Special Issue "Exercise in Aging"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Lawrence Hayes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Cumbria, Department of Medical and Sport Sciences, Lancaster, United Kingdom
Interests: ageing; endocrinology; exercise; HIIT; hormones; physiology
Dr. Theodoros Bampouras
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Active Ageing Research Group, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, United Kingdom
Interests: ageing; biomechanics; exercise; functional ability; gait
Dr. Bradley Elliott
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Translational Physiology Research Group, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom
Interests: ageing; atrophy; cell culture; exercise; hypoxia; myostatin; physiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In less than 200 years, life expectancy in the United Kingdom has doubled from ~40 to ~80 years, a trend mirrored in most developed and now developing countries. Despite increased lifespan, the effects of increased longevity pose distinct health challenges, with national morbidity profiles showing greater incidence of chronic and degenerative diseases. The healthogenic effects of staying active across the lifespan are widely promoted, yet only 36% of men and 18% of women >75 years of age in England achieve the physical activity guidelines of 150 min/week.

Reduced functional ability as we age is caused by a natural weakening of physiological systems, exacerbated by physical inactivity. This Special Issue will discuss benefits of, and barriers to, physical activity and exercise in older cohorts. Manuscripts are invited that concern the influence of age on exercise-related parameters, or the effect exercise exerts on older individuals. Submissions from all disciplines will be considered, and experiments investigating exercise to attenuate aging are encouraged.

Dr. Lawrence Hayes
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Biomechanics
  • Exercise
  • Functional ability
  • Gerontology
  • Physiology
  • Physical activity
  • Psychology

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessCommunication
An Assessment of Training Characteristics Associated with Atrial Fibrillation in Masters Runners
Sports 2019, 7(7), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7070179 - 23 Jul 2019
Abstract
A growing body of literature supports an association between long-term endurance exercise and the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the benefits of lifelong exercise, a better understanding of this association is critical to allow healthcare providers to counsel aging exercisers on the [...] Read more.
A growing body of literature supports an association between long-term endurance exercise and the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Given the benefits of lifelong exercise, a better understanding of this association is critical to allow healthcare providers to counsel aging exercisers on the proper “dose” of exercise to maximize health benefits but minimize AF risk. The current study examines the relationship between specific aspects of training volume and intensity and the occurrence of AF among older runners in order to better understand what aspects of endurance exercise may contribute to the development of AF. The study was an Internet-based survey of endurance training and health characteristics of runners 35 years of age and older. A total 2819 runners participated and 69 (2.4%) reported a current or prior diagnosis of AF. Among “traditional” risk factors, runners reporting AF were older, more likely to be male, and had higher rates of hypertension and diabetes. Among training characteristics, only accumulated years of training was associated with AF. In contrast, average weekly mileage, training pace, and days of training per week were not associated with AF. In a multivariable analysis that included chronologic age, sex, diabetes, and hypertension, accumulated years of training remained significantly associated with the report of AF. These findings suggest that the relationship between chronic endurance exercise and AF is dependent on the accumulated training duration but does not appear to be influenced by specific training characteristics such as frequency or intensity of endurance exercise. Further confirmation of these relationships may help healthcare providers counsel exercisers on optimal training habits and identify endurance athletes who are at risk for the development of AF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise in Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Peak Power Output Is Similarly Recovered After Three- and Five-Days’ Rest Following Sprint Interval Training in Young and Older Adults
Sports 2019, 7(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7040094 - 25 Apr 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) exerts effects indicative of improved health in young and older populations. However, prescribing analogous training programmes is inappropriate, as recovery from HIIT is different between young and older individuals. Sprint interval training (SIT) is a derivative of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) exerts effects indicative of improved health in young and older populations. However, prescribing analogous training programmes is inappropriate, as recovery from HIIT is different between young and older individuals. Sprint interval training (SIT) is a derivative of HIIT but with shorter, maximal effort intervals. Prior to prescribing this mode of training, it is imperative to understand the recovery period to prevent residual fatigue affecting subsequent adaptations. (2) Methods: Nine older (6M/3F; mean age of 70 ± 8 years) and nine young (6M/3F; mean age of 24 ± 3 years) participants performed a baseline peak power output (PPO) test. Subsequently, two SIT sessions consisting of three repetitions of 20 s ‘all-out’ stationary cycling bouts interspersed by 3 minutes of self-paced recovery were performed. SIT sessions were followed by 3 days’ rest and 5 days’ rest on two separate occasions, in a randomised crossover design. PPO was measured again to determine whether recovery had been achieved after 3 days or after 5 days. (3) Results: Two-way repeated measure (age (older, young) × 3 time (baseline, 3 days, 5 days)) ANOVA revealed a large effect of age (p = 0.002, n2p = 0.460), with older participants having a lower PPO compared to young participants. A small effect of time (p = 0.702, n2p = 0.022), and a medium interaction between age and time (p = 0.098, n2p = 0.135) was observed. (4) Conclusions: This study demonstrates both young and older adults recover PPO following 3 and 5 days’ rest. As such, both groups could undertake SIT following three days of rest, without a reduction in PPO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise in Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of a Physically Active Lifestyle on the Health of Former Professional Football Players
Sports 2019, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7040075 - 28 Mar 2019
Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a physically active lifestyle affects the health of former football players. Sixty former professional football players aged 40–50 years and who ended their sports career at least ten years ago were recruited for the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a physically active lifestyle affects the health of former football players. Sixty former professional football players aged 40–50 years and who ended their sports career at least ten years ago were recruited for the study and grouped into two groups based on their physical activity habits after their retirement. Health and lifestyle characteristics were collected through a questionnaire to obtain information about recreational physical activity levels, diseases, family medical history, smoking, alcohol intake and dietary habits. Furthermore, lung functions, blood parameters and cardiovascular health were evaluated. Our results showed that body weight and body fat percentage were significantly higher in retired footballers who had a sedentary lifestyle compared to those who were physically active. The absolute and predicted values for forced expiratory volume in one-second values were higher in the active group. Twelve retired athletes were found to have intraventricular conduction delay. The findings suggest that former footballers who have higher levels of physical activity have advanced body composition, respiratory functions and serum lipids compared to former footballers with less active lifestyles. It is recommended that former elite athletes should maintain physically active lifestyles to sustain their health and reduce the risk of disease and disability in the later years of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise in Aging)
Open AccessArticle
Promoting Stair Climbing as an Exercise Routine among Healthy Older Adults Attending a Community-Based Physical Activity Program
Sports 2019, 7(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7010023 - 18 Jan 2019
Abstract
Stair climbing provides a feasible opportunity for increasing physical activity (PA) in daily living. The purpose of this study was to examine the daily walking and stair-climbing steps among healthy older adults (age: 74.0 ± 4.9 years; Body Mass Index (BMI): 22.3 ± [...] Read more.
Stair climbing provides a feasible opportunity for increasing physical activity (PA) in daily living. The purpose of this study was to examine the daily walking and stair-climbing steps among healthy older adults (age: 74.0 ± 4.9 years; Body Mass Index (BMI): 22.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2). Participants (34 females and 15 males) attended a weekly 6-month community-based PA program. During the entire program period, daily walking and stair-climbing steps were recorded using a pedometer (Omron, HJA-403C, Kyoto, Japan). Before and after the 6-month program, height, body weight and leg muscle strength were assessed. After the 6-month program, the mean walking and stair-climbing steps in both women and men increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01). Daily stair-climbing steps increased about 36 steps in women and 47 steps in men. At the end of 6 months, only male participants had significant correlation between the number of stair steps and leg muscle strength (r = 0.428, p = 0.037). This study reported that healthy older adults attending the community-based PA program had regular stair-climbing steps during daily living. Promoting stair climbing as an exercise routine was feasible to increase their walking and stair-climbing steps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise in Aging)
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Open AccessArticle
Visualizing Physical Activity Patterns among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Sports 2018, 6(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports6040135 - 30 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Regular physical activity relates to physical and mental functioning in older people, and promoting physical activity has the potential to substantially reduce functional decline and improve well-being. Despite this, investigations of the physical activity quotient through participation in functional activities in everyday life [...] Read more.
Regular physical activity relates to physical and mental functioning in older people, and promoting physical activity has the potential to substantially reduce functional decline and improve well-being. Despite this, investigations of the physical activity quotient through participation in functional activities in everyday life have traditionally gained limited focus among older populations compared to leisure-time physical activity and exercise. Considering the accumulated evidence of the health benefits of low-intensity physical activity, exploring and measuring such activities in this population is highly relevant. The aim of this study was to visualize and describe older people’s physical activity patterns in daily life using a time-geographic approach in combination with the estimation of metabolic equivalents (METS). To exemplify the new method, a sample of nine retired men (65–82 years old, mean age 76.4 ± 5.8) with no homecare services from the municipality was recruited. In order to enable a visual analysis of the physical activity patterns in daily life, we developed the VISUAL-PA software, which is a visual analysis tool that includes METS to account for intensity and enables the analysis of distinct types and domains of physical activity. The VISUAL-PA software creates graphic outputs of physical activity patterns that enable the identification, visualization, and analysis of distinct types and intensities of physical activity in addition to sedentary behavior. The use of VISUAL-PA can contribute to a broader understanding of the complexity in physical activity patterns among older adults in terms of dimensions such as activity patterns and habits, domains, and intensity level. To strengthen the public health strategies that promote health and an active lifestyle, additional knowledge about physical activity patterns is necessary. Moreover, the visualization of physical activity can enable reflections on and awareness of activity habits and preferences, and thus facilitate behavior changes in older individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise in Aging)
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