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Soc. Sci., Volume 11, Issue 3 (March 2022) – 54 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Parent–child interactions are influential to a wide range of positive developmental processes in neurotypical children, yet contributions to our understanding of these interactions using observational methods in families of children on the autism spectrum are lacking. We investigate how autism symptoms might impact these interactions and whether these interactions are substantially different in families of neurotypical children in late childhood. We report no differences in the observed levels of supportive behavior exhibited by parents. Parents of autistic children had higher levels of observed directive behavior which may address specific needs for their children. Our findings reinforce literature on younger children describing positive parenting characteristics and further rebuke historical accounts of negative parenting qualities of parents of autistic children. View this paper.
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Article
Criminality and Income Inequality in Indonesia
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030142 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
We investigate whether a nexus exists between income inequality and criminal activity in Indonesia. Additionally, we examine socioeconomic variables and potential links with criminal actions (i.e., crime rate, murder, rape, physical abuse, robbery, and fraud). We use the generalized method of moments (GMM) [...] Read more.
We investigate whether a nexus exists between income inequality and criminal activity in Indonesia. Additionally, we examine socioeconomic variables and potential links with criminal actions (i.e., crime rate, murder, rape, physical abuse, robbery, and fraud). We use the generalized method of moments (GMM) approach, employing data for 34 provinces in Indonesia over the period of 2010–2019. The results indicate that income inequality is associated with higher criminal activity. Overall, lower unemployment, larger investment (foreign and domestic), and higher human development (education and health) can help reduce crime in Indonesia. However, higher income can reduce physical abuse and crime rates, but theft and fraud increase with income growth. Rising unemployment increases rape, abuse, robbery, and fraud. Still, unemployment does not affect murder, suggesting that non-economic factors are dominant in explaining murder and violent crimes. Furthermore, income inequality can increase robbery and fraud, although it has no significant effects on murder, rape, and abuse. Government spending on social assistance and more efficient settlement of criminal acts can lower crime rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disparities in Criminal Justice, Race, Place and Police Violence)
Review
The Cult of the Child: A Critical Examination of Its Consequences on Parents, Teachers and Children
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030141 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3219
Abstract
The concept of the “cult of the child” highlights a radical change in child representation. Having been neglected and even disrespected for centuries, children are now valued, and their interests are placed above all others. This change in views of children, reflected in [...] Read more.
The concept of the “cult of the child” highlights a radical change in child representation. Having been neglected and even disrespected for centuries, children are now valued, and their interests are placed above all others. This change in views of children, reflected in changes in laws, institutions and practices, has also spread to two pillars of our democratic societies, the family and the school, with a number of consequences for parents, teachers and children. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the changes in thinking that have led to the cult of the child, (2) examine their consequences for children and parents, (3) examine their consequences for students and teachers, and (4) reflect on how to preserve the benefits of these changes while limiting the negative consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
Article
Co-Constructing Knowledge for Action in Research Practice Partnerships
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030140 - 20 Mar 2022
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Community-engaged research (CER) aspires to co-construct knowledge for action in groups that recognize people’s varied expertise and engage in democratic decision making. The CER literature has chronicled these processes in small participatory collectives but is less clear on the strategies or principles that [...] Read more.
Community-engaged research (CER) aspires to co-construct knowledge for action in groups that recognize people’s varied expertise and engage in democratic decision making. The CER literature has chronicled these processes in small participatory collectives but is less clear on the strategies or principles that guide collaborative approaches to data analysis in research partnerships that have hundreds of contributors playing distinct roles. The purpose of this paper is to critically assess and describe strategies for co-constructing knowledge with students and teachers who participated in a study that grew out of a broader research–practice partnership. In Part I of our findings, drawing on the concept of prefigurative experiments, we discuss the collaborative practices in our research team that took shape as we prepared data claims to share with students and teachers. In Part II, we discuss sessions interpreting the data with students and teachers in which they conveyed the emotional, embodied, and relational dimensions of student voice experiences. We conclude by discussing how this effort to be accountable to and in relationship with students and teachers, while incomplete on its own, spurred the design of new practices for democratizing data analysis and knowledge production in our research–practice partnership. Full article
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Article
Biopolitical Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Russia, France, Germany, and the UK: The “Post-Truth” Coverage by RT
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030139 - 18 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1092
Abstract
This paper seeks to examine the COVID-19 crisis in Russia, France, Germany, and the UK, as covered by the Russian state media outlet RT (formerly Russia Today). I view the RT coverage through the prism of biopolitics and critical discourse analysis (CDA) to [...] Read more.
This paper seeks to examine the COVID-19 crisis in Russia, France, Germany, and the UK, as covered by the Russian state media outlet RT (formerly Russia Today). I view the RT coverage through the prism of biopolitics and critical discourse analysis (CDA) to demonstrate multiple discrepancies in its “post-truth” knowledge production strategies. I argue that these strategies aim to expose the hybrid and controversial nature of biopolitical governance in Western democracies during the COVID-19 pandemic as they struggle to strike a balance between imposing social restrictions and safeguarding public health. I also show how the (post)liberal biopolitical debate on personal responsibility and state resilience in times of emergency could be applied by authoritarian regimes for self-description. Full article
Article
Poverty Risks after Relationship Dissolution and the Role of Children: A Contemporary Longitudinal Analysis of Seven OECD Countries
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030138 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The divorce literature has consistently found that—especially women—are negatively affected by relationship dissolution in terms of material wellbeing. There is, however, considerable debate on whether these effects are persistent or temporary. We use fixed effects models and control for the socioeconomic status of [...] Read more.
The divorce literature has consistently found that—especially women—are negatively affected by relationship dissolution in terms of material wellbeing. There is, however, considerable debate on whether these effects are persistent or temporary. We use fixed effects models and control for the socioeconomic status of individuals who separated between 2011 and 2018 in seven countries for which large scale longitudinal data has recently been harmonized in the Comparative Panel File. We find that the transitory nature of the effect of relationship dissolution on poverty risks for women is similar across countries, but also for some men. We further focus on the role of children in the immediate changes in poverty risks after separation, and again find significant differences between countries. We discuss these findings in light of social policies adopted by these countries, more specifically child and spousal support schemes. We find no distinguishable differences in these support schemes that adequately explain the observed dissimilarities. The implications of this study for the future study of the association between relationship dissolution and poverty are discussed and future pathways are suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Divorce and Life Course)
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Article
Linking COVID-19-Related Awareness and Anxiety as Determinants of Coping Strategies’ Utilization among Senior High School Teachers in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030137 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Cognitive-behavioral coping among teachers is an important issue of investigation due to the reported high prevalence of anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas several studies have assessed COVID-19 awareness of individuals as a predictor of anxiety, the moderating role of awareness in [...] Read more.
Cognitive-behavioral coping among teachers is an important issue of investigation due to the reported high prevalence of anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Whereas several studies have assessed COVID-19 awareness of individuals as a predictor of anxiety, the moderating role of awareness in anxiety and coping mechanisms remains unclear. The study primarily examined the nexus between awareness of COVID-19 and (a) anxiety and (b) coping strategies, including the interaction effect of COVID-19-related awareness in the link between anxiety and coping strategies among senior high school teachers. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was adopted to conveniently select 184 teachers from senior high schools in the Cape Coast Metropolis. Questionnaires were administered to the participants and data were analyzed with means, standard deviation, Pearson correlation, and linear regression statistical procedures. Summarily, the results revealed a negative relationship between COVID-19 awareness and anxiety levels of teachers. COVID-19-related anxiety significantly predicted coping mechanisms of teachers. Further, COVID-19 awareness significantly moderated the relationship between anxiety and coping strategies adopted. These findings imply that the public health education and mass awareness campaign programs on COVID-19 could act as buffers against the spread of COVID-19, its associated comorbidities, and help improve the mental health of teachers. Promoting adaptation to COVID-19 through the use of functional management strategies such as active coping and emotional support should be encouraged in the Cape Coast Metropolis among teachers. Full article
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Article
From Performance to Prison: The Case of Vera ‘Jacko’ Holme Analyzing Body Politics, Gendered Transgression and Socio-Political Identity of a Stage Actress, 1890–1914
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030136 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 858
Abstract
In Britain, during the nineteenth century the process of identity formation of a female performer was conditioned by a challenge towards the pre-existing gender norms that underwent a paradigmatic shift owing to the ‘new performative turn’. The story of Vera Holme popularly known [...] Read more.
In Britain, during the nineteenth century the process of identity formation of a female performer was conditioned by a challenge towards the pre-existing gender norms that underwent a paradigmatic shift owing to the ‘new performative turn’. The story of Vera Holme popularly known as ‘Jacko’, emanates from this very shift. Holme was an actress born in Lancashire in 1881. Often known as the ‘first female chauffeur of Britain’, she not only embodied the social, political and the sexual, but also imparted it through personal and dramatic means thereby challenging the ideology of separate gendered spheres much before the ideas of the ‘new Sapphic woman’ and ‘female masculinity’ came into being. Using the case study of Vera Holme, I study the socio-political identity of a stage actress who embodied gendered transgression across a time that permeated from her public life to private life and vice versa. Themes such as performativity, political theatre, deconstruction of sexuality and body politics become intrinsic in order to decipher the sexual lexicon of the time that fettered women on the condition of being socially and morally deviant. Utilizing the personal papers of Vera Holme, I posit her forays into theatre and politics, within this context, that will not only complicate the understanding of gendered transgressions but simultaneously will throw light on how theatricality socio-economically ‘enabled’ many women to break away from the existing normative patriarchal structures including Holme. Full article
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Article
Identifying Depression-Related Behavior on Facebook—An Experimental Study
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030135 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Depression is one of the major mental health problems in the world and the leading cause of disability worldwide. As people leave more and more digital traces in the online world, it becomes possible to detect depression-related behavior based on people’s online activities. [...] Read more.
Depression is one of the major mental health problems in the world and the leading cause of disability worldwide. As people leave more and more digital traces in the online world, it becomes possible to detect depression-related behavior based on people’s online activities. We use a novel Facebook study to identify possible non-textual elements of depression-related behavior in a social media environment. This study focuses on the relationship between depression and the volume and composition of Facebook friendship networks and the volume and temporal variability of Facebook activities. We also tried to establish a link between depression and the interest categories of the participants. The significant predictors were partly different for cognitive-affective depression and somatic depression. Earlier studies found that depressed people have a smaller online social network. We found the same pattern in the case of cognitive-affective depression. We also found that they posted less in others’ timelines, but we did not find that they posted more in their own timeline. Our study was the first to use the Facebook ads interest data to predict depression. Those who were classified into the less interest category by Facebook had higher depression levels on both scales. Full article
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Article
The Intensification of Parenting in Germany: The Role of Socioeconomic Background and Family Form
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030134 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Drawing on the international discourse on the intensification of parenting and new data from Germany, this paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the unique challenges that parents face in the 21st century. We used data from the survey “Parenthood Today”, [...] Read more.
Drawing on the international discourse on the intensification of parenting and new data from Germany, this paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the unique challenges that parents face in the 21st century. We used data from the survey “Parenthood Today”, which was conducted in 2019 to examine parents’ views on parenting in Germany. The data comprised standardized interviews with 1652 mothers and fathers. We focused on three dimensions of parental pressures: namely, time pressure, financial pressure, and pressure that emanates from the educational system. Time pressure referred to the pressure currently felt, whereas financial pressure and pressure from the educational system referred to changes across time. In each of these domains, more than 60% of the parents experienced high (time) or increasing (education and financial) pressure. Binary logistic regressions showed that while parental education was a strong predictor of experiencing an increase in financial pressure, parental education did not matter for other realms of parenting. However, employment and family form were strongly related to parental time pressure. Full-time employed lone mothers, but also non-resident fathers, reported experiencing heavy pressure when trying to balance their roles as a worker and as a carer. Our results draw attention to the importance of better integrating the needs of post-separation families, including of non-resident fathers, in the debate on the “intensification of parenting”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
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Article
Aesthetic Representation of Antisocial Personality Disorder in British Coming-of-Age TV Series
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030133 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1355
Abstract
TV series’ depictions of mental disorders have received considerable scholarly attention. However, few studies have considered the role of aesthetic elements in representing mental disorders. Therefore, in this study, we analysed how aesthetic features influence the representation of “psychopathy” in British coming-of-age TV [...] Read more.
TV series’ depictions of mental disorders have received considerable scholarly attention. However, few studies have considered the role of aesthetic elements in representing mental disorders. Therefore, in this study, we analysed how aesthetic features influence the representation of “psychopathy” in British coming-of-age TV series through the case study of The End of the F***ing World. We chose to analyse psychopathy due to its over-representation in the media and its often-mistaken conflation with the actual mental disorder of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). We applied an aesthetic methodology in our analysis. We analysed the series in terms of language, appearance, behaviour, music and sound, technical devices, and intertextuality, closely observing three sequences of various episodes that correspond to the character’s symptoms, diagnosis, medication, and treatment. Our findings show that the aesthetic characteristics, characters, and events of the plot can act as expressive means through which the experience of living with a mental disorder can be accurately represented and simultaneously entertain viewers with drama and suspense. The series challenges the reductionist perspective and previous stereotypes of audio–visual pieces related to ASPD, suggesting that future TV series can better represent mental disorders with the correct use of television aesthetics and cinematic devices. Full article
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Article
Beyond Inclusion: Cultivating a Critical Sense of Belonging through Community-Engaged Research
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030132 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 901
Abstract
A broad body of literature outlines the interventions to support underrepresented and minoritized students’ inclusion and sense of belonging into university contexts. In this paper, we explore how two first-generation students of color articulate a critical sense of belonging through their reflections as [...] Read more.
A broad body of literature outlines the interventions to support underrepresented and minoritized students’ inclusion and sense of belonging into university contexts. In this paper, we explore how two first-generation students of color articulate a critical sense of belonging through their reflections as student researchers in the Apprenticeship in Community-Engaged Research or (H)ACER program at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC). (H)ACER integrates community engagement, ethnographic sensibilities, critical race and decolonial theory, as well as women of color feminisms into a curriculum designed to train critical scholar-researchers. Through themes of feeling isolated on campus and returning ‘home’ in the garden, building comfort with academic theory, and navigating insider/outsider identities in campus/community contexts, we trace how the students developed an awareness of their positionality and made sense of their experiences of ‘belonging’, both within the campus and community contexts. Their narratives spark our deeper exploration into how critical approaches to community-engaged research may offer a pedagogy for supporting student sense of belonging that extends beyond inclusion, a promising vein of further research. Full article
Article
Employee Readiness for Organizational Change in the SME Internalization Process: The Case of a Medium-Sized Construction Company
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030131 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
A growing body of research, especially in the domain of psychology and business, is aimed at identifying the link between work-related factors and employee readiness to accept change. Moreover, change management is a topic that rapidly attracts the attention of the academic and [...] Read more.
A growing body of research, especially in the domain of psychology and business, is aimed at identifying the link between work-related factors and employee readiness to accept change. Moreover, change management is a topic that rapidly attracts the attention of the academic and business communities as well. Therefore, this study is conducted in order to identify the antecedents of the effective implementation of change(s) within a context of a medium-sized construction company that went through numerous changes during its lifetime. A total of 12 different hypotheses and sub-hypotheses was tested to better understand what factors affect employee readiness for change. A multiple regression analysis was used on a sample of 54 employees indicating that organizational commitment, career commitment, and job satisfaction positively affect employee readiness for organizational change. The research contributes to the fields of human resources, organizational psychology, management of small and medium-sized enterprises, and change management. Full article
Communication
How Data Mining Can Improve Road Safety in Cities
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030130 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Traffic collisions pose a serious problem for cities due to the annually increasing number of vehicles. Information about incidents that occur on roads is important for the corresponding monitoring bodies, authorities, and emergency services. To ensure traffic safety, the data have to be [...] Read more.
Traffic collisions pose a serious problem for cities due to the annually increasing number of vehicles. Information about incidents that occur on roads is important for the corresponding monitoring bodies, authorities, and emergency services. To ensure traffic safety, the data have to be visible, clean, and transparently displayed. This research was, therefore, aimed at developing a methodology for monitoring motor vehicle collision data and applying visualization techniques to evidence from New York City. The method showed that the largest number of motor vehicle traffic crashes occurred in Lower Manhattan due to its high population and traffic density. With these data, the road agencies of the city can put potentially dangerous road sections under control and make them safer for both drivers and pedestrians. Further development of the system may be associated with data analytics and visualization, resulting in new layers of heatmaps that not only provide details on car collision hotspots, which serve as the main target indicator for traffic safety authorities, but also break them down into social facilities, such as schools. This feature will enable assessment of how safe it is around a school and the evaluation of the impact of an underpass or a traffic enforcement camera on the number of collisions. The motor vehicle traffic crash (MVTC) monitoring system will help in comparing city districts and regions in terms of safety, seeing trends, realizing what exactly is happening at interchanges, and understanding the reasons behind. The methodology, in addition, can be supplemented with an analysis of risk factors for MVTCs, the efficiency of adopted measures and road renovations that are carried out, and many other functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Community and Urban Sociology)
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Article
Movement-Based Participatory Inquiry: The Multi-Voiced Story of the Survivors Justice Project
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030129 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 979
Abstract
We write as the Survivors Justice Project (SJP), a legal/organizing/social work/research collective born in the aftermath of the 2019 passage of the New York State Domestic Violence Survivors Justice Act (DVSJA), a law that allows judges to re-sentence survivors of domestic violence currently [...] Read more.
We write as the Survivors Justice Project (SJP), a legal/organizing/social work/research collective born in the aftermath of the 2019 passage of the New York State Domestic Violence Survivors Justice Act (DVSJA), a law that allows judges to re-sentence survivors of domestic violence currently in prison and to grant shorter terms or program alternatives to survivors upon their initial sentencing. Our work braids litigation, social research, advocacy, organizing, popular education, professional development for the legal and social work communities, and support for women in prison going through the DVSJA process and those recently released. We are organized to theorize and co-produce new knowledges about the gendered and racialized violence of the carceral state and, more specifically, to support women currently serving time in New York State to access/understand the law, submit petitions, and hopefully be freed. In this article we review our collective work engaged through research and action, bridging higher education and movements for decarceration through racial/gender/economic justice, and venture into three aspects of our praxis: epistemic justice in our internal dynamics; accountabilities and deep commitments to women still incarcerated and those recently released, even and especially during COVID-19; and delicate solidarities, exploring external relations with policy makers, judges, defense attorneys, advocates, and prosecutors in New York State, other states, and internationally. Full article
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Article
Negotiating Access to Health Care for All through Social and Political Accountability: A Qualitative Study in Rural Nigeria
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030128 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 800
Abstract
Social accountability is an important strategy towards ensuring that political leaders and actors implement the right policies in the interest of the entire society. In 2007, a community-based health insurance programme was implemented in selected rural communities in Kwara State, Nigeria, through collaboration [...] Read more.
Social accountability is an important strategy towards ensuring that political leaders and actors implement the right policies in the interest of the entire society. In 2007, a community-based health insurance programme was implemented in selected rural communities in Kwara State, Nigeria, through collaboration between the Dutch Health Insurance Fund, PharmAccess Foundation, the Kwara State Government, and Hygeia Nigeria Limited to provide access to basic healthcare for the people. After operating for 9 years, the programme stopped in 2016. This paper describes how social and political accountability shaped the introduction, functioning, and stoppage of the CBHI programme. The study adopted a qualitative approach for data collection, particularly in-depth (n = 22) and key informant interviews (n = 32). Findings indicate that the community-based health insurance programme was proposed by the foreign agency and that the state government was instrumental in the stoppage of the programme. Also, the change in government (via voting against a political bloc that had been in power since 2003) in Kwara State during the 2019 general elections was among the accountability measures employed by the citizenry in reaction to the stoppage of the Community-Based Health Insurance programme. The implication of this is that the current government, expectedly, will not only draw up a more robust healthcare policy for implementation but will also ensure that the people are carried along through adequate social and political accountability mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Policy and Welfare)
Article
How Being a Researcher Impacted My Life
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030127 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 816
Abstract
Doing research can help people to learn about a lot of different topics. For example, researchers can learn how to work in a group, collect and analyze data, how to make accessible materials, and get to know their own strengths. In this paper, [...] Read more.
Doing research can help people to learn about a lot of different topics. For example, researchers can learn how to work in a group, collect and analyze data, how to make accessible materials, and get to know their own strengths. In this paper, a researcher shares what she learned while working on two research projects about young adults with intellectual/developmental disabilities and co-occurring mental health conditions. The first project was peer mentoring. In this project, we focused on individual needs for someone who may be struggling with mental health. The second project was about workplace disclosure. In this project, we tried to find out if young adults disclose their mental health conditions at work and in job interviews. We explain how we did the projects, how the researcher learned to do research, and what made it easy to learn. We also share about the impact of doing research on the researcher’s personal life. Finally, we share why doing inclusive research is important and how to help researchers with disabilities feel like they are valued members of the research team. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?)
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Article
Predicting Frequent and Feared Crime Typologies: Individual and Social/Environmental Variables, and Incivilities
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030126 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 895
Abstract
The lack of organisation in urban spaces plays a decisive role in the level of integration, communication and social bonds of the residents, impacting the citizens’ feelings of trust and security. Different personal variables and contextual characteristics have been associated with the fear [...] Read more.
The lack of organisation in urban spaces plays a decisive role in the level of integration, communication and social bonds of the residents, impacting the citizens’ feelings of trust and security. Different personal variables and contextual characteristics have been associated with the fear of crime (FOC). The main objective of this study is to analyse how individual and social/environmental variables, and incivilities, predict crime against people and property, crime that has either happened or is feared to happen. Five hundred and fifty-four residents (M = 43.82; SD = 18.38) in the Historic Centre of Porto (HCP), Portugal, answered 61 items of the Diagnosis of Local Security (DLS) Questionnaire. The results of this study show that in the most frequent crime category, 72% of occurrences represent crime against property. In the feared crime category, there is a preponderance of crime against people (61%). Age of the respondents predicted the most frequent and feared crime, while sex predicted the most feared crime only. Social/environmental variables, as well as incivilities, also predict the frequent and feared crime in two typologies, i.e., crime against people and crime against property. Practical implications to reduce FOC and areas for further investigation are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Violence, Victimization and Prevention)
Article
Competencies Development: The Role of Organizational Commitment and the Perception of Employability
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030125 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 978
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to analyze the mediating effect of perceived employability (internal and external) and the organizational commitment in the relationship between the organizational practices of competencies development (OPCD) and the turnover intentions. The sample consists of 2099 participants, [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to analyze the mediating effect of perceived employability (internal and external) and the organizational commitment in the relationship between the organizational practices of competencies development (OPCD) and the turnover intentions. The sample consists of 2099 participants, all of them working in organizations based in Portuguese territory. The existence of a significant and negative effect of the OPCD, of perceived internal employability and the organizational commitment in the turnover intentions, has been proven. There was also a significant and positive effect of perceived external employability on turnover intentions. Finally, the serial mediating effect of perceived employability and organizational commitment in the relationship between OPCD and turnover intentions was proven. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
Theorizing People of Mixed Race in the Pacific and the Atlantic
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030124 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 875
Abstract
The most extensive theoretic and empirical studies of people of mixed racial descent extant today have addressed nations across the Atlantic. This article reveals how this literature on people of mixed racial descent is limited in its claims to represent a “global model”. [...] Read more.
The most extensive theoretic and empirical studies of people of mixed racial descent extant today have addressed nations across the Atlantic. This article reveals how this literature on people of mixed racial descent is limited in its claims to represent a “global model”. In contrast, we argue that by juxtaposing institutional factors in the Atlantic region and Japan we can expand our understanding of people of mixed racial descent across a far wider range of social and political terrains. A consideration of Japan uncovers a fascinating combination of factors impactful in the emergence of populations of mixed origins in the Pacific region more generally. By identifying this range of variables, we believe this analysis can be instructive for scholars of race focusing on the Atlantic and can contribute to a more encompassing approach for theorizing people of mixed racial descent. Full article
Article
What Is the Flag We Rally Around? Trust in Information Sources at the Outset of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Latvia
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030123 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 928
Abstract
Trust in information sources about COVID-19 may influence the public attitude toward the disease and the imposed restrictions, thus determining the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in a given country. Acknowledging an increase in trust in the government or the so-called rally ‘round [...] Read more.
Trust in information sources about COVID-19 may influence the public attitude toward the disease and the imposed restrictions, thus determining the course of the COVID-19 pandemic in a given country. Acknowledging an increase in trust in the government or the so-called rally ‘round the flag’ effect around the world at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study explores possible determinants of this effect in Latvia, looking at such variables as the perceived disease risk, gender, age, education, income, and language spoken in the family. Presuming that risk perception may be amplified by trust in various information sources, we investigate a spill-over of the rally ‘round the flag’ effect on healthcare professionals, media, and interpersonal networks. Studying data from a nationally representative sociological survey conducted in September 2020, we confirm a positive relationship between trust in all information sources, except friends, relatives, and colleagues, and perceived disease risk. Correlations are also strong regarding trust in almost all information sources and the measured socio-demographic variables, except gender. Interpersonal trust seems to be relatively stable, and in most cases the correlations are statistically insignificant. With this study we suggest that increase in trust in government institutions as well as other information sources, even in crisis situations, does not depend on any single element, but instead presents a more complex phenomenon. Full article
Article
Social Innovation Impacts and Their Assessment: An Exploratory Study of a Social Innovation Initiative from a Portuguese Rural Region
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030122 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Over recent decades, various approaches to social innovation (SI) have been developed. At the same time, the question on how SI can contribute to and can impact the development of rural regions still remains only partially answered. One of the research gaps that [...] Read more.
Over recent decades, various approaches to social innovation (SI) have been developed. At the same time, the question on how SI can contribute to and can impact the development of rural regions still remains only partially answered. One of the research gaps that remains addressed only to a certain extent is associated with the ways in which impacts produced by SI can be assessed. Such research, focusing on SI impacts in rural contexts is even more scarce. In the current paper, an attempt is made to investigate the impacts of an SI initiative operating in the field of integrated rural development. The study takes on a case study design focusing on ADC Moura, a local development association from Baixo Alentejo, Portugal. The results show that the impacts of said SI initiative have a multi-sectoral and multi-durational nature and transcend sectors and address multiple domains (social, economic, institutional, and environmental), with the SI initiative having the most impacts on the local level of the municipality. In addition to this, the paper provides some ideas for further research. Full article
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Article
Experiences of Inclusive Action and Social Design Research with Social Workers and People with Intellectual Disabilities
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030121 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 970
Abstract
In this study, we report on a two-year experience of inclusive participative action and social design research consisting of intensive collaboration between social workers, people with intellectual disabilities and researchers. Action research and design research are attunable and lend themselves to an inclusive [...] Read more.
In this study, we report on a two-year experience of inclusive participative action and social design research consisting of intensive collaboration between social workers, people with intellectual disabilities and researchers. Action research and design research are attunable and lend themselves to an inclusive approach aimed at knowledge development and change in practice. Social workers and people with intellectual disabilities were involved in a community of development. They became owners of the subject matter and the answers and solutions they designed. We conclude that an inclusive approach lends itself well to combining or even merging action research and social design research. Inclusive participative action and social design research cannot be standardized since it contains a particularly emergent process. Hence, it requires flexibility and creativity in finding ways to create an inclusive process of co-creation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusive Research: Is the Road More or Less Well Travelled?)
Article
Marriage, Parentage and Child Registration in Iran: Legal Status of Children of Unmarried Parents
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030120 - 10 Mar 2022
Viewed by 831
Abstract
In the contemporary legal system in Iran, child registration is closely tied to Islamic marriage. The Civil Registration Law foresees a process for registering a child born to Islamically married parents. This raises the question of what happens to children whose parents are [...] Read more.
In the contemporary legal system in Iran, child registration is closely tied to Islamic marriage. The Civil Registration Law foresees a process for registering a child born to Islamically married parents. This raises the question of what happens to children whose parents are not married. This paper uses literature review and content analysis methods and focuses on the Iranian law, press and media pieces, Shi’i rulings, and academic literature on child ‘legitimacy’ and the unregistered child phenomenon to answer this question. I explore the relationship between Iran’s marriage and parentage law and the child registration process. The paper discusses the consequences of rendering children legally ‘illegitimate’ for children’s rights. The conclusion addresses the potential in the Shi’i school of Islam to improve religious rulings and, consequently, the possibility of changing discriminatory laws regarding the rights of children born to unmarried parents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children and Youth Studies)
Article
Parenting Challenges and Opportunities among Families Living in Poverty
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030119 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Poverty-related stressors have been found to impact parenting behaviors which can result in adverse outcomes for children. The current qualitative study focused on understanding the challenges of caregivers (N = 70) living in poverty. The sample was diverse and included mothers, fathers, and [...] Read more.
Poverty-related stressors have been found to impact parenting behaviors which can result in adverse outcomes for children. The current qualitative study focused on understanding the challenges of caregivers (N = 70) living in poverty. The sample was diverse and included mothers, fathers, and grandparents raising grandchildren. Stories of caregivers were gathered to improve the understanding of families living in poverty in an effort to work towards changing how our world supports families that are vulnerable. Results indicate that families experiencing poverty and related risk factors experience challenges in the realm of child safety, education, and racism/prejudice. Families also discussed ways to improve their environment which included increased financial resources, increased access to high-quality healthcare and childcare, and positive environmental change. Note that the current study outlines the complexity of parenting in poverty and that associated challenges are intertwined. Recommendations are made to address systemic barriers at the individual and community level in an effort to better support caregivers experiencing adversity and parenting in the 21st century. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenting in the 21st Century)
Article
Interrogating the ‘White-Leaning’ Thesis of White–Asian Multiracials
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030118 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
The study of multiracial people in the United States has typically focused on the experiences of Black–White racially-mixed individuals. In this article, we review and analyze the theoretical and evidence base for the White-leaning characterization of Asian–White multiracials. Historically, Asian Americans have been [...] Read more.
The study of multiracial people in the United States has typically focused on the experiences of Black–White racially-mixed individuals. In this article, we review and analyze the theoretical and evidence base for the White-leaning characterization of Asian–White multiracials. Historically, Asian Americans have been positioned as a “racial middle” group in relation to White and Black Americans. In line with this perceived racial position, Asian–White multiracials have been generally characterized as being more White than Black–White multiracials, as well as “leaning White” in terms of self-identification. While there is growing recognition of the variability of experiences among Black–White multiracials, the depiction of Asian multiracials as White-leaning—though based on limited empirical evidence—continues to be prominent, revealing the tendency to view Asian–White individuals through a “White racial frame.” The racial identifications and experiences of Asian–White multiracials are far more complex than such a view suggests. We argue for the need to advance studies on Asian mixed-race people to accurately capture their racial positioning within a system of White supremacy, including the diversity of their identifications, political views, and racialized experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiracial Identities and Experiences in/under White Supremacy)
Article
Disaster Resilience Differs between Survivors and Victims’ Families: A Semantic Network Analysis
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030117 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 985
Abstract
The main purpose of this study is to clarify the difference in disaster resilience between survivors and victims’ families by analyzing the language used in popular literature on disaster cases. The results showed that there were differences in emotions, behaviors, attitudes, role perceptions, [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study is to clarify the difference in disaster resilience between survivors and victims’ families by analyzing the language used in popular literature on disaster cases. The results showed that there were differences in emotions, behaviors, attitudes, role perceptions, etc., between survivors and victims’ families in dealing with a disaster. In particular, survivors remember and think about the situation that occurred at the time of the disaster, which creates resilience to the incident, while victims’ families attempt to establish resilience to the incident by investigating the facts and government countermeasures. While survivors were focused on building their own resilience, victims’ families were more focused on improving government countermeasures to prevent such accidents from recurring. This can be considered as social or national resilience. Based on this comparative analysis, it is necessary to prepare various theoretical foundations for disaster preparedness and resilience, while further elaborating the theory. Full article
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Article
The Geography of Jobs: How Proximity to a Prestige Labor Market Shapes Opportunity for Computer Science Degree Holders
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030116 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 872
Abstract
A computer science degree is seen as a good investment, given the lucrative calling of Silicon Valley and the ever-growing demand for software engineers. Yet, it is unclear whether all computer science degree holders fare equally well on the job market. This study [...] Read more.
A computer science degree is seen as a good investment, given the lucrative calling of Silicon Valley and the ever-growing demand for software engineers. Yet, it is unclear whether all computer science degree holders fare equally well on the job market. This study explores how the routing of computer science (CS) students to specific educational geographies plays a major role in determining their career trajectories post-graduation. Using a new survey for recent computer science graduates of three public universities in Texas, I measure labor market outcomes for CS degree holders along three metrics: salary, job location, and job title. Results from 157 respondents show that alumni from universities near a major tech hub are more likely to earn higher wages in desirable job markets compared with graduates from a university located far from a dense tech hub. Although most previous studies have focused on gender and racial disparities within the high-tech industry, I provide a new lens to understand how inequality manifests through geographic segregation and leaves even high-skilled job seekers vulnerable to spatial mismatch between their place of residence and proximity to desirable, elite jobs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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Article
STIHL Timbersports® and the Reconceptualization of Modern Sport in the Light of Decontextualization and Eventification of Forestry Work
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030115 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1256
Abstract
This article examines STIHL Timbersports® and its amalgamation of craftmanship, competition, eventification and branding, through the lens of decontextualization of sport. It thus revisits and revitalizes the concept of sportification, as well as discusses the characteristics of sport such as authenticity and [...] Read more.
This article examines STIHL Timbersports® and its amalgamation of craftmanship, competition, eventification and branding, through the lens of decontextualization of sport. It thus revisits and revitalizes the concept of sportification, as well as discusses the characteristics of sport such as authenticity and “uncertainty of outcome”. The aim of the article is to grasp the different processes that challenge our common positions regarding sport, which may in turn progress sport beyond the prevalent conceptualization of modern sport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rethinking Sport and Social Issues)
Article
Post-Separation Physical Custody Arrangements in Germany: Examining Sociodemographic Correlates, Parental Coparenting, and Child Adjustment
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030114 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Most children continue to live with their mother after a divorce or separation, yet paternal involvement in post-separation families has increased substantially in many Western nations. This shift has contributed to a growing share and more diverse set of post-separation parents opting for [...] Read more.
Most children continue to live with their mother after a divorce or separation, yet paternal involvement in post-separation families has increased substantially in many Western nations. This shift has contributed to a growing share and more diverse set of post-separation parents opting for shared physical custody (SPC), which typically means that children alternate between the parental residences for substantive amounts of time. Profiling the case of Germany, where no legal regulations facilitating SPC are implemented to date, we examine the prevalence of SPC families, sociodemographic correlates of SPC, and its associations with parental coparenting and child adjustment. Using representative survey data sampled in 2019 (N = 800 minors of 509 separated parents), results revealed that only 6–8% of children practiced SPC. SPC parents were more likely to hold tertiary levels of schooling and to report a better coparenting relationship with the other parent. There was no link between SPC and child adjustment, yet conflictual coparenting was linked to higher levels of hyperactivity among SPC children. We conclude that the social selection into SPC and linkages between conflictual coparenting and hyperactivity among SPC children likely stem from the higher costs and the constant level of communication between the ex-partners that SPC requires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Divorce and Life Course)
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Review
Family Context, Parenting and Child Development: An Epigenetic Approach
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11030113 - 08 Mar 2022
Viewed by 967
Abstract
This paper presents an essay that uses an epigenetic approach to attain an inclusive and in-depth understanding of the influence of family context and quality of parenting on children’s psychological development. Based on the identification of a key developmental process in which interactions [...] Read more.
This paper presents an essay that uses an epigenetic approach to attain an inclusive and in-depth understanding of the influence of family context and quality of parenting on children’s psychological development. Based on the identification of a key developmental process in which interactions are continuously internalised, the approach draws attention to the bidirectional and systemic nature of intrafamily and parenting interactions and highlights the multiple factors that influence them, which are linked to the developmental history of the species, the individual characteristics of both the child and their parents, and contextual variables. In response to these internalised interactions, the body activates epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, which may affect the phenotypic expression of the genome. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed in light of the current process of identifying the biological profiles underlying negative and positive parenting practices. Some insights are offered regarding the challenges and opportunities that parents and policymakers should address in the 21st century in connection with the promotion of positive parenting, taking into account the epigenetic processes triggered by adverse environments for children and their families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Family Studies)
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