarship for Resilient Communities)
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Language in Anti-Immigrant Prejudice: What Can We Learn from Immigrants’ Historical Experiences?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030093
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Prejudice remains an unpleasant experience in immigrants’ everyday lives, especially for those of stigmatized groups. In the recurring struggle of various immigrant groups, historical and contemporary events reveal the important role of language in the creation, transmission, and perpetuation of anti-immigrant prejudice. Living [...] Read more.
Prejudice remains an unpleasant experience in immigrants’ everyday lives, especially for those of stigmatized groups. In the recurring struggle of various immigrant groups, historical and contemporary events reveal the important role of language in the creation, transmission, and perpetuation of anti-immigrant prejudice. Living in an anti-immigrant climate, immigrants are frequently exposed to stigmatizing language in both political and social discourse. This may be a more significant and frequent experience for immigrants since the beginning of the 2016 United States presidential election. Although it has long been understood that language is inextricably linked with prejudice, the investigation of the role of language in creating, transmitting, and perpetuating anti-immigrant prejudice remains undeveloped in social work research. This paper provides a theoretical explanation of anti-immigrant sentiment by discussing how stigmatization has allowed for immigrants to be subjected to various forms of prejudice throughout history. Building upon prior theoretical concepts of stigma, this paper argues that being an immigrant is a stigma. This paper reviews historical and contemporary cases of prejudice against immigrants to provide evidence for how stigmatizing language transmits and perpetuates anti-immigrant prejudice in the United States and building upon prior stigma theories, defines one’s status of an immigrant to be form of stigma itself. The paper concludes with a call for appreciable attention to the role of language in anti-immigrant prejudice and the need for social workers to advocate for immigrants within higher education and in our communities to reduce such stigma though social work practice, education and research. Full article
Open AccessArticle Discourses about Daily Activity Contracts: A Ground for Children’s Participation?
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030092
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
The paper presents the findings of a secondary analysis of qualitative research conducted in Turin (Northern Italy) in 2012–2013 on autonomy and responsibility in the relationships between children and parents. A total of 46 parents and 48 children aged 9–13 were interviewed. The [...] Read more.
The paper presents the findings of a secondary analysis of qualitative research conducted in Turin (Northern Italy) in 2012–2013 on autonomy and responsibility in the relationships between children and parents. A total of 46 parents and 48 children aged 9–13 were interviewed. The secondary analysis focuses on a specific section of the in-depth interview dealing with daily activity contracts. The aim is to investigate children’s participation in everyday life through children’s and parents’ narratives about daily activity contracts. Thematic analysis of this section of the interviews shows that children make room for acquiring such relational and dialogue skills as self-confidence and speaking up, which are recognized to be essential for any level and type of participation. Moreover, children’s and parents’ discourses on daily activity contracts provide an opportunity to “cultivate” participation and autonomy through a sort of alliance between parents and children in decision-making. The question is whether these dialogic attitudes and negotiation abilities are a resource not restricted to the family sphere but which extends to other areas of participation that go beyond the realm of private, protected, and reversible choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood and Society)
Open AccessArticle The Impact of Plant Variety Protection Regulations on the Governance of Agri-Food Value Chains
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030091
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
More than 25 years after the 1991 reform of the Union for the Protection of New Plant Varieties (UPOV) treaty, the regulation of Plant Variety Protection (PVP) is still controversial. While the incentives to private innovations are unquestionable, concerns have been raised about [...] Read more.
More than 25 years after the 1991 reform of the Union for the Protection of New Plant Varieties (UPOV) treaty, the regulation of Plant Variety Protection (PVP) is still controversial. While the incentives to private innovations are unquestionable, concerns have been raised about farmers’ access to resources, the weakening of their bargaining power, their entrepreneurial freedom, and ultimately their welfare. Our paper investigates the effect of PVP regulation on the governance of agri-food value chains (AFVC) with a small-scale survey of kiwi producers in Italy. We found that AFVC trading-protected (club) plant varieties are more likely to exhibit captive governance forms than those trading the free varieties. Nevertheless, the producers of club kiwis achieve higher returns from their investments and bear less risk than others. Because of the high demand for the club fruits, the breeders must give farmers highly profitable contract terms in order to elicit the production and to promote the adoption of the new cultivar. As a consequence, farmers are capturing a share of the value of innovation, even if the breeders have a strong protection. The long-run sustainability of this win-win agreement between breeders and farmers might be jeopardized should the demand for the new varieties fall. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability in Higher Education: Perceptions of Social Responsibility among University Students
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030090
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
Many construction-related training and education programs in the United States have now embraced the concept of sustainability, offering sustainable construction courses that highlight sustainable design and construction practices. These courses have mainly focused on green building strategies for the design and construction of [...] Read more.
Many construction-related training and education programs in the United States have now embraced the concept of sustainability, offering sustainable construction courses that highlight sustainable design and construction practices. These courses have mainly focused on green building strategies for the design and construction of built environments and indoor environmental quality necessary for students’ knowledge enhancement and career development. This study examined the effect of sustainability course on students’ knowledge as well as their perceptions of social responsibility and sustainable behaviors. Data were collected by conducting a survey from construction related programs in U.S. universities. Students were categorized based on their experience of taking such course(s), and results were compared in terms of their environmental concerns, objective and subjective knowledge, and sustainable consumer behaviors by conducting independent two-sample t-tests. The purpose of this study was to examine sustainable behaviors and social responsibility perceptions among U.S. university students enrolled in construction-related courses. The results indicated that environmental concern and sustainable consumer behavior scores were significantly lower among students who had taken the course than those who had not. Both objective and subjective knowledge scores were relatively low. There was no difference between the two groups in objective knowledge scores and unexpectedly, subjective knowledge was significantly lower among students who had taken the course than those who had not. The findings of this study provide implications for sustainability curriculum development that can enhance students’ learning experience. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Industrial Linkages and Supply Effects of the U.S. R&D Sector: Comparison with OECD Countries
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030089
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
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Abstract
The industrial linkages and supply effects of the U.S. Research and Development (R&D) sector are examined using the input-output approach. Although the U.S. has the highest R&D intensity among major OECD countries, the U.S. R&D sector has relatively low backward and forward linkages [...] Read more.
The industrial linkages and supply effects of the U.S. Research and Development (R&D) sector are examined using the input-output approach. Although the U.S. has the highest R&D intensity among major OECD countries, the U.S. R&D sector has relatively low backward and forward linkages to other industrial sectors. Moreover, the supply investment effect of the U.S. R&D sector is the least, showing that the sector is not likely to stimulate the production of the other sectors. The supply shortage effect of the U.S. R&D sector is also the least among the countries. The findings in this study imply that improving the linkages and supply effects of the R&D sector may be more important than increasing only the amount of R&D expenditure in the U.S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Economics)
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Open AccessArticle Vehicle Crime, CPTED, and Offending under the Influence: A Qualitative Investigation of Offender Perceptions
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030088
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 9 March 2019
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Abstract
Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) can impact upon where an offender decides to commit an offence. This is particularly the case for street-level acquisitive crime. There has been little coverage, within research on crime and offending, of how aspects of the built [...] Read more.
Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) can impact upon where an offender decides to commit an offence. This is particularly the case for street-level acquisitive crime. There has been little coverage, within research on crime and offending, of how aspects of the built environment might be interpreted by a motivated offender who has a dependency on either illicit drugs, alcohol or both of these. This study draws on qualitative interviews with twenty individuals who have received criminal convictions for vehicle crime offences. Within these offender interviews, images, of repeatedly victimised areas, were examined in order to gauge in what capacity various locations were vulnerable to vehicle crime. Through this examination, pertinent points were made by participants about how and why the appeal of locations could differ for offenders who suffer from substance addiction and offenders who do not. The key findings of this research demonstrate that vehicle crime offenders who are not dependent on drugs or alcohol, may be more risk-averse than those who are. Moreover, both types of offender might become part of organised crime networks, but these findings make an initial suggestion that those who offend under the influence are more vulnerable to coercion by a criminal hierarchy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crime Prevention through Pro-Social Design)
Open AccessArticle Modelling Price Transmission within the Supply Chain under a European Protected Designation of Origin Framework: The Case of Parmigiano Reggiano in Italy
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030087
Received: 27 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
Lately, we have witnessed how European Institutions have directed many efforts at improving the effectiveness of food quality schemes (FQS) to address the increasing complexity that has affected all elements of the operating structure of agrifood supply chains worldwide, especially prices. In this [...] Read more.
Lately, we have witnessed how European Institutions have directed many efforts at improving the effectiveness of food quality schemes (FQS) to address the increasing complexity that has affected all elements of the operating structure of agrifood supply chains worldwide, especially prices. In this paper, we conduct a comparative analysis of the price transmission process in the dairy sector between farm and retail markets within the protected designation of origin (PDO) framework and its non-protected counterpart in Italy. This paper considers a unique dataset for the PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and for a non-protected counterpart in Italy covering a recent period after the price crises that took place nearly a decade ago. A multivariate error correction type approach was estimated together with the corresponding impulse response functions to provide useful insights for understanding the differences in the performance of the price transmission process between protected and non-protected food products. Contrary to most of the previous literature, our results support the hypothesis of symmetric price dynamics along the PDO cheese supply chain. The fewer number of farmers reduces the market power at the retail level generating more efficient price transmission dynamics. Short-run dynamics suggest that in the PDO cheese market farmers and retailers react quicker and with a similar magnitude to market changes, while in the conventional cheese market, retailers benefit in the short run from quicker and of higher magnitude responses to unanticipated market shocks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle “My Family’s Weight on My Shoulders”: Experiences of Jewish Immigrant Women from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Toronto
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030086
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Abstract
In dominant western society, we tend to interpret the experiences of immigrant women as emancipation and liberation, rather than as the complex experiences of subjects acting within several hegemonic systems. While intersectional and transnational feminism led to questioning this view through the discussion [...] Read more.
In dominant western society, we tend to interpret the experiences of immigrant women as emancipation and liberation, rather than as the complex experiences of subjects acting within several hegemonic systems. While intersectional and transnational feminism led to questioning this view through the discussion of the challenges faced by immigrant women from developing countries, their counterparts from socialist countries have been largely ignored. To address this gap, this article focuses on the employment and social reproduction experiences of 11 white, professional, heterosexual, immigrant Jewish women from the former Soviet Union (FSU) who are now living in Toronto, Canada. The data used in this article was collected as part of a study on lived experiences of Jewish immigrant couples from FSU in Toronto. This study utilized intersectional feminist analysis as a theoretical framework and combined the qualitative methodologies of Testimonio and Oral History. This data suggests that, for these women, immigration had mixed outcomes. Although the material conditions of their lives may have changed, the traditional moral associations between femininity, domesticity, and maternity remained strong. Apparent heterosexual privilege both challenged and reinforced their subordination, in that it facilitated their access to Canadian education and professional jobs and promoted their social legitimacy/status, while also resulting in greater subordination at work and home where they had more tasks to fulfill than in premigration life. These findings challenge the monolithic representation of immigrant women’s experience and enhance our ability to generate a more comprehensive theory of those experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
Open AccessReview Global Crop Value Chains: Shifts and Challenges in South-North Relations
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030085
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Abstract
The worldwide importance of crop production is undisputed due to its function for basic nutrition of billions of people. Yet, the emergence of global forces implies severe consequences for the organization of crop value chains. These forces particularly include processes of liberalization and [...] Read more.
The worldwide importance of crop production is undisputed due to its function for basic nutrition of billions of people. Yet, the emergence of global forces implies severe consequences for the organization of crop value chains. These forces particularly include processes of liberalization and deregulation, the dominance of large retail groups as well as ever-changing consumer demands, leading to continuous reconfigurations of crop value chains. Based on a literature review, this paper aims at thematically ‘organizing’ and differentiating the key findings of relevant empirical studies on global crop value chains, with a particular focus on South-North relations. Thereby, current shifts and challenges are identified and analysed with special attention paid to spatio-relational dimensions. The spatial perspective is important since crop value chains both shape and are shaped by specific geographical settings which is, among others, considered in the growing literature on food geographies. Overall, we could extract three strands of literature on global crop value chains: the integration of smallholders; the role of food standards; and the effect of ‘hidden’ dynamics. These issues especially reveal the interdependencies between the Global South and the Global North as a crucial feature of contemporary crop production and distribution systems. These are A further outcome of the literature analysis is the derivation of suggestions regarding future research and areas of needed progress. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impacts of Internet of Things on Supply Chains: A Framework for Warehousing
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030084
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
The emergence of new digital industrial technology, known as Industry 4.0, has a positive impact on the performance of the supply chain. Warehouses are a basic part of the supply chain; they are used to store products and manage the inventory level. A [...] Read more.
The emergence of new digital industrial technology, known as Industry 4.0, has a positive impact on the performance of the supply chain. Warehouses are a basic part of the supply chain; they are used to store products and manage the inventory level. A sound warehouse management system can lead to cost reduction and also can improve customer satisfaction. Traditional warehouse management models have become less efficient and unsuitable for today’s increasing market requirements. For the past decades, information and communication technology has been used for warehouse management. This paper presents a new approach for warehouse management by utilizing one of the main pillars of Industry 4.0, the Internet of Things. This new technology enables the connection of several objects through collecting real-time data and sharing them; the resulting information can then be used to support automated decision-making. The architecture of this application is illustrated and its potential benefits are overviewed. A framework is proposed to implement this approach in warehousing management, which can help in providing real-time visibility of everything in the warehouse, increasing speed and efficiency, and preventing inventory shortage and counterfeiting. This proposal gives an effective roadmap for enterprises to improve their warehouses by using the Internet of Things. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industry 4.0 Implication for Economy and Society)
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Open AccessArticle The Digital Divide among Parents and Their Emerging Adult Children: Intergenerational Accounts of Technologically Assisted Family Communication
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030083
Received: 6 November 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
A great deal of previous research has examined the profound influence of digital communication technology (e.g., texting, videoconferencing, social media usage) on family life. However, few inquiries have explored the contours of technologically assisted communication using qualitative data collected from various family members. [...] Read more.
A great deal of previous research has examined the profound influence of digital communication technology (e.g., texting, videoconferencing, social media usage) on family life. However, few inquiries have explored the contours of technologically assisted communication using qualitative data collected from various family members. Our study breaks new ground by using interview data collected from a split sample of parents and their emerging adult children (interviewed separately) to investigate intergenerational accounts of technologically assisted family communication. Using insights from various theoretical perspectives, we analyze thirty in-depth interviews with middle-aged parents (ages 39–62) and their corresponding emerging adult children (ages 18–29) who use technology as a significant means of communicating with one another. Our analyses reveal two overarching patterns. Discordant accounts reflect disparate intergenerational views of technologically assisted family communication. By contrast, concordant accounts provide evidence of shared intergenerational reflections on technology’s role in family life. These patterns are explained by family life complexities, technology use experiences, and intergenerational norms of communication. Our study confirms that communication technology plays a multifarious role in family life across generational lines. Implications of these findings and promising avenues for future research are discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle ROUTINE: The Development of a Physical Activity Promoting Journey Planner Web App
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030082
Received: 1 December 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
Behavior change apps are widespread, but the scientific base of the app-concept is rarely disclosed. The aim of this article is to present the methodological approach used for the development of a so-called “fitness feedback demonstrator” within an already existing journey planner web [...] Read more.
Behavior change apps are widespread, but the scientific base of the app-concept is rarely disclosed. The aim of this article is to present the methodological approach used for the development of a so-called “fitness feedback demonstrator” within an already existing journey planner web app to motivate people to increase their physical activity behavior while using public transport. Firstly, we introduce the behavior change theories applied for the design of the feedback, followed by the analysis of focus-group discussions about the desired content of the fitness feedback. Secondly, we describe how we conducted a field test to measure the number of steps taken when using public transport. Finally, we used the feedback from potential users in terms of design/attractiveness and comprehensibility of the added fitness information. The “fitness feedback demonstrator” is a good practical example of how to make use of the different research expertise to develop a theory-based tool to encourage persons to integrate physical activity into their daily routines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Transport and Social Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle Reconceptualising Children’s Agency as Continuum and Interdependence
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030081
Received: 8 February 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
Although the idea that children are social actors is well-recognised within childhood studies, the structural contexts shaping child agency and the everyday practices that manifest in children’s social relationships with other generations are not fully elucidated. This article identifies and discusses multiple and [...] Read more.
Although the idea that children are social actors is well-recognised within childhood studies, the structural contexts shaping child agency and the everyday practices that manifest in children’s social relationships with other generations are not fully elucidated. This article identifies and discusses multiple and often contradictory concepts of agency as well as a framework for re-conceptualizing it as a continuum, and as interdependent. The central argument I make is that there is a need to go beyond the recognition that children are social actors to reveal the contexts and relational processes within which their everyday agency unfolds. It is also vital to ask what kind of agency children have, how they come by and exercise it, and how their agency relates them to their families, communities, and others. The article draws on research and ongoing debates on the life worlds of children in diverse African contexts in order to critically demonstrate how their agency is intersected by experience, societal expectations, gender, geography, stage of childhood, and social maturity. In so doing, the contextualized discussions and reflections have implications to rethink childhood and child agency elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Childhood and Society)
Open AccessArticle Bodybuilding and Fitness Doping in Transition. Historical Transformations and Contemporary Challenges
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030080
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
This article describes and analyses the historical development of gym and fitness culture in general and doping use in this context in particular. Theoretically, the paper utilises the concept of subculture and explores how a subcultural response can be used analytically in relation [...] Read more.
This article describes and analyses the historical development of gym and fitness culture in general and doping use in this context in particular. Theoretically, the paper utilises the concept of subculture and explores how a subcultural response can be used analytically in relation to processes of cultural normalisation as well as marginalisation. The focus is on historical and symbolic negotiations that have occurred over time, between perceived expressions of extreme body cultures and sociocultural transformations in society—with a perspective on fitness doping in public discourse. Several distinct phases in the history of fitness doping are identified. First, there is an introductory phase in the mid-1950s, in which there is an optimism connected to modernity and thoughts about scientifically-engineered bodies. Secondly, in the 1960s and 70s, a distinct bodybuilding subculture is developed, cultivating previously unseen muscular male bodies. Thirdly, there is a critical phase in the 1980s and 90s, where drugs gradually become morally objectionable. The fourth phase, the fitness revolution, can be seen as a transformational phase in gym culture. The massive bodybuilding body is replaced with the well-defined and moderately muscular fitness body, but at the same time there are strong commercialised values which contribute to the development of a new doping market. Finally, it is possible to speculate on the development of a fifth phase, in which fitness doping is increasingly being filtered into mainstream gym and fitness culture, influencing the fitness doping demography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Sports, Extreme Bodies)
Open AccessArticle Climate Justice Movement Building: Values and Cultures of Creation in Santa Barbara, California
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030079
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
This article analyzes how young people in the climate justice movement cultivate a prefigurative culture centered on justice as a response to the threat of climate change. Employing grounded theory and drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 29 youth activists and participant [...] Read more.
This article analyzes how young people in the climate justice movement cultivate a prefigurative culture centered on justice as a response to the threat of climate change. Employing grounded theory and drawing on data from in-depth interviews with 29 youth activists and participant observation in Santa Barbara County, California, the birthplace of both the environmental movement and offshore oil drilling, I argue that four key values—relationships, accessibility, intersectionality, and community—enable movement building, a stated goal of the climate justice movement. These values emerge from interviewees’ words and practices. Drawing on John Foran’s (2014) notion of political cultures of creation, I conceptualize these values and the practices that embody them as constituting a “climate justice culture of creation” that shapes and is shaped by ideas, experiences, social relations, and the reality of a changing atmosphere. These values, and movement building, are about creating alternative futures—cultures that are not dependent on inequality and fossil fuels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Salt without the Girl: Negotiating Embodied Identity as an Agender Person with Cystic Fibrosis
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030078
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
In this manuscript, I build and expand on prior work by myself (Nowakowski, 2016) and others exploring the dynamics of embodiment among people with chronic health conditions. Specifically, I critically investigate the intersecting social and medical elements of responses to bodies perceived as [...] Read more.
In this manuscript, I build and expand on prior work by myself (Nowakowski, 2016) and others exploring the dynamics of embodiment among people with chronic health conditions. Specifically, I critically investigate the intersecting social and medical elements of responses to bodies perceived as too thin and otherwise lacking in physical ability, using my own experiences of living and aging with cystic fibrosis (CF) as a case example. In these explorations, I center gendered identity and its intersection with disabling physical illness. I do so by using my own lived experiences as autoethnographic anchor points to guide critical review of key concepts from the nexus of these two content areas. I focus throughout on exploring how others’ reactions to a frail-looking body often constitute a form of forced gendering via the narratives people attempt to construct for why a person’s body appears that way. The title of the manuscript supports this framework by referencing three cornerstones of patient experience in the CF community: the general trend of patients having salty skin due to the pathology of the disease, a prior embodiment project called Salty Girls (Pettigrew, 2012) that engages this idea, and the more abstract concept of “saltiness” in describing the grit marginalized people display in responding to microaggressions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Identity)
Open AccessArticle Knowledge Transfer in the Cultural and Creative Sector: Institutional Aspects and Perspectives from Actors in Selected Atlantic Regions
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030077
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
The 21st century has witnessed a growth in the importance given to the third mission of Higher Education Institutions (HEI). This third mission refers to the socioeconomic engagement with the surrounding social and business fabric, namely in the form of knowledge transfer (KT) [...] Read more.
The 21st century has witnessed a growth in the importance given to the third mission of Higher Education Institutions (HEI). This third mission refers to the socioeconomic engagement with the surrounding social and business fabric, namely in the form of knowledge transfer (KT) schemes and policies. Despite its widely-recognized importance, the Cultural and Creative Sector (CCS) has remained only marginally engaged with HEI, in part due to the lack of explicit policy by public actors to bring the two types of actors together. This article seeks to explore the institutional frameworks that have been developed for knowledge transfer from HEI to the CCS in selected regions of the Atlantic Area. Towards this goal, it first analyses some of the sectoral specificities of the CCS, identifying three feature which distinguish the sector: the entrepreneurial structure and organization of CCS; the type of knowledge, innovation and motivations of firms; and their absence of connections to HEI. The article seeks then to analyze to what extent existing policy on CCS and KT policies in the regions has tackled these specificities, through a qualitative analysis of reports, policy documents, and academic analysis of the regional economies, before proposing a model for understanding KT policy in the CCS sector, which serves as a preliminary line of inquiry into the knowledge relations in the CCS. Finally, these policy concerns are related to the perceptions of CCS practitioners, attempting to understand the primary concerns of these actors according to their regional context. The article highlights the existing disconnect between public policy, the current state of understanding of the CCS and the industry actors, urging for greater research and policy-development to promote innovation and socioeconomic growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Indashyikirwa Women’s Safe Spaces: Informal Response for Survivors of IPV within a Rwandan Prevention Programme
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030076
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 1 March 2019
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Abstract
Within intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programmes that raise awareness of women’s rights and the forms and consequences of IPV, there is a need to ensure response mechanisms for IPV survivors. Indashyikirwa is a Rwandan IPV prevention programme, which established 14 women’s safe [...] Read more.
Within intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programmes that raise awareness of women’s rights and the forms and consequences of IPV, there is a need to ensure response mechanisms for IPV survivors. Indashyikirwa is a Rwandan IPV prevention programme, which established 14 women’s safe spaces, whereby men and women could access support for IPV, be referred or accompanied to other services. This paper draws on qualitative interviews with safe space facilitators, attendees, staff and observations of activities at various points across the programme. Thematic analysis was conducted to assess the process and impact of the spaces. Attendees generally preferred the women’s safe spaces over formal services for IPV disclosure and support, and the spaces also enhanced the quality of and linkage to formal IPV response services. The safe spaces further supported well-being and economic empowerment of attendees. Lessons learned from implementing this model are offered, including how to ensure safe, inclusive and integrated sources of support within broader IPV prevention efforts. Full article
Open AccessArticle Survey Study on Attitudes to Multi-Dimensional Sustainable Development with U.K. MSc Students
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030075
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
As reflected in the sustainable development goals (SDGs), sustainable development is a multi-dimensional concept integrating political, ethical, economic, and other factors. Reports from the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD) suggest that universities are more engaged with sustainable development [...] Read more.
As reflected in the sustainable development goals (SDGs), sustainable development is a multi-dimensional concept integrating political, ethical, economic, and other factors. Reports from the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD) suggest that universities are more engaged with sustainable development in higher education. Despite promising signals about student awareness of sustainable development, survey studies suggest student engagement and knowledge is limited. Previous studies have tended to focus on undergraduates and examine basic attitudes to triple bottom line issues. This study examined knowledge and attitudes of postgraduate U.K. students enrolled in one-year taught sustainability degrees on the multi-dimensional issues of sustainable development. This study piloted a 39-question 7-point Likert scale survey with a cohort of U.K.-taught postgraduate (MSc, MPhil) students (n = 121, Cronbach’s Alpha 0.796, n = 39 questions). The study found this cohort able to recognize and respond to the multiple challenges of strong and weak sustainable development issues rather than exhibiting knowledge gaps previously reported. Results and qualitative comments from the survey suggest, however, that students resist the idea of strong interventions in social, political, and economic life. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Patel et al. Resilience: Examining the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on the Gulf Coast Vietnamese American Community. Soc. Sci. 2018, 7(10), 203
Soc. Sci. 2019, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8030074
Received: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following change to their paper (Patel et al. 2018). [...] Full article
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