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Sports, Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The purpose of the study was to compare the physiological responses of skeletal muscle to a [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCommunication
An Assessment of Training Characteristics Associated with Atrial Fibrillation in Masters Runners
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 23 July 2019
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Abstract
A growing body of literature supports an association between long-term endurance exercise and the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the benefits of lifelong exercise, a better understanding of this association is critical to allow healthcare providers to counsel aging exercisers on the [...] Read more.
A growing body of literature supports an association between long-term endurance exercise and the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the benefits of lifelong exercise, a better understanding of this association is critical to allow healthcare providers to counsel aging exercisers on the proper “dose” of exercise to maximize health benefits but minimize AF risk. The current study examines the relationship between specific aspects of training volume and intensity and the occurrence of AF among older runners in order to better understand what aspects of endurance exercise may contribute to the development of AF. The study was an Internet-based survey of endurance training and health characteristics of runners 35 years of age and older. A total 2819 runners participated and 69 (2.4%) reported a current or prior diagnosis of AF. Among “traditional” risk factors, runners reporting AF were older, more likely to be male, and had higher rates of hypertension and diabetes. Among training characteristics, only accumulated years of training was associated with AF. In contrast, average weekly mileage, training pace, and days of training per week were not associated with AF. In a multivariable analysis that included chronologic age, sex, diabetes, and hypertension, accumulated years of training remained significantly associated with the report of AF. These findings suggest that the relationship between chronic endurance exercise and AF is dependent on the accumulated training duration but does not appear to be influenced by specific training characteristics such as frequency or intensity of endurance exercise. Further confirmation of these relationships may help healthcare providers counsel exercisers on optimal training habits and identify endurance athletes who are at risk for the development of AF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise in Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
The Importance of Fundamental Motor Skills in Identifying Differences in Performance Levels of U10 Soccer Players
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
This study examined the differences in fundamental motor skills (FMSs) and specific conditioning capacities (SCCs) between a coach’s classification of first team (FT) and second team (ST) U10 soccer players and examined the most important qualities based on how the coach differentiates them. [...] Read more.
This study examined the differences in fundamental motor skills (FMSs) and specific conditioning capacities (SCCs) between a coach’s classification of first team (FT) and second team (ST) U10 soccer players and examined the most important qualities based on how the coach differentiates them. The FT (n = 12; Mage = 9.72 ± 0.41) and ST (n = 11; Mage = 9.57 ± 0.41) soccer players were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, standing long jump, sit and reach, diverse sprints, and the 20 m multistage fitness test (MSFT). The coach’s subjective evaluation of players was obtained using a questionnaire. No significant differences existed between the FT and ST in any variables (p > 0.05). However, large and moderate effect sizes were present in favour of the FT group in locomotor skills (d = 0.82 (0.08, 1.51)), gross motor quotient (d = 0.73 (0.00, 1.41)), height (d = 0.61 (−0.12, 1.29)), MSFT (d = 0.58 (−0.14, 1.25)), and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) (d = 0.55 (−0.17, 1.22)). Furthermore, the coach perceived the FT group as having greater technical and tactical qualities relative to ST players. This suggests that it might be more relevant for players of this age to develop good FMS connected to technical skills, before focusing on SCC. Therefore, it might be beneficial for soccer coaches to emphasize the development of FMSs due to their potential to identify talented young soccer players and because they underpin the technical soccer skills that are required for future soccer success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training Process in Soccer Players)
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Open AccessPerspective
Calculating Set-Volume for the Limb Muscles with the Performance of Multi-Joint Exercises: Implications for Resistance Training Prescription
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Resistance training volume, determined by the number of sets performed (set-volume) is considered one of the key variables in promoting muscle hypertrophy. To better guide resistance exercise prescription for weekly per-muscle training volume, the purpose of this paper is to provide evidence-based considerations [...] Read more.
Resistance training volume, determined by the number of sets performed (set-volume) is considered one of the key variables in promoting muscle hypertrophy. To better guide resistance exercise prescription for weekly per-muscle training volume, the purpose of this paper is to provide evidence-based considerations for set-volume ratios between multi-joint (MJ) and single-joint (SJ) exercises so that practitioners can better manage prescription of training volume in program design. We analyzed this topic from three primary areas of focus: (1) biomechanical and physiological factors; (2) acute research; and (3) longitudinal research. From a biomechanical and physiological standpoint, when considering force production of different muscle groups, the moment arm of a given muscle, “motor abundance”, the link between biomechanics and exercise-induced fatigue, as well as the amount of time in voluntary muscle activation, a logical rationale can be made for SJ exercises producing greater hypertrophy of the limb muscles than MJ exercises (at least from specific exercises and under certain conditions). This would mean that sets for a MJ exercise should be counted fractionally for select muscles compared to an SJ exercise (i.e., less than a 1:1 ratio) when prescribing set-volumes for given muscles. When considering results from acute studies that measured muscle activation during the performance of SJ and MJ exercises, it seems that MJ exercises are not sufficient to maximize muscle activation of specific muscles. For example, during performance of the leg press and squat, muscle activation of the hamstrings is markedly lower than that of the quadriceps. These results suggest that a 1:1 ratio cannot be assumed. Current longitudinal research comparing the effects of training with MJ vs. SJ or MJ + SJ exercises is limited to the elbow flexors and the evidence is somewhat conflicting. Until more research is conducted to derive stronger conclusions on the topic, we propose the best advice would be to view set-volume prescription on a 1:1 basis, and then use logical rationale and personal expertise to make determinations on program design. Future research should focus on investigating longitudinal hypertrophic changes between MJ and SJ in a variety of populations, particularly resistance-trained individuals, while using site-specific measures of muscle growth to more systematically and precisely compute effective individualized set-volumes. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Motor Competence in Adolescents: Exploring Association with Physical Fitness
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was twofold: First, to examine the correlation between adolescents’ performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children -2 (MABC-2) and the Test of Motor Competence (TMC), and second, to interpret the correlation between performance on physical fitness measures [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was twofold: First, to examine the correlation between adolescents’ performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children -2 (MABC-2) and the Test of Motor Competence (TMC), and second, to interpret the correlation between performance on physical fitness measures and motor competence. This study had a cross-sectional design, in which 101 adolescents age 15–16 years were recruited. The participants were assessed with the MABC-2 (eight tasks), the TMC (four tasks) and physical fitness measures (four tasks). Ninety-four participants completed all the test items (51% male). The correlation between the standard score of the MABC-2 and TMC total score was found to be moderate (r = −0.418). A weak correlation was found between MABC-2 and total score of physical fitness (r = 0.278), while the correlation between TMC and physical fitness was a little stronger (r = 0.361). However, when removing one measure from the TMC (the walking/running in slopes), the correlation was weak and not significant (r = 0.109). The results suggest that different test batteries can cause discrepancy in the results regarding correlation between motor competence and physical fitness in adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motor Competence in a Life Span Perspective)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Inter- and Intra-Individual Differences in EMG and MMG during Maximal, Bilateral, Dynamic Leg Extensions
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the composite, inter-individual, and intra-individual differences in the patterns of responses for electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) during fatiguing, maximal, bilateral, and isokinetic leg extension muscle actions. Thirteen [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare the composite, inter-individual, and intra-individual differences in the patterns of responses for electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) during fatiguing, maximal, bilateral, and isokinetic leg extension muscle actions. Thirteen recreationally active men (age = 21.7 ± 2.6 years; body mass = 79.8 ± 11.5 kg; height = 174.2 ± 12.7 cm) performed maximal, bilateral leg extensions at 180°·s−1 until the torque values dropped to 50% of peak torque for two consecutive repetitions. The EMG and MMG signals from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of both limbs were recorded. Four 2(Leg) × 19(time) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to examine mean differences for EMG AMP, EMG MPF, MMG AMP, and MMG MPF between limbs, and polynomial regression analyses were performed to identify the patterns of neuromuscular responses. The results indicated no significant differences between limbs for EMG AMP (p = 0.44), EMG MPF (p = 0.33), MMG AMP (p = 0.89), or MMG MPF (p = 0.52). Polynomial regression analyses demonstrated substantial inter-individual variability. Inferences made regarding the patterns of neuromuscular responses to fatiguing and bilateral muscle actions should be considered on a subject-by-subject basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Evaluation of Exercise Using Electromyography)
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Open AccessArticle
An Approach to the Fatigue in Young Soccer Players Resulting from Sided Games
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
It is crucial to understand the fatigue associated with sided games (SGs) of soccer in the training context, in order to establish the appropriate intervals between training sessions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different SGs on [...] Read more.
It is crucial to understand the fatigue associated with sided games (SGs) of soccer in the training context, in order to establish the appropriate intervals between training sessions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different SGs on internal load, measured by the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), and on sprint performance. Ten outfield players (age: 14.5 ± 0.5 years, height: 169 ± 6 cm, body mass: 59.7 ± 6.4 kg) belonging to U15 age category participated in this study. The participants played four SG formats with modifications in the pitch size and in the bout duration, but with the same total duration for the SGs (SG1, SG2, SG3, and SG4). All the players performed a 10 and a 30 m sprint test before and after the SGs. The internal load was measured by the sRPE. The results showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the sRPE registered by the soccer players for the different SGs, but worse sprint performances over the 10 m (p < 0.05; ES: 0.74–1.38, large) and 30 m (p < 0.05; ES: 0.70–2.10, moderate to large) distances after completion of the SGs, except the 10 m sprint after SG2 and SG3 (p > 0.05; ES: 0.43–0.55, moderate). In addition, no correlation (p > 0.05) was reported between the sprint performances for the 10 and 30 m distances and the sRPE registered during the SGs. These results could be useful for technical staff wishing to design the playing area and bout duration of their training tasks effectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training Process in Soccer Players)
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Open AccessArticle
On-Ice Measures of External Load in Relation to Match Outcome in Elite Female Ice Hockey
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the differences between select on-ice measures using inertial movement sensors based on match outcome, and to determine changes in player movements across three periods of play. Data were collected during one season of competition in [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the differences between select on-ice measures using inertial movement sensors based on match outcome, and to determine changes in player movements across three periods of play. Data were collected during one season of competition in elite female ice hockey players (N = 20). Two-factor mixed effects ANOVAs for each skating position were performed to investigate the differences in match outcome, as well as differences in external load measures during the course of a match. For match outcome, there was a small difference for forwards in explosive ratio (p = 0.02, ES = 0.26) and percentage high force strides (p = 0.04, ES = 0.50). When viewed across three periods of a match, moderate differences were found in skating load (p = 0.01, ES = 0.75), explosive efforts (p = 0.04, ES = 0.63), and explosive ratio (p = 0.002, ES = 0.87) for forwards, and in PlayerLoad (p = 0.01, ES = 0.70), explosive efforts (p = 0.04, ES = 0.63), and explosive ratio (p = 0.01, ES = 0.70) for defense. When examining the relevance to match outcome, external load measures associated with intensity appear to be an important factor among forwards. These results may be helpful for coaches and sport scientists when making decisions pertaining to training and competition strategies. Full article
Open AccessReview
Towards a Sustainable Nutrition Paradigm in Physique Sport: A Narrative Review
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 16 July 2019
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Abstract
Physique athletes strive for low body fat with high lean mass and have higher body image and eating disorder rates than the general population, and even other weightlifting populations. Whether athletes with a background or tendency to develop these issues are drawn to [...] Read more.
Physique athletes strive for low body fat with high lean mass and have higher body image and eating disorder rates than the general population, and even other weightlifting populations. Whether athletes with a background or tendency to develop these issues are drawn to the sport, or whether it drives these higher incidences, is unknown. However, the biological drive of cyclical energy restriction may contribute to binge-eating behavior. Additionally, requisite monitoring, manipulation, comparison, and judgement of one’s physique may contribute to body image concerns. Contest preparation necessitates manipulating body composition through energy restriction and increased expenditure, requiring dietary restraint and nutrition, exercise, and physique assessment. Thus, competitors are at mental health risk due to (1) pre-existing or predispositions to develop body image or eating disorders; (2) biological effects of energy restriction on eating psychology; and (3) dietary restraint attitudes and resultant physique, exercise, and nutrition monitoring behavior. In our narrative review we cover each factor, concluding with tentative best-practice recommendations, including dietary flexibility, slower weight loss, structured monitoring, gradual returns to offseason energy intakes, internal eating cues, appropriate offseason body compositions, and support from nutrition and mental health professionals. A mental health focus is a needed paradigm shift in bodybuilding nutrition practice and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychophysiological Response in Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Burnout and Perceived Performance Among Junior Athletes—Associations with Affective and Cognitive Components of Stress
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
The current study investigated associations between cognitive components such as psychological resilience and perceived stress, and affective components such as positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout and perceived performance among 670 Norwegian junior athletes attending high schools specialized for sports. A hypothesized [...] Read more.
The current study investigated associations between cognitive components such as psychological resilience and perceived stress, and affective components such as positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout and perceived performance among 670 Norwegian junior athletes attending high schools specialized for sports. A hypothesized model of the relations between the constructs was analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results in the current study show that athlete resilience is a key in understanding athlete burnout and perceived performance, and that cognitive (perceived stress) and affective reactions (negative and positive affect) are important mediators in this process. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Exercise-Induced Mitohormesis for the Maintenance of Skeletal Muscle and Healthspan Extension
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
Oxidative damage is one mechanism linking aging with chronic diseases including the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function called sarcopenia. Thus, mitigating oxidative damage is a potential avenue to prevent or delay the onset of chronic disease and/or extend healthspan. Mitochondrial [...] Read more.
Oxidative damage is one mechanism linking aging with chronic diseases including the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function called sarcopenia. Thus, mitigating oxidative damage is a potential avenue to prevent or delay the onset of chronic disease and/or extend healthspan. Mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis) occurs when acute exposure to stress stimulates adaptive mitochondrial responses that improve mitochondrial function and resistance to stress. For example, an acute oxidative stress via mitochondrial superoxide production stimulates the activation of endogenous antioxidant gene transcription regulated by the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, resulting in an adaptive hormetic response. In addition, acute stresses such as aerobic exercise stimulate the expansion of skeletal muscle mitochondria (i.e., mitochondrial biogenesis), constituting a mitohormetic response that protects from sarcopenia through a variety of mechanisms. This review summarized the effects of age-related declines in mitochondrial and redox homeostasis on skeletal muscle protein homeostasis and highlights the mitohormetic mechanisms by which aerobic exercise mitigates these age-related declines and maintains function. We discussed the potential efficacy of targeting the Nrf2 signaling pathway, which partially mediates adaptation to aerobic exercise, to restore mitochondrial and skeletal muscle function. Finally, we highlight knowledge gaps related to improving redox signaling and make recommendations for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Relationship Between Skeletal Muscle and Whole-Body Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Skeletal Muscle Fiber Adaptations Following Resistance Training Using Repetition Maximums or Relative Intensity
Received: 18 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was to compare the physiological responses of skeletal muscle to a resistance training (RT) program using repetition maximum (RM) or relative intensity (RISR). Fifteen well-trained males underwent RT 3 d·wk−1 for 10 weeks in either [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to compare the physiological responses of skeletal muscle to a resistance training (RT) program using repetition maximum (RM) or relative intensity (RISR). Fifteen well-trained males underwent RT 3 d·wk−1 for 10 weeks in either an RM group (n = 8) or RISR group (n = 7). The RM group achieved a relative maximum each day, while the RISR group trained based on percentages. The RM group exercised until muscular failure on each exercise, while the RISR group did not reach muscular failure throughout the intervention. Percutaneous needle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained pre-post the training intervention, along with ultrasonography measures. Dependent variables were: Fiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA); anatomical CSA (ACSA); muscle thickness (MT); mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK); and myosin heavy chains (MHC) specific for type I (MHC1), type IIA (MHC2A), and type IIX (MHC2X). Mixed-design analysis of variance and effect size using Hedge’s g were used to assess within- and between-group alterations. RISR statistically increased type I CSA (p = 0.018, g = 0.56), type II CSA (p = 0.012, g = 0.81), ACSA (p = 0.002, g = 0.53), and MT (p < 0.001, g = 1.47). RISR also yielded a significant mTOR reduction (p = 0.031, g = −1.40). Conversely, RM statistically increased only MT (p = 0.003, g = 0.80). Between-group effect sizes supported RISR for type I CSA (g = 0.48), type II CSA (g = 0.50), ACSA (g = 1.03), MT (g = 0.72), MHC2X (g = 0.31), MHC2A (g = 0.87), and MHC1 (g = 0.59); with all other effects being of trivial magnitude (g < 0.20). Our results demonstrated greater adaptations in fiber size, whole-muscle size, and several key contractile proteins when using RISR compared to RM loading paradigms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Maturity Offset, Strength, and Movement Competency on Motor Skill Performance in Adolescent Males
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to examine the extent to which maturity offset, strength, and movement competency influences motor skill performance in adolescent boys. One hundred and eight secondary school boys completed anthropometric and physical testing on two non-consecutive days for the following variables: Maturity [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the extent to which maturity offset, strength, and movement competency influences motor skill performance in adolescent boys. One hundred and eight secondary school boys completed anthropometric and physical testing on two non-consecutive days for the following variables: Maturity offset, isometric mid-thigh pull absolute (IMTPABS) and relative (IMTPREL) peak force, resistance training skills quotient, 10-, 20-, and 30-m sprint time, countermovement jump height, horizontal jump distance, anaerobic endurance performance, and seated medicine ball throw (SMBT). The IMTPREL displayed significant small to large correlations with all performance variables (r = 0.27–0.61), whereas maturity offset was significantly correlated with IMTPABS (r = 0.69), sprint (r = 0.29–0.33), jump (r = 0.23–0.34), and SMBT (r = 0.32). Absolute and relative strength were the strongest predictors of all performance variables and combined with maturity to explain 21%–76% of the variance. Low and average relative strength boys were nearly eight times (odds ratio: 7.80, confidence interval: 1.48–41.12, p < 0.05) and nearly four times (odds ratio: 3.86, confidence interval: 0.95–15.59, p < 0.05) more likely to be classified as lower competency compared to high relative strength boys. Relative strength has more influence on motor skill performance than maturity when compared with movement competency. Full article
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Chronic Fish Oil Consumption with Resistance Training Improves Grip Strength, Physical Function, and Blood Pressure in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
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Abstract
Fish oil (FO) has received great attention for its health-enhancing properties. However, its potential synergistic effects with resistance training (RT) are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of FO supplementation during 12-weeks of RT on handgrip [...] Read more.
Fish oil (FO) has received great attention for its health-enhancing properties. However, its potential synergistic effects with resistance training (RT) are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of FO supplementation during 12-weeks of RT on handgrip strength, physical function, and blood pressure (BP) in community-dwelling older adults. Twenty-eight healthy older adults (10 males, 18 females; 66.5 ± 5.0 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: Control (CON), resistance training (RT), resistance training with FO (RTFO). Handgrip strength, physical function [five times sit-to-stand (5T-STS), timed up and go (TUG), 6-m walk (6MW), 30-s sit-to-stand (30S-STS)], and BP were measured pre- and post-intervention. ANOVA was used with significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Handgrip strength significantly increased in RT (+5.3%) and RTFO (+9.4%) but decreased in CON (−3.9%). All physical function outcomes increased in RT and RTFO. CON exhibited significantly decreased TUG and 30S-STS with no change in 5T-STS and 6MW. BP substantially decreased only in RTFO, systolic blood pressure (−7.8 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (−4.5 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (−5.6 mmHg), while no change was found in CON and RT. Chronic RT enhanced strength and physical function, while FO consumption combined with RT improved BP in community-dwelling older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Use of Dietary Supplements among Athlete and Non-Athlete University Students: Development and Validation of a Questionnaire
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 6 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study is to develop and test the validity and reliability of a questionnaire to evaluate dietary supplement use based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods: The questionnaire has sections on demographics, physical activity, dietary supplements, and [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study is to develop and test the validity and reliability of a questionnaire to evaluate dietary supplement use based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods: The questionnaire has sections on demographics, physical activity, dietary supplements, and cognitive constructs based on the TPB. Three stages are followed. In Stage 1, elicitation interviews are conducted on five varsity athletes, five physically active non-athletes, and five physically inactive University of Guelph (UofG) students. In Stage 2, comments and ratings of the TPB-based statements are gathered from 10 subject matter experts to check for content validity. In Stage 3, Cronbach’s α is calculated to determine the internal consistency of the cognitive constructs by a pilot test on 84 Applied Human Nutrition UofG students. Results: Interviews assisted in the formulation of the cognitive constructs’ statements, including intentions, attitudes, injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and perceived behavioural control. Content validity ensured that these constructs did not overlap. Few statements from the cognitive constructs were omitted based on findings from the reliability test, achieving acceptable Cronbach’s α values across all constructs (≥0.70). Conclusions: This supplement use questionnaire will be used in a future study to investigate the use and determinants of dietary supplements among Canadian athlete and non-athlete UofG students. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Acceleration and Deceleration Profiles of U-18 Women’s Basketball Players during Competitive Matches
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
The ability of a player to perform high-intensity actions can be linked to common requirements of team sports, and the ability to accelerate can be an important factor in successfully facing the opponent. The aim of this study was to determine the acceleration [...] Read more.
The ability of a player to perform high-intensity actions can be linked to common requirements of team sports, and the ability to accelerate can be an important factor in successfully facing the opponent. The aim of this study was to determine the acceleration and deceleration profiles of U-18 women’s basketball players during competitive matches. This study categorized accelerations and decelerations by playing position and quarter. Forty-eight U-18 female basketball players from the same Spanish league participated in this study. Each player was equipped with a WimuProTM inertial device. Accelerations/decelerations were recorded. The number of accelerations and decelerations, intensity category, and type were recorded. These variables varied between quarters (first quarter, second quarter, third quarter, and fourth quarter) and playing positions (Guard, Forward and Center). The shorter but more intense accelerations took place in the last quarter, due to the tight results of the matches. Besides, players in the Guard positions performed more accelerations and their intensity was greater than that of other positions. An acceleration profile was established for the quarters of a basketball game, and was shown to depend on the playing position, being different for Guards, Forwards and Centers in U-18 women’s basketball players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Development of Change of Direction Speed and Agility)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Muscle Power and Muscle Morphology with Different Volumes of Fast Eccentric Half-Squats
Received: 10 June 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate power performance and muscle morphology adaptations in response to 5 weeks of fast-eccentric squat training (FEST) performed twice per week, with three different training volumes. Twenty-five moderately trained females were assigned into three groups performing [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate power performance and muscle morphology adaptations in response to 5 weeks of fast-eccentric squat training (FEST) performed twice per week, with three different training volumes. Twenty-five moderately trained females were assigned into three groups performing eight repetitions of FEST of either four sets (4 × 8 group; N = 9), 6 sets (6 × 8 group; N = 8) or eight sets (8 × 8 group, N = 8). Before and after the intervention, countermovement jumping height (CMJh) and power (CMJp), half squat maximal strength (1-RM), quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA) and vastus lateralis (VL) architecture and fiber type composition were evaluated. Significant increases (p < 0.05) were found for all groups, with no differences among them in 1-RM (4 × 8: 14.8 ± 8.2%, 6 × 8: 13.1 ± 9.2% and 8 × 8: 21.6 ± 7.0%), CMJh (4 × 8: 12.5 ± 8.5%, 6 × 8: 11.3 ± 9.3% and 8 × 8: 7.0 ± 6.2%), CMJp (4 × 8: 9.1 ± 6.0%, 6 × 8: 7.1 ± 5.2% and 8 × 8: 5.0 ± 3.9%) and QCSA (4 × 8: 7.7 ± 4.7%, 6 × 8: 9.0 ± 6.8% and 8 × 8: 8.2 ± 6.5%). Muscle fiber type distribution remained unaltered after training in all groups. VL fascicle length increased and fascicle angle decreased only in 6 × 8 and 8 × 8 groups. In conclusion, four sets of eight fast-eccentric squats/week increase lower body power and strength performance and maintain type IIX muscle fibers after 5 weeks, at least in moderately trained females. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Classification of Soccer and Basketball Players’ Jumping Performance Characteristics: A Logistic Regression Approach
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to examine countermovement jump (CMJ) kinetic data using logistic regression, in order to distinguish sports-related mechanical profiles. Eighty-one professional basketball and soccer athletes participated, each performing three CMJs on a force platform. Inferential parametric and nonparametric statistics were performed to [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine countermovement jump (CMJ) kinetic data using logistic regression, in order to distinguish sports-related mechanical profiles. Eighty-one professional basketball and soccer athletes participated, each performing three CMJs on a force platform. Inferential parametric and nonparametric statistics were performed to explore group differences. Binary logistic regression was used to model the response variable (soccer or not soccer). Statistical significance (p < 0.05) was reached for differences between groups in maximum braking rate of force development (RFDDmax, U79 = 1035), mean braking rate of force development (RFDDavg, U79 = 1038), propulsive impulse (IMPU, t79 = 2.375), minimum value of vertical displacement for center of mass (SBCMmin, t79 = 3.135), and time difference (% of impulse time; ΔΤ) between the peak value of maximum force value (FUmax) and SBCMmin (U79 = 1188). Logistic regression showed that RFDDavg, impulse during the downward phase (IMPD), IMPU, and ΔΤ were all significant predictors. The model showed that soccer group membership could be strongly related to IMPU, with the odds ratio being 6.48 times higher from the basketball group, whereas RFDDavg, IMPD, and ΔΤ were related to basketball group. The results imply that soccer players execute CMJ differently compared to basketball players, exhibiting increased countermovement depth and impulse generation during the propulsive phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Performance in Team Sports)
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Open AccessReview
‘I think I’m gonna hurl’: A Narrative Review of the Causes of Nausea and Vomiting in Sport
Received: 2 June 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
Exercise-associated gastrointestinal (GI) distress can negatively impact athletic performance and interfere with exercise training. Although there are a few universal underlying causes of GI distress, each symptom often has its own unique triggers and, therefore, its own prevention and management strategies. One of [...] Read more.
Exercise-associated gastrointestinal (GI) distress can negatively impact athletic performance and interfere with exercise training. Although there are a few universal underlying causes of GI distress, each symptom often has its own unique triggers and, therefore, its own prevention and management strategies. One of the most troubling GI symptoms an athlete can experience during training and competition is nausea/vomiting. The prevalence of nausea varies with several factors, two of the most important being exercise intensity and duration. Relatively brief, high-intensity exercise (e.g., sprinting, tempo runs) and ultra-endurance exercise are both associated with more frequent and severe nausea. The potential causes of nausea in sport are numerous and can include catecholamine secretion, hypohydration, heat stress, hyponatremia, altitude exposure, excessive fluid/food consumption, hypertonic beverage intake, pre-exercise intake of fatty- or protein-rich foods (especially in close proximity to exercise), prolonged fasting, various supplements (caffeine, sodium bicarbonate, ketones), certain drugs (antibiotics, opioids), GI infections, and competition-related anxiety. Beyond directly addressing these aforementioned causes, antiemetic drugs (e.g., ondansetron) may also be useful for alleviating nausea in some competitive situations. Given the commonness of nausea in sport and its potential impact on exercise performance, athletes and sports medicine practitioners should be aware of the origins of nausea and strategies for dealing with this troublesome gut complaint. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Is Perceived Exertion a Useful Indicator of the Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses to a Metabolic Conditioning Session of Functional Fitness?
Received: 23 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 July 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the self-regulation of training intensity based on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a reliable method to control the intensity during metabolic conditioning sessions of functional fitness. In addition, the relationship between RPE and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the self-regulation of training intensity based on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a reliable method to control the intensity during metabolic conditioning sessions of functional fitness. In addition, the relationship between RPE and the changes in heart rate, number of repetitions, and lactate responses was also analyzed. Eight male participants (age 28.1 ± 5.4 years; body mass 77.2 ± 4.4 kg; VO2 max: 52.6 ± 4.6 mL·(kg·min)−1 completed two sessions (five to seven days apart), in a randomized order, under different conditions, as follows: (1) all-out (ALL), or (2) self-regulation of intensity based on an RPE of six (hard) on the Borg CR-10 scale (RPE6). The rating of perceived exertion, lactate (LAC), and heart rate (HR) response were measured before, during, and immediately after the sessions. The RPE and LAC during the all-out sessions were higher (p < 0.0005) than the RPE6 session for all of the analyzed time points during the session. There was no difference in the HR area under the curve for the all-out and RPE6 sessions. The average number of repetitions performed was lower (p ≤ 0.009) for the RPE6 session (190.5 ± 12.5 repetitions) when compared to the all-out session (214.4 ± 18.6 repetitions). There was a significant correlation between the RPE and LAC (p = 0.005; r = 0.66; large) and number of repetitions during the session (p = 0.026; r = 0.55; large). No correlation was observed between the RPE and HR (p = 0.147; r = 0.380). These results indicate that the self-regulation of intensity of effort based on the RPE may be a useful tool to control the exercise intensity during a metabolic conditioning session of functional fitness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Absolute and Relative Lower Body Strength to Measures of Power and Change of Direction Speed in Division II Female Volleyball Players
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
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Abstract
Volleyball is a sport comprised of multiple explosive efforts and multidirectional change of direction speed (CODS) actions. Since strength underpins both of these abilities, it is important to explore the relationship between these variables in order to develop strength and conditioning programs to [...] Read more.
Volleyball is a sport comprised of multiple explosive efforts and multidirectional change of direction speed (CODS) actions. Since strength underpins both of these abilities, it is important to explore the relationship between these variables in order to develop strength and conditioning programs to optimize performance. The purpose of this study is to determine if a relationship exists between absolute and relative strength and measures of power and CODS in collegiate volleyball players. Archived testing data from ten (n = 10, age: 19.1 ± 1.2 yrs, Ht: 173.1 ± 6.64 cm, Wt: 67 ± 7.04 kg) female DII collegiate volleyball players were analyzed. These data included: block vertical jump (Block VJ), approach vertical jump (Approach VJ), a repeat jump test (i.e., four consecutive VJs), modified T-test, 5-0-5 agility test, a single leg triple hop test, and a 1-3RM deadlift. Significant large correlations were observed between relative strength and the repeat jump test, modified T-test, and 5-0-5 agility test. Significant correlations were also observed between absolute strength and the modified T-test. These results indicate that strength and conditioning professionals should emphasize the development of both absolute and relative lower-body strength to improve measures of power and agility in collegiate volleyball players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength Training in Sprint Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Differences between Elite and Semi-Elite Australian Football Conceptualised through the Lens of Ecological Dynamics
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
This study explored the differences in match play between elite and semi-elite Australian football (AF) conceptualised through the lens of ecological dynamics. We sampled naturalistic constraints from match play across two AF competitions (elite and semi-elite) and heuristically classified them into task, [...] Read more.
This study explored the differences in match play between elite and semi-elite Australian football (AF) conceptualised through the lens of ecological dynamics. We sampled naturalistic constraints from match play across two AF competitions (elite and semi-elite) and heuristically classified them into task, environmental and individual classes. Data was extracted from 22 Australian Football League (AFL) games, and 18 semi-elite AF games, with a total of six constraints being sampled from each game. Match play within the AFL generated a greater percent of total disposals in general play within a processing time of 0–1s (d = 1.24 (0.64–1.80)), a greater opposition density surrounding the ball carrier (d = 0.82 (0.26–1.37)), and more disposals being performed while running (dynamic; d = 0.89 (0.33–1.45)). This data highlights differences with regards to the informational sources available to players across both competition standards to inform their movement choices. Specifically, a greater proportion of disposals within the AFL appear to be shaped by pronounced temporal and spatial constraints relative to a semi-elite competition. Coaches are encouraged to consider these results when developing representative training activities for both AFL and prospective AFL players. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Sports and Growth on Hamstrings and Quadriceps Development in Young Female Athletes: Cross-Sectional Study
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
Context: Lower extremity muscular strength may vary by different sport participation during growth process. Objective: To investigate effect of sport participation and growth by comparing strength of the hamstrings, quadriceps, and hamstrings to quadriceps strength ratio (H:Q ratio) between young female figure skaters [...] Read more.
Context: Lower extremity muscular strength may vary by different sport participation during growth process. Objective: To investigate effect of sport participation and growth by comparing strength of the hamstrings, quadriceps, and hamstrings to quadriceps strength ratio (H:Q ratio) between young female figure skaters and soccer players. Design: Cross-sectional. Settings: Laboratory affiliated with regional sports medicine center. Participants: pediatric and adolescent female athletes. Procedures: Isometric hamstrings and quadriceps strength were measured. Main Outcome Measures: Strength of the hamstrings, quadriceps, and hamstrings to quadriceps strength ratio (H:Q ratio). Statistical Analysis: Effect of sport participation and growth was analyzed through a two-way (two sports: figure skaters and soccer players; three age groups: <12 years, 13–16 years, and >17 years) analysis of covariance. Results: Hamstrings strength was significantly greater in figure skaters than soccer players. Also, hamstring strength of 13–16 years and >17 years was higher compared to <12 years. Additionally, significantly higher H:Q ratio in figure skaters compared to soccer players. Conclusions: There is effect of growth on hamstrings strength among 13–16 years and >17 years compared to <12 years. Figure skaters showed greater hamstrings strength and H:Q ratio than female soccer players. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mixed-Methods Approach to Evaluating the Internal Validity of the Reactive Strength Index
Received: 6 May 2019 / Revised: 4 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
The reactive capacity of the muscle-tendon complex is commonly assessed using the reactive strength index (RSI). Conventionally, the RSI is a ratio of rebound jump height to ground contact time in depth jumping. Several assumptions regarding the linear mechanics acting through the whole-body [...] Read more.
The reactive capacity of the muscle-tendon complex is commonly assessed using the reactive strength index (RSI). Conventionally, the RSI is a ratio of rebound jump height to ground contact time in depth jumping. Several assumptions regarding the linear mechanics acting through the whole-body center of gravity may threaten the internal validity of computation and interpretation of RSI scores. First, it is common for rebound jump height to be predicted from rebound jump flight time. This assumes that the angular positioning of body segments is equivalent at the time instances of rebound jump take-off and landing. Prior literature supports a mixed-methods approach for computing the RSI that is void of this assumption. The mixed-methods approach gives a more valid estimation of rebound jump height. In this approach, rebound jump height is estimated from rebound jump take-off velocity of the whole-body center of mass. This is accomplished by subtracting an estimate of impact velocity, acquired using videography, from change in whole-body center of mass velocity estimated from integrated vertical ground reaction force data. Second, it is often assumed that vertical displacement of the whole-body center of mass during the drop phase of the depth jump is predicted perfectly from the height of the platform used to perform the drop. This assumption may affect the internal validity of comparing RSI scores across individuals and within individuals performing depth jumps from varied heights. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the internal validity of RSI scores computed using the conventional approach and impact velocity variability, which may affect the interpretation of RSI scores. Seventy physically active young adults performed depth jumps from drop heights of 0.51, 0.66, and 0.81 m. RSI was computed using the conventional approach and a mixed-methods approach featuring the use of 2-dimensional videography, body segment parameters, and force platform dynamometry. The two computational methods were compared using linear regression performed on data from each drop height. In addition, a 2 (computational method) by 3 (drop height) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed to evaluate for main effects and interactions in RSI data. Multiple one sample t-tests were performed to compare estimated and theoretical impact velocities. The ANOVA revealed no main effect or interactions between computational approaches (p = 0.467–0.938). Linear regression revealed moderately strong associations between RSI scores computed using the conventional and mixed-methods approaches (R2 = 0.685–0.741). Moreover, linear regressions revealed that the conventional approach tends to overestimate the mixed methods approach for RSI scores below 1.0 and underestimate the mixed methods approach for RSI scores above 1.0. Lastly, estimated impact velocities were observed to be as much as 13% lower versus theoretical (p < 0.001). Researchers with access to motion capture and force platform technology may consider using a mixed-methods approach for computing the RSI, which likely maximizes the internal validity of scores. In addition, results suggest for practitioners to practice caution when comparing conventional RSI scores across individuals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Exploratory Case Study of Mental Toughness Variability and Potential Influencers over 30 Days
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 22 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to explore whether mental toughness varies across a 30-day training block and whether such variability is associated with specific antecedents. This exploratory case study research investigated mental toughness variability using the Mental Toughness Index (MTI) with thirteen [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to explore whether mental toughness varies across a 30-day training block and whether such variability is associated with specific antecedents. This exploratory case study research investigated mental toughness variability using the Mental Toughness Index (MTI) with thirteen elite master runners across a series of self-selected training sessions, followed by interviews and follow-up questionnaires, to identify primary influencers of variability. There were significant differences in the MTI scores between baseline (before the training period), and the minimum and the maximum reported score over five self-selected training sessions (p’s < 0.004). The proceeding follow-up interviews and questionnaires then provided insights into factors influencing this intra-individual variability. These higher-level themes included foundational wellbeing, specific preparation, and actions utilized in the moment. This study is the first to demonstrate within-person MTI variability across specific training sessions and provides initial insights for both athletes and practitioners into potential influencers of mental toughness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydration Status and Fluid Needs of Division I Female Collegiate Athletes Exercising Indoors and Outdoors
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
The purpose was to determine differences in acute and chronic hydration status in female student-athletes (n = 40) practicing in moderate, dry conditions (17–25 °C, 30–57% humidity) indoors and outdoors. Body weight and urine samples were recorded before and after exercise as [...] Read more.
The purpose was to determine differences in acute and chronic hydration status in female student-athletes (n = 40) practicing in moderate, dry conditions (17–25 °C, 30–57% humidity) indoors and outdoors. Body weight and urine samples were recorded before and after exercise as well as fluid intake. Sweat rates expressed as median and interquartile range did not differ, but fluid intake was significantly higher during indoor (0.64 [0.50, 0.83] L/h) vs. outdoor conditions (0.51 [0.43, 0.63] L/h), p = 0.001. Fluid intake compensated for indoor sweat rate but not outdoors. When exercising indoors, 49% of the student-athletes reported urine specific gravity (USG) values >1.020, and 24% of the day after morning samples were scored ≥4 on the color chart rating. The percentages increased to 58% and 31%, respectively, when exercising outdoors (p > 0.05). Thus, fluid intake was higher indoors vs. outdoors but sweat rate did not differ among athletes. Yet, chronic hydration status was impaired in more than 50% of the student-athletes with a discrepancy between USG scores and urine color scores identifying underhydration. This suggest that 24-h fluid intake should be taken into account and that hydration protocols may need to be tailored individually based on urine USG values. Practice location (indoors vs. outdoors) may further complicate hydration protocols. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nutrition Recommendations for Bodybuilders in the Off-Season: A Narrative Review
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 21 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
Many nutrition practices often used by bodybuilders lack scientific support and can be detrimental to health. Recommendations during the dieting phase are provided in the scientific literature, but little attention has been devoted to bodybuilders during the off-season phase. During the off-season phase, [...] Read more.
Many nutrition practices often used by bodybuilders lack scientific support and can be detrimental to health. Recommendations during the dieting phase are provided in the scientific literature, but little attention has been devoted to bodybuilders during the off-season phase. During the off-season phase, the goal is to increase muscle mass without adding unnecessary body fat. This review evaluated the scientific literature and provides nutrition and dietary supplement recommendations for natural bodybuilders during the off-season phase. A hyper-energetic diet (~10–20%) should be consumed with a target weight gain of ~0.25–0.5% of bodyweight/week for novice/intermediate bodybuilders. Advanced bodybuilders should be more conservative with the caloric surplus and weekly weight gain. Sufficient protein (1.6–2.2 g/kg/day) should be consumed with optimal amounts 0.40–0.55 g/kg per meal and distributed evenly throughout the day (3–6 meals) including within 1–2 hours pre- and post-training. Fat should be consumed in moderate amounts (0.5–1.5 g/kg/day). Remaining calories should come from carbohydrates with focus on consuming sufficient amounts (≥3–5 g/kg/day) to support energy demands from resistance exercise. Creatine monohydrate (3–5 g/day), caffeine (5–6 mg/kg), beta-alanine (3–5 g/day) and citrulline malate (8 g/day) might yield ergogenic effects that can be beneficial for bodybuilders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Exercise)
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