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Artificial Intelligence and Music: Open Questions of Copyright Law and Engineering Praxis

Division of Speech, Music and Hearing, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
Department of Performing Arts, Kingston University, Kingston KT2 7LB, UK
Music Technology Group, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08002 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Arts 2019, 8(3), 115;
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 29 August 2019 / Accepted: 3 September 2019 / Published: 6 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and the Machine: Contemporary Music Production)
The application of artificial intelligence (AI) to music stretches back many decades, and presents numerous unique opportunities for a variety of uses, such as the recommendation of recorded music from massive commercial archives, or the (semi-)automated creation of music. Due to unparalleled access to music data and effective learning algorithms running on high-powered computational hardware, AI is now producing surprising outcomes in a domain fully entrenched in human creativity—not to mention a revenue source around the globe. These developments call for a close inspection of what is occurring, and consideration of how it is changing and can change our relationship with music for better and for worse. This article looks at AI applied to music from two perspectives: copyright law and engineering praxis. It grounds its discussion in the development and use of a specific application of AI in music creation, which raises further and unanticipated questions. Most of the questions collected in this article are open as their answers are not yet clear at this time, but they are nonetheless important to consider as AI technologies develop and are applied more widely to music, not to mention other domains centred on human creativity. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial intelligence; music; copyright; engineering; ethics artificial intelligence; music; copyright; engineering; ethics
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Sturm, B.L.T.; Iglesias, M.; Ben-Tal, O.; Miron, M.; Gómez, E. Artificial Intelligence and Music: Open Questions of Copyright Law and Engineering Praxis. Arts 2019, 8, 115.

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