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Sports, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) It is well-known that ingesting carbohydrate prior to exercise improved prolonged intermittent [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Trunk and Upper Body Fatigue Adversely Affect Running Economy: A Three-Armed Randomized Controlled Crossover Pilot Trial
Sports 2019, 7(8), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080195 - 19 Aug 2019
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Trunk muscle fatigue and its negative relationship with running economy (RE) is frequently recognized by practitioners but lacks evidence-based support. Thus, this three-armed randomized controlled crossover pilot trial (RCT) examined the effects of trunk and upper body fatigue protocols on RE, trunk muscle [...] Read more.
Trunk muscle fatigue and its negative relationship with running economy (RE) is frequently recognized by practitioners but lacks evidence-based support. Thus, this three-armed randomized controlled crossover pilot trial (RCT) examined the effects of trunk and upper body fatigue protocols on RE, trunk muscle isometric rate of force production, and lactate response in runners. Seven well-trained runners (2 males and 5 females) randomly underwent control (CON), trunk fatigue (TRK), and upper body fatigue (UPR) protocols on three different lab visits. Both workload-matched fatigue protocols—consisting of 24 min of a circuit weight routine—elicited comparable rates of perceived exertion, heart rate responses, and lactate accumulations. As expected, core muscle strength assessed with isometric testing immediately before and after both fatigue protocols, decreased notably. RE (VO2/kg bodyweight averaged for 1 min) was determined during a 15 min individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) run at 4, 9 and 14 min. The IAT (13.9 to 15.8 km/h) was determined on lab visit one using an incremental treadmill running protocol to volitional exhaustion. RE differed, although not significantly, between CON and both fatigue protocols by 0.75 (4th min) to 1.5 ml/min/kg (9th and 14th min) bodyweight (Time × Mode Interaction: p = 0.2, np2 = 0.40) with a moderate to large effect size. Despite no signficance, the largest RE differences were observed between TRK and CON (and underscored by the moderate to large effect size). This preliminary pilot RCT revealed that both UPR and TRK conditions might adversely impact running economy at a high intensity, steady state running pace. Future studies should elucidate if these findings are replicable in large scale trials and, in turn, whether periodized core training can beneficially preserve RE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Science for Elite Athletes)
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Open AccessReview
Meta-Analysis to Determine Normative Values for the Special Judo Fitness Test in Male Athletes: 20+ Years of Sport-Specific Data and the Lasting Legacy of Stanisław Sterkowicz
Sports 2019, 7(8), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080194 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 435
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) results specific to the population of male judoka and to develop age category norms for junior and senior athletes. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to identify [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) results specific to the population of male judoka and to develop age category norms for junior and senior athletes. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to identify 281 publications reporting SJFT results between 1995 and 2018. The final meta-analysis included data from 37 relevant studies that reported SJFT results from 51 individual samples of 515 senior and 209 junior male athletes. The combined mean and SD for SJFT variables were calculated, and the Cohen’s d effect size with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the senior and junior age classifications were compared. Senior athletes demonstrated higher total number of throws (d = 0.41, CI = 0.25–0.57, p <0.001) and heart rate (HR) immediately after the SJFT (d = 0.18, CI = 0.02–0.35, p = 0.025) with limited differences for HR one minute after the SJFT between groups. The SJFT index was lower for seniors compared to juniors (d = 0.38, CI = 0.22–0.54, p <0.001) indicating better overall performance by the more advanced athletes. Percentile rankings were used to develop SJFT classificatory tables for male senior and junior judo athletes. Training staff can use the age group classifications in the evaluation process of their athletes and for the purpose of monitoring training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Performance Challenges in Martial Arts and Combat Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Bio-Banding upon Physical and Technical Performance during Soccer Competition: A Preliminary Analysis
Sports 2019, 7(8), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080193 - 14 Aug 2019
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Bio-banded competition has been introduced to address the variation in physical maturity within soccer. To date, no research has investigated the effect of bio-banded competition relative to chronological competition. The current study investigated the effect of bio-banding upon physical and technical performance in [...] Read more.
Bio-banded competition has been introduced to address the variation in physical maturity within soccer. To date, no research has investigated the effect of bio-banded competition relative to chronological competition. The current study investigated the effect of bio-banding upon physical and technical performance in elite youth soccer athletes. Twenty-five male soccer athletes (11–15 years) from an English Premier League soccer academy participated in bio-banded and chronological competition, with physical and technical performance data collected for each athlete. Athletes were between 85–90% of predicted adult stature, and sub-divided into early, on-time and late developers. For early developers, significantly more short passes, significantly less dribbles and a higher rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were evident during bio-banded competition compared to chronological competition (p < 0.05). Significantly more short passes and dribbles, and significantly fewer long passes were seen for on-time developers during bio-banded competition (p < 0.05). For late developers, significantly more tackles, and significantly fewer long passes were evident during bio-banded competition (p < 0.05). No significant differences in physical performance were identified between competition formats. Results demonstrated that bio-banded competition changed the technical demand placed upon athletes compared to chronological competition, without reducing the physical demands. Bio-banded competition can be prescribed to athletes of differing maturation groups dependent upon their specific developmental needs. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial: Fatigue and Recovery in Football
Sports 2019, 7(8), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080192 - 13 Aug 2019
Viewed by 646
Abstract
The football codes (soccer, American football, Australian rules football, rugby league, and union and Gaelic football) are intermittent team sports with bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with low-intensity activities or rest [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatigue and Recovery in Football)
Open AccessArticle
The Reliability of Using a Laser Device to Assess Deceleration Ability
Sports 2019, 7(8), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080191 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 537
Abstract
An important component of change of direction speed is the ability to decelerate. Objective methods to examine this quality have been rarely reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the within- and between-session reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), [...] Read more.
An important component of change of direction speed is the ability to decelerate. Objective methods to examine this quality have been rarely reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the within- and between-session reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable difference (SDD)) of using a laser Doppler device (LAVEG—LAser VElocity Guard) to quantify deceleration ability in 20 amateur rugby union players. Each player performed one familiarisation and two experimental sessions (seven days apart) consisting of three maximal 15 m sprints from a standing start, with an immediate deceleration to a complete stop upon hearing an audible cue at the 15 m mark. Deceleration was evaluated by determining the distance required to decelerate to 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% (‘stopping distance’) of the velocity achieved at 15 m of the maximal sprint. Within-session relative reliability was moderate to good (ICC = 0.64–0.83) with borderline acceptable variation (CVs = 10.51%–16.71%) across all variables. Between-session reliability reported good to excellent relative reliability (ICC = 0.79–0.93) with acceptable absolute reliability, particularly for stopping distance (SEM: 6.54%; SDD: 9.11%). The assessment shows promise as a method to quantify deceleration ability in athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment and Development of Change of Direction Speed and Agility)
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Open AccessCommentary
Rethinking Tourist Wellbeing through the Concept of Slow Adventure
Sports 2019, 7(8), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080190 - 08 Aug 2019
Viewed by 495
Abstract
The necessity for humans inhabiting the 21st century to slow down and take time to carry out daily practices frames the discourse of this research note. We suggest reconceptualising tourist wellbeing through the concept of slow adventure, as a response to the cult [...] Read more.
The necessity for humans inhabiting the 21st century to slow down and take time to carry out daily practices frames the discourse of this research note. We suggest reconceptualising tourist wellbeing through the concept of slow adventure, as a response to the cult of speed and as a vehicle for engaging in deep, immersive and more meaningful experiences during journeys in the outdoors. We suggest that slow adventure has the potential to improve people’s general health and wellbeing through mindful enjoyment and consumption of the outdoor experience and thus bring people back to a state of mental and physical equilibrium. In so doing, we argue that extending the concept to include discussions around the psychological and social aspects of slow adventure is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Linear Versus Changes of Direction Repeated Sprints on Intermittent High Intensity Running Performance in High-level Junior Football Players over an Entire Season: A Randomized Trial
Sports 2019, 7(8), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080189 - 06 Aug 2019
Viewed by 557
Abstract
Background: Changes of direction (COD) repeated sprints (RSs) might have greater relevance to football than linear RSs. We aimed to compare the effects of linear and COD RSs on intermittent high intensity running (HIR) over an entire season. Methods: In total, 19 high-level [...] Read more.
Background: Changes of direction (COD) repeated sprints (RSs) might have greater relevance to football than linear RSs. We aimed to compare the effects of linear and COD RSs on intermittent high intensity running (HIR) over an entire season. Methods: In total, 19 high-level male football players (16–19 years) randomly performed linear RSs or COD RSs twice a week during their competitive season over 22 weeks. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2), and 10- and 20-m sprint was assessed pre-, mid- (11 weeks), and post-intervention (22 weeks). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was assessed pre- and post-intervention. Results: There was no interaction effect (time x group) in Yo-Yo IR2 (p = 0.36, pη2 = 0.06) or sprint tests (10 m: p = 0.55, pη2 = 0.04, 20 m: p = 0.28 pη2 = 0.08), and no change differences between groups. There was a main effect of time for Yo-Yo IR2 (p = 0.002, pη2 = 0.31) but not in sprints or VO2max. Conclusion: Linear and COD RS exercise twice a week over 22 weeks equally improves intermittent HIR performance but does not improve sprint time or aerobic power in high-level junior football players. However, due to our two-armed intervention, we cannot exclude possible effects from other exercise components in the players’ exercise program. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Pre-Exercise High and Low Glycaemic Meal on Intermittent Sprint and Endurance Exercise Performance
Sports 2019, 7(8), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080188 - 05 Aug 2019
Viewed by 810
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of ingesting either a high glycaemic index (HGI) or low glycaemic index (LGI) carbohydrate meal (preceding a 12 h overnight fast and where the meal was ingested 45-min prior to activity) on intermittent [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of ingesting either a high glycaemic index (HGI) or low glycaemic index (LGI) carbohydrate meal (preceding a 12 h overnight fast and where the meal was ingested 45-min prior to activity) on intermittent sprint and endurance exercise performance. Ten male varsity athletes from intermittent sports (age 23.6 ± 1.7 years, VO2max 51.9 ± 4.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) underwent a peak velocity (Vpeak) test and familiarisation session, followed by two experimental sessions in random order. Experimental sessions involved the ingestion of either an HGI or LGI meal, followed by the completion of the modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (mLIST). There was no significant difference between HGI or LGI meals on sprint times (p = 0.62) and distance to exhaustion (p = 0.54) in the mLIST. Exercise heart rate, blood lactate and ratings of perceived exertion were also similar between the two meal trials throughout the mLIST (all p > 0.05). Subjective ratings of hunger, fullness, satiety and satisfaction were also not significantly different between the two meals. In conclusion, consuming either an HGI or LGI meal after a prolonged 12 h fast and ingesting the meal 45 min prior to exercise did not differ in either physiological, subjective and intermittent sprint and endurance performance outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intervention in Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Metabolic Changes with Thigh-Positioned Wearable Resistances during Submaximal Running in Endurance-Trained Runners
Sports 2019, 7(8), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080187 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 542
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the acute metabolic effects of different magnitudes of wearable resistance (WR) attached to the thigh during submaximal running. Twenty endurance-trained runners (40.8 ± 8.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.7 m, 75.4 ± 9.2 kg) completed six [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the acute metabolic effects of different magnitudes of wearable resistance (WR) attached to the thigh during submaximal running. Twenty endurance-trained runners (40.8 ± 8.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.7 m, 75.4 ± 9.2 kg) completed six submaximal eight-minute running trials unloaded and with WRs of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% body mass (BM), in a random order. The use of a WR resulted in a 1.6 ± 0.6% increase in oxygen consumption (VO2) for every 1% BM of additional load. Inferential based analysis found that the loading of ≥3% BM was needed to elicit any substantial responses in VO2, with an increase that was likely to be moderate in scale (effect size (ES) ± 90% confidential interval (CI): 0.24 ± 0.07). Using heart rate data, a training load score was extrapolated to quantify the amount of internal stress. For every 1% BM of WR, there is an extra 0.17 ± 0.06 estimated increase in training load. A WR ≥3% of BM was needed to elicit substantial responses in lactate production, with an increase which was very likely to be large in scale (ES ± 90% CI: 0.41 ± 0.18). A thigh-positioned WR provides a running-specific overload with loads ≥3% BM, resulting in substantial changes in metabolic responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Athlete Performance Enhancement through Endurance Running Training)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effectiveness of Progressive and Traditional Coaching Strategies to Improve Sprint and Jump Performance Across Varying Levels of Maturation within a General Youth Population
Sports 2019, 7(8), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080186 - 30 Jul 2019
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Literature pertaining to youth development has identified the importance of understanding the physical, intellectual and emotional needs of adolescents prior to, during, and after their peak height velocity (PHV) period. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a ‘traditional’ [...] Read more.
Literature pertaining to youth development has identified the importance of understanding the physical, intellectual and emotional needs of adolescents prior to, during, and after their peak height velocity (PHV) period. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of a ‘traditional’ and ‘progressive’ coaching style to train a general male youth population to improve sprint and jump performances whilst assessing enjoyment to comment on long-term application. Maximal sprint times, sprint kinematics, unilateral jump distances and repetitive tuck jump scores were measured alongside anthropometric variables to characterise performance. The results revealed significant (p < 0.05) pre/post differences in anthropometric variables across all maturation groups, and each of the maturational levels displayed a tendency to favor a particular coaching or control condition. Pre-PHV groups responded most effectively to the progressive style of coaching, displaying improvements in horizontal jump performances, and −0.7% to −2.7% improvements in all sprint times, despite also showing the largest increase in tuck jump scores (25.8%). The circa-PHV group produced their greatest improvements in the traditional intervention, as displayed through significant improvements (p < 0.05) in 20-m sprint times and dominant-leg horizontal jump performance, whilst also revealing the greatest deterioration in tuck jump scores (14.2%). Post-PHV displayed the greatest improvements in the control setting, suggesting that the natural benefits gained through adolescent development were greater than the influence of the training interventions. In conclusion, the results suggest that matching coaching strategies and delivery techniques to the period of biological maturation may have implications for both performance and athlete safety. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Listening to Preferred versus Non-Preferred Music on Repeated Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance
Sports 2019, 7(8), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080185 - 29 Jul 2019
Viewed by 646
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to preferred or non-preferred music on repeated sprint performance. Fourteen physically active males (ages 18–25 years) were recruited for this study. In a counterbalanced crossover study design, participants completed two separate [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to preferred or non-preferred music on repeated sprint performance. Fourteen physically active males (ages 18–25 years) were recruited for this study. In a counterbalanced crossover study design, participants completed two separate visits. During each visit, participants listened to either preferred or non-preferred music and completed 3 × 15 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests (WAnTs) separated by 2 min active recovery periods. Each visit was separated by a minimal recovery period of 48 h. Anaerobic performance measures, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and motivation were analyzed. Mean power (p = 0.846, effect size (ES) = 0.019), anaerobic capacity (p = 0.686, ES = 0.058), and total work (p = 0.677, ES = 0.039) were not significantly different between preferred and non-preferred music conditions. Mean heart rate (p = 0.608; ES = 0.125) was also unchanged. Motivation to exercise (p < 0.001; ES = 1.520) was significantly higher in the preferred music condition. Additionally, the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) (p = 0.028; ES = 0.540) was significantly lower during the preferred music condition. Our results show that listening to preferred music showed no ergogenic benefit during repeated anaerobic cycling sprints when compared to non-preferred music. However, preferred music increased motivation to exercise and decreased perceived exertion. The results from this study could hold important implications for the application of music and enduring repeated high-intensity sprint exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Music in Sport and Exercise)
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Open AccessArticle
Using A Soft Conformable Foot Sensor to Measure Changes in Foot Strike Angle During Running
Sports 2019, 7(8), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080184 - 29 Jul 2019
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The potential association between running foot strike analysis and performance and injury metrics has created the need for reliable methods to quantify foot strike pattern outside the laboratory. Small, wireless inertial measurement units (IMUs) allow for unrestricted movement of the participants. Current IMU [...] Read more.
The potential association between running foot strike analysis and performance and injury metrics has created the need for reliable methods to quantify foot strike pattern outside the laboratory. Small, wireless inertial measurement units (IMUs) allow for unrestricted movement of the participants. Current IMU methods to measure foot strike pattern places small, rigid accelerometers and/or gyroscopes on the heel cap or on the instep of the shoe. The purpose of this study was to validate a thin, conformable IMU sensor placed directly on the dorsal foot surface to determine foot strike angles and pattern. Participants (n = 12) ran on a treadmill with different foot strike patterns while videography and sensor data were captured. Sensor measures were compared against traditional 2D video analysis techniques and the results showed that the sensor was able to accurately (92.2% success) distinguish between rearfoot and non-rearfoot foot strikes using an angular velocity cut-off value of 0°/s. There was also a strong and significant correlation between sensor determined foot strike angle and foot strike angle determined from videography analysis (r = 0.868, p < 0.001), although linear regression analysis showed that the sensor underestimated the foot strike angle. Conformable sensors with the ability to attach directly to the human skin could improve the tracking of human dynamics and should be further explored. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Jump Direction on Joint Kinetics of Take-Off Legs in Double-Leg Rebound Jumps
Sports 2019, 7(8), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080183 - 26 Jul 2019
Viewed by 539
Abstract
Vertical (VDJ) and horizontal (HDJ) double-leg rebound jumps are used as plyometric exercises in direction-specific training regimens for various sports. We investigated the effects of jump direction on joint kinetics of the take-off legs in double-leg rebound jumps. Twelve Japanese male track and [...] Read more.
Vertical (VDJ) and horizontal (HDJ) double-leg rebound jumps are used as plyometric exercises in direction-specific training regimens for various sports. We investigated the effects of jump direction on joint kinetics of the take-off legs in double-leg rebound jumps. Twelve Japanese male track and field athletes performed VDJ, 100% HDJ, 50% HDJ (50% of 100% HDJ distance), and 75% HDJ (75% of 100% HDJ distance). Kinematic and kinetic data in the sagittal plane were calculated using a force platform and high-speed video camera. Hip negative power during the eccentric phase decreased from VDJ to 50% HDJ (VDJ, −4.40 ± 4.25 W/kg; 50% HDJ, −0.83 ± 2.10; 75% HDJ, −0.33 ± 0.83; 100% HDJ, 0 ± 0), while hip positive power increased from VDJ to 100% HDJ (VDJ, 4.19 ± 2.73 W/kg; 50% HDJ, 9.37 ± 2.89; 75% HDJ, 11.15 ± 3.91; 100% HDJ, 18.51 ± 9.83). Knee negative power increased from VDJ to 75% HDJ (VDJ, −14.48 ± 7.67 W/kg; 50% HDJ, −18.98 ± 7.13; 75% HDJ, −21.57 ± 8.54; 100% HDJ, −23.34 ± 12.13), while knee positive power decreased from VDJ to 75% HDJ (VDJ, 23.18 ± 9.01 W/kg; 50% HDJ, 18.83 ± 5.49; 75% HDJ, 18.10 ± 5.77; 100% HDJ, 16.27 ± 6.22). Ankle joint kinetics remained unchanged. Differences in hip and knee joint kinetics between VDJ and HDJ were associated with direction control, becoming more pronounced as jump distance increased. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Outdoor Therapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis Examining the Lived-Experience, Embodied, and Therapeutic Process through Interpersonal Process Recall
Sports 2019, 7(8), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080182 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 447
Abstract
This research explores an innovative methodology for understanding the process and practice of UK-based outdoor therapists. Recent studies address the need to expand circles of knowledge, and capture the lived-experience of outdoor practitioners to examine the ‘altered’ therapeutic process and frame. Interpersonal process [...] Read more.
This research explores an innovative methodology for understanding the process and practice of UK-based outdoor therapists. Recent studies address the need to expand circles of knowledge, and capture the lived-experience of outdoor practitioners to examine the ‘altered’ therapeutic process and frame. Interpersonal process recall (IPR) methodology offers a nuanced and contextualised lived-experience of outdoor therapists. IPR includes three phases: (1) initial-interview; (2) post-session-reflective-recording; and (3) an IPR-interview to replay and explore the participants’ recorded reflections of the outdoor therapy session. The sample included three UK-based outdoor therapists. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to qualitatively analyze the data. The study presents the theme of ‘transitional landscapes—transitional thinking’, which explores the embodied experience, the parallel process between the client and therapist, and watching for drift. The findings provide insight for training and supervision and generates constructive dialogue amongst outdoor therapists. The research supports IPR as a methodology offering participant and researcher experiential and reflective positions. Parallels are drawn in relation to existing research, literature, and contemporary professional issues surrounding outdoor therapy as a mental health treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
Open AccessArticle
Perfectionism, Body Satisfaction and Dieting in Athletes: The Role of Gender and Sport Type
Sports 2019, 7(8), 181; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080181 - 24 Jul 2019
Viewed by 578
Abstract
Athletes are often at a greater risk for disordered eating development due to their perfectionistic tendencies, as well as physical performance- and appearance-related demands of various sports in which they compete. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of [...] Read more.
Athletes are often at a greater risk for disordered eating development due to their perfectionistic tendencies, as well as physical performance- and appearance-related demands of various sports in which they compete. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the possibility of independent contributions of perfectionism and body satisfaction on dieting behaviour among male and female athletes. Two-hundred-eighty (192 male; 88 female) athletes provided their answers on the Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT-26), Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale (PANPS) and modified Body Image Satisfaction Scale from Body Image and Body Change Inventory. No gender or sport type differences were observed in dieting behaviour and body satisfaction was the only significant predictor of dieting for female athletes. Mediation analysis demonstrated that body satisfaction is a mediator between both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism and dieting. These findings emphasize the important role that body satisfaction has in disordered eating development in female athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychophysiological Response in Sports)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Home-based Exercise Program on Shoulder Pain and Range of Motion in Elite Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial
Sports 2019, 7(8), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7080180 - 24 Jul 2019
Viewed by 548
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a 10 week shoulder home based exercise program (SHEP) on shoulder pain (SP) and range of motion (ROM) in a group of elite wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A convenience sample of [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a 10 week shoulder home based exercise program (SHEP) on shoulder pain (SP) and range of motion (ROM) in a group of elite wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A convenience sample of elite WB players (n = 36, 15 males and 21 females), mean age of 26 years (SD 7.6, range 15–45)) were assigned to either an exercise or a control group, according to the use of the wheelchair during daily activities. The shoulder pain index for wheelchair basketball players (SPI-WB), functional tests and ROM were measured at baseline and after a 10 week intervention. In the analysis of the SPI-WB scores, for the exercise and control groups separately, there were no significant reductions of SPI-WB scores after intervention. Related to the analysis between groups after 10 weeks of intervention, there were no significant differences in changes between the exercise and control groups (Z = 0.840, p > 0.05, r = 0.743). In this regard, there was a significant change after the intervention for shoulder extension ROM (Z = 2.81, p ≤ 0.05, r = 0.249). Shoulder Pain did not increase along the 10 weeks of the SHEP development in WB players who reported SP before the intervention program. However, in those players who started the intervention without SP, as no increase in SP was observed and players were free of injury. An exercise program could be a tool to maintain shoulder health and prevent injuries in elite WB players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researching Sports Biomechanics for Disabled People)
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