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Arts, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Circling Round Vitruvius, Linear Perspective, and the Design of Roman Wall Painting
Arts 2019, 8(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030118 (registering DOI) - 14 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Many scholars believe that linear perspective existed in classical antiquity, but a fresh examination of two key texts in Vitruvius shows that 1.2.2 is about modularity and symmetria, while 7.Pr.11 describes shading (skiagraphia). Moreover, these new interpretations are firmly based on the classical [...] Read more.
Many scholars believe that linear perspective existed in classical antiquity, but a fresh examination of two key texts in Vitruvius shows that 1.2.2 is about modularity and symmetria, while 7.Pr.11 describes shading (skiagraphia). Moreover, these new interpretations are firmly based on the classical understanding of optics and the history of painting (e.g., Pliny the Elder). A third text (Philostratus, Imagines 1.4.2) suggests that the design of Roman wall painting depends on concentric circles. Philostratus’ system is then used to successfully make facsimiles of five walls, representing Styles II, III, and IV of Roman wall painting. Hence, linear perspective and its relatives, such as Panofsky’s vanishing vertical axis, should not be imposed retrospectively where they never existed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ancient Mediterranean Painting (vol. 2))
Open AccessArticle
The Silent Researcher Critique: A New Method for Obtaining a Critical Response to a Holographic Artwork
Arts 2019, 8(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030117 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 134
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to provide a plausible answer as to whether the Z-axis of holographic space can be used to depict a chronological narrative with an affective impact. This article describes a practice-based holographic arts study in which the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to provide a plausible answer as to whether the Z-axis of holographic space can be used to depict a chronological narrative with an affective impact. This article describes a practice-based holographic arts study in which the author created interactive artworks with family photographs taken from the late 1800s to the present day, and stacked them in chronological order within the Z-axis of holographic space. The artworks were evaluated by different audiences to determine whether the viewer could perceive the new application of holographic space, and whether the artwork had an affective impact. An art critique method used both in Higher Education settings in the UK and in professional art practice, was adapted as a research tool for use in this study and termed ‘the silent researcher critique’. The findings of the project were that audiences had a new experience when interacting with the works and were impacted emotionally by them, however only a group of experts in art and holography were able to identify and comprehend the new conceptual use of the Z-axis of holographic space. This study’s value can be measured by its offering practice-based arts researchers a novel method of obtaining valuable critical feedback from peers and by its contribution to the aesthetic development of the medium of art holography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography—A Critical Debate within Contemporary Visual Culture)
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Open AccessArticle
Time and Mobility in Photographs of the Northeast Industrial Landscape
Arts 2019, 8(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030116 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 147
Abstract
This paper addresses documentary landscape photographs of the industrial and post-industrial Northeast of England from 1983 to 2005. Adopting a “mobilities” approach, this paper addresses these images as revealing a process, in which the movement of things and people, on multiple scales and [...] Read more.
This paper addresses documentary landscape photographs of the industrial and post-industrial Northeast of England from 1983 to 2005. Adopting a “mobilities” approach, this paper addresses these images as revealing a process, in which the movement of things and people, on multiple scales and timeframes, continually adapts space and the subjectivities of the people inhabiting it. The representation of mobility is considered in relation to issues of time in the photograph and it proposes one approaches these images not as static representations of a singular time and place but as part of an extended “event”. This interpretation was suggested by Ariella Azoulay and the approach encompasses the historical circumstances of their making, in addition to the multiple viewing positions of their consumption. As such, these photographs suggest an ongoing relationship between power, movement and dwelling. The paper advocates for a contemplative, relational viewing position, in which viewers consider their own spatio-temporal and socio-political position in regard to those landscapes, as well as a continuum of mobilities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Artificial Intelligence and Music: Open Questions of Copyright Law and Engineering Praxis
Arts 2019, 8(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030115 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 299
Abstract
The application of artificial intelligence (AI) to music stretches back many decades, and presents numerous unique opportunities for a variety of uses, such as the recommendation of recorded music from massive commercial archives, or the (semi-)automated creation of music. Due to unparalleled access [...] Read more.
The application of artificial intelligence (AI) to music stretches back many decades, and presents numerous unique opportunities for a variety of uses, such as the recommendation of recorded music from massive commercial archives, or the (semi-)automated creation of music. Due to unparalleled access to music data and effective learning algorithms running on high-powered computational hardware, AI is now producing surprising outcomes in a domain fully entrenched in human creativity—not to mention a revenue source around the globe. These developments call for a close inspection of what is occurring, and consideration of how it is changing and can change our relationship with music for better and for worse. This article looks at AI applied to music from two perspectives: copyright law and engineering praxis. It grounds its discussion in the development and use of a specific application of AI in music creation, which raises further and unanticipated questions. Most of the questions collected in this article are open as their answers are not yet clear at this time, but they are nonetheless important to consider as AI technologies develop and are applied more widely to music, not to mention other domains centred on human creativity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and the Machine: Contemporary Music Production)
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Open AccessArticle
Reframing the Horizon within the Algorithmic Landscape of Northern Britain
Arts 2019, 8(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030114 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Emerging from the artist’s constructed photographs and walking projects in the north, this paper considers the tension between the photograph as a fixed composition of the world and the dynamic image constructed from data. Whereas arguably, the traditional photograph exhibits a stable relationship [...] Read more.
Emerging from the artist’s constructed photographs and walking projects in the north, this paper considers the tension between the photograph as a fixed composition of the world and the dynamic image constructed from data. Whereas arguably, the traditional photograph exhibits a stable relationship between the world and the image, the constructed photograph shifts the focus onto the underlying algorithmic processes of production. This focus on the relational nature of the constructed photograph shifts our gaze from the horizon to the underlying systems in operation as we consider the relational nature of data as a photograph. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A New Orthodox Synagogue in Manhattan: Decision-Making and Design
Arts 2019, 8(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030113 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The Lincoln Square Synagogue, the largest Orthodox synagogue built in Manhattan during the last half century, was established in 1964 but moved in 2013 to a new building nearby, designed after the firm of CetraRuddy Architects, won a design competition. The present article [...] Read more.
The Lincoln Square Synagogue, the largest Orthodox synagogue built in Manhattan during the last half century, was established in 1964 but moved in 2013 to a new building nearby, designed after the firm of CetraRuddy Architects, won a design competition. The present article is based on interviews with building committee members, the rabbi, and the architects as well as on press accounts and a book about the congregation’s history. The article recounts the process of designing the building, assesses the successful results, and provides future building committee members with ideas, caveats, and evaluations of design procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synagogue Art and Architecture)
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Open AccessArticle
User-Influenced/Machine-Controlled Playback: The variPlay Music App Format for Interactive Recorded Music
Arts 2019, 8(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030112 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 238
Abstract
This paper concerns itself with an autoethnography of the five-year ‘variPlay’ project. This project drew from three consecutive rounds of research funding to develop an app format that could host both user interactivity to change the sound of recorded music in real-time, and [...] Read more.
This paper concerns itself with an autoethnography of the five-year ‘variPlay’ project. This project drew from three consecutive rounds of research funding to develop an app format that could host both user interactivity to change the sound of recorded music in real-time, and a machine-driven mode that could autonomously remix, playing back a different version of a song upon every listen, or changing part way on user demand. The final funded phase involved commercialization, with the release of three apps using artists from the roster of project partner, Warner Music Group. The concept and operation of the app is discussed, alongside reflection on salient matters such as product development, music production, mastering, and issues encountered through the commercialization itself. The final apps received several thousand downloads around the world, in territories such as France, USA, and Mexico. Opportunities for future development are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and the Machine: Contemporary Music Production)
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Open AccessArticle
The Persistence of Primitivism: Equivocation in Ernesto Neto’s A Sacred Place and Critical Practice
Arts 2019, 8(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030111 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 214
Abstract
During the 2017 Venice Biennale, the area dubbed the “Pavilion of the Shamans” opened with A Sacred Place, an immersive environmental work created by the Brazilian artist Ernesto Neto in collaboration with the Huni Kuin, a native people of the Amazon rainforest. [...] Read more.
During the 2017 Venice Biennale, the area dubbed the “Pavilion of the Shamans” opened with A Sacred Place, an immersive environmental work created by the Brazilian artist Ernesto Neto in collaboration with the Huni Kuin, a native people of the Amazon rainforest. Despite the co-authorship of the installation, the artwork was dismissed by art critics as engaging in primitivism and colonialism. Borrowing anthropologist Eduardo Viveiros de Castro’s concept of equivocation, this article examines the incorporation of both indigenous and contemporary art practices in A Sacred Place. The text ultimately argues that a more equivocal, open interpretation of the work could lead to a better understanding of the work and a more self-reflexive global art history that can look at and learn from at its own comparative limitations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decolonizing Contemporary Latin American Art)
Open AccessArticle
Learning to Build Natural Audio Production Interfaces
Arts 2019, 8(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030110 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Improving audio production tools provides a great opportunity for meaningful enhancement of creative activities due to the disconnect between existing tools and the conceptual frameworks within which many people work. In our work, we focus on bridging the gap between the intentions of [...] Read more.
Improving audio production tools provides a great opportunity for meaningful enhancement of creative activities due to the disconnect between existing tools and the conceptual frameworks within which many people work. In our work, we focus on bridging the gap between the intentions of both amateur and professional musicians and the audio manipulation tools available through software. Rather than force nonintuitive interactions, or remove control altogether, we reframe the controls to work within the interaction paradigms identified by research done on how audio engineers and musicians communicate auditory concepts to each other: evaluative feedback, natural language, vocal imitation, and exploration. In this article, we provide an overview of our research on building audio production tools, such as mixers and equalizers, to support these kinds of interactions. We describe the learning algorithms, design approaches, and software that support these interaction paradigms in the context of music and audio production. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the interaction approach we describe in comparison with existing control paradigms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and the Machine: Contemporary Music Production)
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Open AccessEditorial
From the Memory Books of Josely Carvalho
Arts 2019, 8(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030109 - 28 Aug 2019
Viewed by 286
Abstract
In this interview, Brazilian-born multi-media artist Josely Carvalho (b. 1942) reflects back on her art making practice in the 1980s. Among the subjects that she addresses are her bi-nationalism, her use of the silkscreen process, and her association with the 1984 activist campaign [...] Read more.
In this interview, Brazilian-born multi-media artist Josely Carvalho (b. 1942) reflects back on her art making practice in the 1980s. Among the subjects that she addresses are her bi-nationalism, her use of the silkscreen process, and her association with the 1984 activist campaign Artists Call Against U.S. Intervention in Central America. She also speaks about working as a Latin American artist in New York City during this period, as well as her involvement with galleries and arts organizations such as St. Mark’s Church-in-the-Bowery, Central Hall Cooperative Gallery, and Franklin Furnace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decolonizing Contemporary Latin American Art)
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Open AccessEssay
Weegee, Standing By
Arts 2019, 8(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030108 - 26 Aug 2019
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Informed by an interesting recent infrastructuralist turn in media studies and by an expanding sense among historians and theorists of photography of what might properly delimit the photographer’s toolkit, this essay considers aspects of the photography of Weegee, as these can be observed [...] Read more.
Informed by an interesting recent infrastructuralist turn in media studies and by an expanding sense among historians and theorists of photography of what might properly delimit the photographer’s toolkit, this essay considers aspects of the photography of Weegee, as these can be observed to issue from that photographer’s deep professional embeddedness in specific media-infrastructural conditions of the place and time he most productively inhabited: New York City in the early 1940s. This essay prompts questions (and hazards some answers) concerning the stakes of Weegee’s press-photographic engagements with the material, electronic, and atmospheric infrastructures of wartime dairy delivery, underground transport, and, most urgently, policing, so to better understand the fit of his pictures to the world they so cleverly described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Street Photography Reframed)
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Open AccessArticle
Situational Ecumenism: The Architecture of Jewish Student Centers on American University Campuses
Arts 2019, 8(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030107 - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Since the start of the 20th century, the presence of Jewish students on American university campuses required accommodation of their religious practices. Jewish activities, including prayer, took place in existing campus buildings designed for other purposes. Eventually, at some universities, facilities were built [...] Read more.
Since the start of the 20th century, the presence of Jewish students on American university campuses required accommodation of their religious practices. Jewish activities, including prayer, took place in existing campus buildings designed for other purposes. Eventually, at some universities, facilities were built to serve Jewish religious and social needs. These Jewish Student Centers, which include worship spaces yet are typologically different from synagogues, generally have to accommodate the diverse religious streams that characterize Jewish life in the United States. To do so, both architects and Jewish organizations have adapted the idea of ecumenism, by which related sects seek unity through fellowship and dialogue, not doctrinal agreement. Three examples—at Yale, Duke University, and the University of California San Diego—demonstrate differently the situational ecumenism at the core of their designs. These buildings, and other Jewish Student Centers elsewhere, make visible the intersection between American collegiate and Jewish religious values, variously defined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synagogue Art and Architecture)
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Open AccessEssay
Curating The American Algorists: Digital Art and National Identity
Arts 2019, 8(3), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030106 - 21 Aug 2019
Viewed by 334
Abstract
This essay details the curating strategies and central premise behind the 2013 traveling exhibition The American Algorists: Linear Sublime. This group exhibition, which showcased the artwork of Jean-Pierre Hébert, Manfred Mohr, Roman Verostko, and Mark Wilson, marked the 20th anniversary of New [...] Read more.
This essay details the curating strategies and central premise behind the 2013 traveling exhibition The American Algorists: Linear Sublime. This group exhibition, which showcased the artwork of Jean-Pierre Hébert, Manfred Mohr, Roman Verostko, and Mark Wilson, marked the 20th anniversary of New York Digital Salon. In organizing this exhibit, I attempted to expand the discourse of digital art curation by linking the Algorists, a group formed at the Los Angeles SIGGRAPH conference in 1995, to the broader narrative of American art. Through the exhibition catalogue, I constructed a detailed history of the Algorists and connected the movement’s narrative to ideas of national identity and myth. To cultivate this nexus, I interpreted the Algorists’ unique approach to linear abstraction through the various theories of the sublime active within the history of American art. Ultimately, this case study reveals the incongruities of aligning this group of digital artists—who shared a decidedly internationalist outlook—with a national narrative. While the Algorists resisted parochial characterizations, the concept of the sublime provided a useful vehicle for theorizing the aesthetic response to computer-generated abstraction. The travelling exhibition also offered a potential model, based on effective partnerships and resource sharing, for small college and university galleries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art Curation: Challenges in the Digital Age)
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Open AccessEditorial
Art Markets and Digital Histories
Arts 2019, 8(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030105 - 21 Aug 2019
Viewed by 248
Abstract
This Special Issue of Arts investigates the use of digital methods in the study of art markets and their histories. Digital art history or historical research facilitated by computer-technology in general is omnipresent in academia and increasingly supported by an infrastructure of seminars, [...] Read more.
This Special Issue of Arts investigates the use of digital methods in the study of art markets and their histories. Digital art history or historical research facilitated by computer-technology in general is omnipresent in academia and increasingly supported by an infrastructure of seminars, workshops, networks, journals and other platforms for sharing results, exchanging notes and developing criticism. As the wealth of historical and contemporary data is rapidly expanding and digital technologies are becoming integral to research in the humanities and social sciences, it is high time to reflect on the different strategies that art market scholars employ to navigate and negotiate digital techniques and resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art Markets and Digital Histories)
Open AccessArticle
On Watery Borders, Borderlands, and Tania Kovats’ Head to Mouth
Arts 2019, 8(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030104 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 340
Abstract
With a relational view of landscapes and natural environments as continuously “in process” and formed from the over-layered and interdependent connections between nature and culture, the human and the non-human, this paper considers some recent practices by artists who have worked in the [...] Read more.
With a relational view of landscapes and natural environments as continuously “in process” and formed from the over-layered and interdependent connections between nature and culture, the human and the non-human, this paper considers some recent practices by artists who have worked in the largely rural border region of Northern England and Southern Scotland. Expanding from a focus on the artist Tania Kovats’ 2019 Berwick Visual Arts exhibition, Head to Mouth, and a wider frame of non-anthropocentric ecological thought in relation to the visual arts, it explores the significance of diverse creative engagements with water, here with the River Tweed, and their potential value in a current cross-border context of social and environmental challenges and concern. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reflection, Ritual, and Memory in the Late Roman Painted Hypogea at Sardis
Arts 2019, 8(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030103 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Wall painting in the Sardis hypogea expresses a regional visual language situated within the context of Late Antique approaches to decorative surfaces and multivalent motifs of indeterminate religious affiliation. Iconographic ambivalence and a typically Late Antique absence of illusionism creates a supranatural world [...] Read more.
Wall painting in the Sardis hypogea expresses a regional visual language situated within the context of Late Antique approaches to decorative surfaces and multivalent motifs of indeterminate religious affiliation. Iconographic ambivalence and a typically Late Antique absence of illusionism creates a supranatural world that is grounded in the familiar imagery of home and gardens but does not quite reflect the natural world. Ubiquitous and mundane motifs were thus elevated and potentially charged with polysemic allusions to funerary practice and belief. Twelve fourth century C.E. hypogea form a distinctive corpus with a largely homogenous decorative program of scattered flowers, garlands, baskets, and birds. Related imagery is common throughout the larger Roman world, but compositional parallels from Western Anatolia suggest a particularly local visual vocabulary. The chronologically, geographically, and typologically discrete nature of the Sardis corpus set it apart from the standard of Rome while underscoring commonalities in late Roman funerary decoration and ritual. The painted imagery evoked funerary processes and ongoing social negotiation between the living and the deceased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ancient Mediterranean Painting (vol. 2))
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Open AccessEssay
Holographic Reconstruction of Objects in a Mixed-Reality, Post-Truth Era: A Personal Essay
Arts 2019, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030102 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The ephemeral holographic image is an appropriate medium to express the nature of reality and illusion, an early interest I explored with trompe-l’œil painting. To make a representational hologram, one needs a worthy object to copy, and one that is hand-made by the [...] Read more.
The ephemeral holographic image is an appropriate medium to express the nature of reality and illusion, an early interest I explored with trompe-l’œil painting. To make a representational hologram, one needs a worthy object to copy, and one that is hand-made by the artist adds to the unity of the work. The resulting copy physically resembles the original, and when both are placed together in the final composition, the material object now has an immaterial, metaphysical presence one could identify as soul. In this paper, I present a recent artwork that exhibits these characteristics, and the theme of Reality, Truth and Lie is firmly placed within the current political context. The historical background to my work, relevant aspects of the technical process, and closer analysis of the ambiguities inherent in the hologram are all noted in my narrative, and I add my own personal comments and opinions. One invaluable source has been the published accounts of other artists/holographers who describe their own experience in holography, a medium that fuels ideas rather than being only a tool to express them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Holography—A Critical Debate within Contemporary Visual Culture)
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Open AccessArticle
Shapeshifting the Scottish Borders: A Geopoetic Dance of Place
Arts 2019, 8(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030101 - 07 Aug 2019
Viewed by 271
Abstract
In this paper, I unite dance theory and practice and geopoetics in order to reflect on edges, peripheries and borders in a geographic region, the Scottish Borders, where the dominant cultural narrative is and has historically been based on rivalry. I draw here [...] Read more.
In this paper, I unite dance theory and practice and geopoetics in order to reflect on edges, peripheries and borders in a geographic region, the Scottish Borders, where the dominant cultural narrative is and has historically been based on rivalry. I draw here on the writing of the Scottish poet-philosopher Kenneth White, the practices of specific dancers and choreographers and on relational accounts of place and more-than-human perspectives. Rather than ‘sense of place’, my interest is in sensing place and thinking through sites. Threaded throughout are descriptions of perception practices exploring woodland, stone and riverways, which take the reader into the more experiential realm of embodied knowing. These passages are an invitation to be present with more-than-human others, to be in contact with the vitality of materials and to allow for being shaped, rather than being the shaping force. The intention is to bring different bodies of knowledge into contact as a way of revealing other vocabularies within place, which suggest alternative cultural narratives and help create the conditions for place—making a more collaborative, ethical and less anthropocentric endeavour, open to the influence and organising principles of the more-than-human. Full article
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Open AccessBook Review
Modern Architecture and Luxury: Aesthetics and the Evolution of the Modern Subject
Arts 2019, 8(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030100 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 305
Abstract
A book review of Robin Schuldenfrei, Luxury and Modernism: Architecture and the Object in Germany 1900–1933 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018). This book challenges the canonical interpretation of two of the most revered institutions in the history of modern architecture—the Werkbund and the [...] Read more.
A book review of Robin Schuldenfrei, Luxury and Modernism: Architecture and the Object in Germany 1900–1933 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018). This book challenges the canonical interpretation of two of the most revered institutions in the history of modern architecture—the Werkbund and the Bauhaus—and presents a critical interpretation of the relationship between modern architecture and luxury, which first appeared a generation ago. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Architecture Is a Luxury)
Open AccessArticle
Synagogue Architecture of Latvia between Archeology and Eschatology
Arts 2019, 8(3), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030099 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 487
Abstract
Synagogue architecture during the second half of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was seeking novel modes of expression, and therefore the remains of ancient synagogues that were being discovered by western archeologists within the borders of the [...] Read more.
Synagogue architecture during the second half of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century was seeking novel modes of expression, and therefore the remains of ancient synagogues that were being discovered by western archeologists within the borders of the Biblical Land of Israel became a new source of inspiration. As far away as the New World, the design of contemporary synagogues was influenced by discoveries such as by the American Jewish architect, Arnold W. Brunner, who referenced the Baram Synagogue in the Galilee in his Henry S. Frank Memorial Synagogue at the Jewish Hospital in Philadelphia (1901). Less known is the fact that the archaeological discoveries in the Middle East also influenced the design of synagogues in the interwar period, in the newly-independent Baltic state of Latvia. Local architects picked up information about these archaeological finds from professional and popular editions published in German and Russian. Good examples are two synagogues along the Riga seaside, in Majori and Bulduri, and another in the inland town of Bauska. As was the case in America, the archaeological references in these Latvian examples were infused with eschatological meaning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synagogue Art and Architecture)
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Open AccessEditorial
Introduction to the Special Issue “Arts and Refugees: Multidisciplinary Perspectives”
Arts 2019, 8(3), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030098 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 399
Abstract
Even though the percentage of migrants and refugees in the world has remained relatively stable over the past few decades, in recent years, public debate on this matter has become increasingly sensitive and politicized [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arts and Refugees: Multidisciplinary Perspectives)
Open AccessArticle
Going Digital? New Media and Digital Art at the Stedelijk
Arts 2019, 8(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030097 - 01 Aug 2019
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Abstract
The Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, has an extensive collection of time-based media art from the 1960s onwards, which has been expanded into the digital field in recent decades. The Stedelijk makes an interesting case study for this special issue on “Art [...] Read more.
The Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, has an extensive collection of time-based media art from the 1960s onwards, which has been expanded into the digital field in recent decades. The Stedelijk makes an interesting case study for this special issue on “Art Curation: Challenges in the Digital Age,” because it has had a reputable history of dealing with time-based art since the mid-1970s but presently faces the same challenges with regard to curating and collecting digital art as other museums of modern art. The Stedelijk’s history began in 1974, when the first curator for time-based art was hired, Dorine Mignot, a pioneer in this field. After Mignot’s retirement in 2006, the museum was closed for almost a decade, but under the leadership of Beatrix Ruf (2014–2017), an innovative agenda was set again for new media and digital art. In this paper, Sjoukje van der Meulen mobilizes the museum’s rich and varied history of new media and digital art to think through some of the issues, challenges and concerns raised by guest editor Francesca Franco for this special issue such as “What are the issues involved in re-contextualizing and exhibiting artworks made in the 1960s and the 1970s?” and “What are [adequate] curatorial approaches regarding digital art?” Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art Curation: Challenges in the Digital Age)
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Open AccessArticle
Revisiting Harrison and Cynthia White’s Academic vs. Dealer-Critic System
Arts 2019, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030096 - 31 Jul 2019
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Abstract
The field of art market studies is based on a famous opposition, coined by Harrison and Cynthia White in 1965, regarding the “academic” system, as opposed to the “dealer-critic” one. Published in 1965, their book, Canvases and Careers, Institutional Change in the French [...] Read more.
The field of art market studies is based on a famous opposition, coined by Harrison and Cynthia White in 1965, regarding the “academic” system, as opposed to the “dealer-critic” one. Published in 1965, their book, Canvases and Careers, Institutional Change in the French Painting World, was qualified by Patricia Mainardi and Pierre Vaisse, but their criticism dated back to the 1990s. In the meantime, the development of digital methods makes possible a broader reassessment of Harrison and Cynthia White’s theory. Based on a corpus of Parisian auction sales, from 1831 through 1925, this paper uses econometrics to call into question the antagonism between the academic and the dealer-critic system, and comes to another conclusion: the academic system was crucial to determine the value of artworks and its efficiency did not collapse in the 1870s, nor in the 1880s, but rather after the Great War. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art Markets and Digital Histories)
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Open AccessEssay
The Evicted
Arts 2019, 8(3), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030095 - 24 Jul 2019
Viewed by 398
Abstract
The following essay examines Anthony Hernandez’s photographic work from the early 1970s to the present. The essay addresses how Hernandez reimagines the genre of street photography in Los Angeles, countering the misconception that the genre, so dominant in the history of the medium, [...] Read more.
The following essay examines Anthony Hernandez’s photographic work from the early 1970s to the present. The essay addresses how Hernandez reimagines the genre of street photography in Los Angeles, countering the misconception that the genre, so dominant in the history of the medium, is nearly inexistent in California. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Street Photography Reframed)
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Open AccessArticle
Basket Weaving in Coastal Southern California: A Social History of Survivance
Arts 2019, 8(3), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030094 - 23 Jul 2019
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Abstract
This article underscores the romanticization of basket weaving in coastal Southern California in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the survival of weaving knowledge. The deconstruction of outdated terminology, mainly the misnomer “Mission Indian”, highlights the interest in California’s Spanish colonial [...] Read more.
This article underscores the romanticization of basket weaving in coastal Southern California in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the survival of weaving knowledge. The deconstruction of outdated terminology, mainly the misnomer “Mission Indian”, highlights the interest in California’s Spanish colonial past that spurred consumer interest in Southern California basketry and the misrepresentation of diverse Indigenous communities. In response to this interest weavers seized opportunities to not only earn a living at a time of significant social change but also to pass on their practice when Native American communities were assimilating into mainstream society. By providing alternative labelling approaches, this article calls for museums to update their collection records and to work in collaboration with Southern California’s Native American communities to respectfully represent their weaving customs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Museum Photo Archives and the History of the Art Market: A Digital Approach
Arts 2019, 8(3), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030093 - 18 Jul 2019
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Abstract
Digital images with metadata contain unique potential for research into the history of the art market. The embedding of digital images in a database allows for the possibility of an association with their historical context due to the presence of metadata, which includes [...] Read more.
Digital images with metadata contain unique potential for research into the history of the art market. The embedding of digital images in a database allows for the possibility of an association with their historical context due to the presence of metadata, which includes economic data, such as the provenance chain, as well as information about collecting practices. The database becomes a historical reconstruction of context accompanying the reproductions of the works. In this paper, a case study of a museum photo archive of forgeries illustrates the ways in which digital methods can be helpful in analyzing these contexts. The archive was run by the secret “Verband von Museums-Beamten zur Abwehr von Fälschungen und unlauterem Geschäftsgebahren” (Association of Museum Officials for Defense against Fakes and Improper Business Practices). This archive allows the engagement of early 20th century museums in the art market to be traced within specific genres. The goal of the case study and methodology presented here is to learn more about the economic practices of museums. Specifically, this paper reconsiders a study by Timothy Wilson on fake maiolica, with a new focus on the involvement of museums in the art market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art Markets and Digital Histories)
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Open AccessArticle
The Girl with the Golden Wreath: Four Perspectives on a Mummy Portrait
Arts 2019, 8(3), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030092 - 16 Jul 2019
Viewed by 836
Abstract
A mummy portrait of a young woman with a golden wreath is part of the archaeological collection of the Allard Pierson Museum in Amsterdam. This portrait is covered by four authors, each from their separate perspective, namely provenance research, technical examination, museum presentation, [...] Read more.
A mummy portrait of a young woman with a golden wreath is part of the archaeological collection of the Allard Pierson Museum in Amsterdam. This portrait is covered by four authors, each from their separate perspective, namely provenance research, technical examination, museum presentation, and diversity education. Provenance research is significant not only for tracing the second-life biography of the panel, but also for assessing its bona fide authenticity. Non-invasive examinations can help identify possible underlayers, pigments and modern restorations. Museological aspects concern the contextualization of the portrait, not only as a funerary artefact, but also as an expression of physical appearance. Educational programs can be implemented to illustrate to museum visitors the relevance of ancient artefacts for modern society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ancient Mediterranean Painting (vol. 2))
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Open AccessEditorial
‘Art for a New Understanding’: An Interview with Valerie Keenan, Manager of Girringun Aboriginal Art Centre
Arts 2019, 8(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030091 - 15 Jul 2019
Viewed by 399
Abstract
A network of Indigenous art and culture centres across Australia play a significant role in promoting cross-cultural understanding. These centres represent specific Indigenous cultures of the local country, and help sustain local Indigenous languages, traditional knowledge, storytelling and other customs, as well as [...] Read more.
A network of Indigenous art and culture centres across Australia play a significant role in promoting cross-cultural understanding. These centres represent specific Indigenous cultures of the local country, and help sustain local Indigenous languages, traditional knowledge, storytelling and other customs, as well as visual arts. They are the principle point of contact for information about the art, and broker the need to sustain cultural heritage at the same time as supporting new generations of cultural expression. This interview with Dr Valerie Keenan, Manager of Girringun Aboriginal Art Centre in northern Australia, provides rare insight into the strategies, challenges, and aspirations of Indigenous art centres and how the reception of the art impacts on artists themselves. It provides a first-hand account of how Indigenous artists strive to generate a new understanding of their culture and how they participate in a global world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Australian Indigenous Art and Cultural Tourism)
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Engagement in a Contemporary Art Gallery: Transforming Audiences
Arts 2019, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030090 - 11 Jul 2019
Viewed by 673
Abstract
This paper examines a curatorial approach to digital art that acknowledges the symbiotic relationship between the digital and other more traditional art practices. It considers some of the issues that arise when digital content is delivered within a public gallery and how specialist [...] Read more.
This paper examines a curatorial approach to digital art that acknowledges the symbiotic relationship between the digital and other more traditional art practices. It considers some of the issues that arise when digital content is delivered within a public gallery and how specialist knowledge, audience expectations and funding impact on current practices. From the perspective of the Digital Curator at MOSTYN, a contemporary gallery and visual arts centre in Llandudno, North Wales, it outlines the practical challenges and approaches taken to define what audiences want from a public art gallery. Human-centred design processes and activity systems analysis were adopted by MOSTYN with a community of practice—the gallery visitors—to explore the challenges of integrating digital technologies effectively within their curatorial programme and keep up with the pace of change needed today. MOSTYN’s aim is to consider digital holistically within their exhibition programme and within the cannon of 21st century contemporary art practice. Digital curation is at the heart of their model of engagement that offers new and existing audience insights into the significance of digital art within contemporary art practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Art Curation: Challenges in the Digital Age)
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Open AccessArticle
Applications of Photogrammetric Modeling to Roman Wall Painting: A Case Study in the House of Marcus Lucretius
Arts 2019, 8(3), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/arts8030089 - 10 Jul 2019
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Across many sites in Italy today, wall paintings face particular dangers of damage and destruction. In Pompeii, many extant fragments are open to the air and accessible to tourists. While efforts are underway to preserve the precious few examples that have come down [...] Read more.
Across many sites in Italy today, wall paintings face particular dangers of damage and destruction. In Pompeii, many extant fragments are open to the air and accessible to tourists. While efforts are underway to preserve the precious few examples that have come down to us today, after excavation even new finds begin to decay from the moment they are exposed to the air. Digital photogrammetry has been used for the documentation, preservation, and reconstruction of archaeological sites, small objects, and sculpture. Photogrammetry is also well-suited to the illustration and reconstruction of Roman wall painting and Roman domestic interiors. Unlike traditional photography, photogrammetry can offer three-dimensional (3D) documentation that captures the seams, cracks, and warps in the structure of the wall. In the case of an entire room, it can also preserve the orientation and visual impression of multiple walls in situ. This paper discusses the results of several photogrammetric campaigns recently undertaken to document the material record in the House of Marcus Lucretius at Pompeii (IX, 3, 5.24). In the process, it explores the combination of visual analysis with digital tools, and the use of 3D models to represent complex relationships between spaces and objects. To conclude, future avenues for research will be discussed, including the creation of an online database that would facilitate visualizing further connections within the material record. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ancient Mediterranean Painting (vol. 2))
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