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Gastrointestinal Complaints and Correlations with Self-Reported Macronutrient Intake in Independent Groups of (Ultra)Marathon Runners Competing at Different Distances

1
Sports and Exercise Nutrition, Institute for Sports and Exercise, HAN University of Applied Sciences, Nijmegen 6525, The Netherlands
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Nutrition & Performance, Team Jumbo-Visma, ‘s-Herthogenbosch 5222, The Netherlands
3
Global Nutrition Development, Friesland Campina, Amersfoort 3818, The Netherlands
4
Bakala Academy Athletic Performance Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium
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College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sports 2019, 7(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7060140
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
This study investigated the differences in gastrointestinal (GI) and exercise related complaints between groups of runners competing at different distances using web-based questionnaires. Total (severe) complaints were reported by 89.3% (49.7%) of the runners during the race vs. 70.6% (29.4%) after the race. Significant differences between groups were described for marathon (n = 98) and 60 km (n = 43) runners. During competition, runners reported the urge to urinate (47.7%), muscle cramps (43.6%) and belching (43.6%). The prevalence of bloating, flatulence, side ache and dizziness differed between distances (p < 0.02). There were small to moderate negative correlations between food and fluid intake and GI complaints. After competition (12 h), 70.6% of participants reported complaints, with muscle cramps (47.6%), flatulence (19.0%) and bloating (12.7%) being the most prevalent. Prevalence of belching, nausea, stomach cramps and muscle cramps differed between race distances (p < 0.04). There were small to high positive correlations between complaints during and after competition (p < 0.05). In conclusion, runners of all distances reported a high prevalence of GI and other exercise related complaints. There were some small differences in reporting type and severity of complaints between distances. Results showed small to strong correlations between complaints during and after competition and with nutrient intake, without a clear similar pattern for all distances. View Full-Text
Keywords: running; sports nutrition; GI complaints; marathon; Food and Fluid Exercise Questionnaire (FFEQ); ultrarunning; endurance exercise running; sports nutrition; GI complaints; marathon; Food and Fluid Exercise Questionnaire (FFEQ); ultrarunning; endurance exercise
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Hoogervorst, D.; van der Burg, N.; Versteegen, J.J.; Lambrechtse, K.J.; Redegeld, M.I.; Cornelissen, L.A.J.; Wardenaar, F.C. Gastrointestinal Complaints and Correlations with Self-Reported Macronutrient Intake in Independent Groups of (Ultra)Marathon Runners Competing at Different Distances. Sports 2019, 7, 140.

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