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Insects, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Monarch butterflies have suffered a serious population decline in North America since the 1990s. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation of a Pericentromeric Satellite DNA Family in Chnootriba argus (Henosepilachna argus) with an Unusual Short Repeat Unit (TTAAAA) for Beetles
Insects 2019, 10(9), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090306 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) are one of the largest groups of beetles. Among them, some species are of economic interest since they can act as a biological control for some agricultural pests whereas other species are phytophagous and can damage crops. Chnootriba argus (Coccinellidae, [...] Read more.
Ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) are one of the largest groups of beetles. Among them, some species are of economic interest since they can act as a biological control for some agricultural pests whereas other species are phytophagous and can damage crops. Chnootriba argus (Coccinellidae, Epilachnini) has large heterochromatic pericentromeric blocks on all chromosomes, including both sexual chromosomes. Classical digestion of total genomic DNA using restriction endonucleases failed to find the satellite DNA located on these heterochromatic regions. Cloning of C0t-1 DNA resulted in the isolation of a repetitive DNA with a repeat unit of six base pairs, TTAAAA. The amount of TTAAAA repeat in the C. argus genome was about 20%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and digestion of chromosomes with the endonuclease Tru9I revealed that this repetitive DNA could be considered as the putative pericentromeric satellite DNA (satDNA) in this species. The presence of this satellite DNA was tested in other species of the tribe Epilachnini and it is also present in Epilachna paenulata. In both species, the TTAAAA repeat seems to be the main satellite DNA and it is located on the pericentromeric region on all chromosomes. The size of this satDNA, which has only six base pairs is unusual in Coleoptera satellite DNAs, where satDNAs usually have repeat units of a much larger size. Southern hybridization and FISH proved that this satDNA is conserved in some Epilachnini species but not in others. This result is in concordance with the controversial phylogenetic relationships among the genera of the tribe Epilachnini, where the limits between genera are unclear. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Interaction of Cultural, Biological, and Varietal Controls for Management of Stalk Borers in Louisiana Sugarcane
Insects 2019, 10(9), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090305 - 19 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Diatraea saccharalis F is considered the most important pest of sugarcane in the United States. This article focuses on the history of pest management as it relates to the control of this stem borer in Louisiana sugarcane, and how control practices have become [...] Read more.
Diatraea saccharalis F is considered the most important pest of sugarcane in the United States. This article focuses on the history of pest management as it relates to the control of this stem borer in Louisiana sugarcane, and how control practices have become more in tune with integrated pest management paradigms. Various pest management strategies are employed against D. saccharalis and the interactions between each of these provide farmers with the tools needed to curb damaging infestations. However, the invasion of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), and other confounding environmental factors have presented farmers, consultants, and researchers with new pest management challenges. We address these challenges and provide an overview of ongoing developments, particularly in the Louisiana sugarcane pest management program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology and Pest Management of Sugarcane Insects)
Open AccessArticle
Changes in Indoor Insecticide Residue Levels after Adopting an Integrated Pest Management Program to Control German Cockroach Infestations in an Apartment Building
Insects 2019, 10(9), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090304 - 18 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Insecticide use in homes leads to human exposure to insecticide residues that persist in the environment. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs have been known to be more environmentally friendly for managing German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations, but their effect on indoor [...] Read more.
Insecticide use in homes leads to human exposure to insecticide residues that persist in the environment. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs have been known to be more environmentally friendly for managing German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations, but their effect on indoor insecticide residue levels are not well understood. An IPM program consisting of applying cockroach gel baits and placing insect sticky traps as the primary treatment methods were implemented. Floor wipe samples were collected from the bedroom and kitchen floors of 69 apartments with German cockroach infestations at 0 months and again at 12 months from 49 of the 69 apartments sampled at 0 months. Levels of 18 insecticide residues were measured. The mean insecticide residue concentration per apartment decreased by 74% after 12 months. The number of insecticides detected per apartment decreased from 2.5 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error). Indoxacarb residue was only detected in two apartments at 12 months despite the fact that an average of 32 ± 4 g 0.6% indoxacarb gel bait was applied per apartment. IPM implementation can result in significant reduction in the insecticide residue concentrations and number of detected insecticides in floor dust samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Can Isogroup Selection of Highly Zoophagous Lines of a Zoophytophagous Bug Improve Biocontrol of Spider Mites in Apple Orchards?
Insects 2019, 10(9), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090303 - 18 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Zoophytophagous predators provide benefits in agroecosystems when feeding on pests, but they can also cause crop damage. Optimizing the use of zoophytophagous predators as biocontrol agents would require improving pest control and/or limiting damage. Populations of a zoophytophagous species can be composed of [...] Read more.
Zoophytophagous predators provide benefits in agroecosystems when feeding on pests, but they can also cause crop damage. Optimizing the use of zoophytophagous predators as biocontrol agents would require improving pest control and/or limiting damage. Populations of a zoophytophagous species can be composed of a mix of individuals diverging in their level of diet specialization. Consequently, depending on their level of zoophagy, individuals would vary widely in the benefits and risks they provide to pest management. We tested the hypothesis that manipulating the composition of the population of a zoophytophagous insect, the mullein bug, Campylomma verbasci (Hemiptera: Miridae), towards an increased zoophagy would increase their net benefit in an apple orchard. We compared the inherent benefits and risks of two different isogroup lines of mullein bug that genetically differed in their level of zoophagy. In spring, when damage occurs, both strains infrequently punctured apple fruit, which rarely lead to damage and therefore represented a low risk. During summer, only the highly-zoophagous line impacted the spider mite population, while the lowly-zoophagous line did not differ from the control treatments. We concluded that manipulating the composition of the zoophytophagous predator population provided extra net benefits that improved pest control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
GOBP1 Plays a Key Role in Sex Pheromones and Plant Volatiles Recognition in Yellow Peach Moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Insects 2019, 10(9), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090302 - 17 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Insects recognize odorous compounds using sensory neurons organized in olfactory sensilla. The process odor detection in insects requires an ensemble of proteins, including odorant binding proteins, olfactory receptors, and odor degrading enzymes; each of them are encoded by multigene families. Most functional proteins [...] Read more.
Insects recognize odorous compounds using sensory neurons organized in olfactory sensilla. The process odor detection in insects requires an ensemble of proteins, including odorant binding proteins, olfactory receptors, and odor degrading enzymes; each of them are encoded by multigene families. Most functional proteins seem to be broadly tuned, responding to multiple chemical compounds with different, but mostly quite similar structures. Based on the hypothesis that insects recognize host volatiles by means of general odorant binding proteins (GOBPs), the current study aimed to characterize GOBPs of the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée). In oviposition preference tests, it was found that the yellow peach moth preferred volatiles from Prunus persica (peach) in finding their host plant. Exposure of the moth to volatiles from peaches affected the expression level of GOBP genes. Binding affinity of GOBPs from yellow peach moth was assessed for 16 host plant volatiles and 2 sex pheromones. The fluorescence ligand-binding assays revealed highest affinities for hexadecanal, farnesol, and limonene with KD values of 0.55 ± 0.08, 0.35 ± 0.04, and 1.54 ± 0.39, respectively. The binding sites of GOBPs from yellow peach moth were predicted using homology modeling and characterized using molecular docking approaches. The results indicated the best binding affinity of both GOBP1 and GOBP2 for farnesol, with scores of −7.4 and −8.5 kcal/mol. Thus, GOBPs may play an important role in the process of finding host plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hemocyte Changes During Immune Melanization in Bombyx Mori Infected with Escherichia coli
Insects 2019, 10(9), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090301 - 16 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Hemolymph melanization is a conserved immune response in insects and other arthropods. However, the physiological process of the hemolymph system in the melanization response is hardly studied. Here, alterations of hemocytes in immune melanization were observed by Escherichia coli infection in Bombyx mori [...] Read more.
Hemolymph melanization is a conserved immune response in insects and other arthropods. However, the physiological process of the hemolymph system in the melanization response is hardly studied. Here, alterations of hemocytes in immune melanization were observed by Escherichia coli infection in Bombyx mori. Results first showed that there were cells aggregating into clusters. However, it vanished, and only part of clustered hemocytes were melanized during the period of intense immunity. The hemocyte numbers immediately decreased following an immune challenge, slowly increased to a peak, then reduced and finally returned to normalization. Granulocytes participated in cells aggregation at the early and later immune stage, while plasmatocytes were responsible for hemocytes agglomerate and melanization for the longest time, and more oenocytoids appeared at the peak stage of melanization. Moreover, hemocytes played a crucial role in resisting invasion of pathogens by agglomerate and melanization, and the circulatory system maintained higher hemocyte numbers and stronger antibacterial activity in fifth than fourth instar larvae after infection. In vitro immune melanization was most likely preferentially implemented in an independent process. These were the main characteristics reflecting the physiological process of hemolymph immune melanization, which provided an important foundation for further study of the complete mechanisms in the immunity of silkworm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity and Pathology)
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Open AccessReview
Lessons from One Fastidious Bacterium to Another: What Can We Learn about Liberibacter Species from Xylella fastidiosa
Insects 2019, 10(9), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090300 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Huanglongbing is causing economic devastation to the citrus industry in Florida, and threatens the industry everywhere the bacterial pathogens in the Candidatus Liberibacter genus and their insect vectors are found. Bacteria in the genus cannot be cultured and no durable strategy is available [...] Read more.
Huanglongbing is causing economic devastation to the citrus industry in Florida, and threatens the industry everywhere the bacterial pathogens in the Candidatus Liberibacter genus and their insect vectors are found. Bacteria in the genus cannot be cultured and no durable strategy is available for growers to control plant infection or pathogen transmission. However, scientists and grape growers were once in a comparable situation after the emergence of Pierce’s disease, which is caused by Xylella fastidiosa and spread by its hemipteran insect vector. Proactive quarantine and vector control measures coupled with interdisciplinary data-driven science established control of this devastating disease and pushed the frontiers of knowledge in the plant pathology and vector biology fields. Our review highlights the successful strategies used to understand and control X. fastidiosa and their potential applicability to the liberibacters associated with citrus greening, with a focus on the interactions between bacterial pathogen and insect vector. By placing the study of Candidatus Liberibacter spp. within the current and historical context of another fastidious emergent plant pathogen, future basic and applied research to develop control strategies can be prioritized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Behavioral Genetics of the Interactions between Apis mellifera and Varroa destructor
Insects 2019, 10(9), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090299 - 16 Sep 2019
Viewed by 368
Abstract
The western honeybee Apis mellifera exhibits a diverse set of adaptations in response to infestations by its most virulent disease-causing agent, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. In this study, we investigated the effect of honeybee pupae genotype on the expression of four [...] Read more.
The western honeybee Apis mellifera exhibits a diverse set of adaptations in response to infestations by its most virulent disease-causing agent, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. In this study, we investigated the effect of honeybee pupae genotype on the expression of four host and parasite traits that are associated with the reproductive phase of the mite in the brood of its host. We first phenotyped cells containing bee pupae to assess their infestation status, their infestation level, the reproductive status of the mites, and the recapping of cells by adult workers. We then genotyped individual pupae with five microsatellites markers to compare these phenotypes across full sister groups. We found that the four phenotypes varied significantly in time but did not across the subfamilies within the colonies. These findings show that V. destructor mites do not differentially infest or reproduce on some particular honeybee patrilines, and that workers do not target preferentially specific pupae genotypes when performing recapping. These findings bring new insights that can help designing sustainable mite control strategies through breeding and provide new insights into the interactions between A. mellifera and V. destructor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology of Social Insect Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimation of the Potential Infestation Area of Newly-invaded Fall Armyworm Spodoptera Frugiperda in the Yangtze River Valley of China
Insects 2019, 10(9), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090298 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 346
Abstract
The fall armyworm (FAW), native to the Americas, has rapidly invaded the whole of Southern China since January 2019. In addition, it can survive and breed in the key maize- and rice- growing area of the Yangtze River Valley. Furthermore, this pest is [...] Read more.
The fall armyworm (FAW), native to the Americas, has rapidly invaded the whole of Southern China since January 2019. In addition, it can survive and breed in the key maize- and rice- growing area of the Yangtze River Valley. Furthermore, this pest is also likely to continue infiltrating other cropping regions in China, where food security is facing a severe threat. To understand the potential infestation area of newly-invaded FAW from the Yangtze River Valley, we simulated and predicted the possible flight pathways and range of the populations using a numerical trajectory modelling method combining meteorological data and self-powered flight behavior parameters of FAW. Our results indicate that the emigration of the first and second generations of newly-invaded FAW initiating from the Yangtze River Valley started on 20 May 2019 and ended on 30 July 2019. The spread of migratory FAW benefitted from transport on the southerly summer monsoon so that FAW emigrants from the Yangtze River Valley can reach northern China. The maize-cropping areas of Northeastern China, the Korean Peninsula and Japan are at a high risk. This study provides a basis for early warning and a broad picture of FAW migration from the Yangtze River Valley. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Survey of Tick-Borne Bacterial Pathogens in Florida
Insects 2019, 10(9), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090297 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Within the past three decades, new bacterial etiological agents of tick-borne disease have been discovered in the southeastern U.S., and the number of reported tick-borne pathogen infections has increased. In Florida, few systematic studies have been conducted to determine the presence of tick-borne [...] Read more.
Within the past three decades, new bacterial etiological agents of tick-borne disease have been discovered in the southeastern U.S., and the number of reported tick-borne pathogen infections has increased. In Florida, few systematic studies have been conducted to determine the presence of tick-borne bacterial pathogens. This investigation examined the distribution and presence of tick-borne bacterial pathogens in Florida. Ticks were collected by flagging at 41 field sites, spanning the climatic regions of mainland Florida. DNA was extracted individually from 1608 ticks and screened for Anaplasma, Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia using conventional PCR and primers that amplified multiple species for each genus. PCR positive samples were Sanger sequenced. Four species of ticks were collected: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. Within these ticks, six bacterial species were identified: Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia lonestari, Ehrlichia ewingii, Rickettsia amblyommatis, Rickettsia andeanae, Rickettsia parkeri, and Rickettsia endosymbionts. Pathogenic Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species were all detected in the North and North-Central Florida counties; however, we found only moderate concordance between the distribution of ticks infected with pathogenic bacteria and human cases of tick-borne diseases in Florida. Given the diversity and numerous bacterial species detected in ticks in Florida, further investigations should be conducted to identify regional hotspots of tick-borne pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick Surveillance and Tick-borne Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Resident Yeast from the Honeybee Gut on Immunity, Microbiota, and Nosema Disease
Insects 2019, 10(9), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090296 - 13 Sep 2019
Viewed by 444
Abstract
The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) has a core bacterial microbiota that is well described and important for health. Honeybees also host a yeast community that is poorly understood with respect to host nutrition and immunity, and also the symbiotic bacterial microbiota. [...] Read more.
The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) has a core bacterial microbiota that is well described and important for health. Honeybees also host a yeast community that is poorly understood with respect to host nutrition and immunity, and also the symbiotic bacterial microbiota. In this work, we present two studies focusing on the consequences of dysbiosis when honeybees were control-fed a yeast that was isolated from a honeybee midgut, Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Yeast augmentation for bees with developed microbiota appeared immunomodulatory (lowered immunity and hormone-related gene expression) and affected the microbial community, while yeast augmentation for newly emerged bees without an established bacterial background did not lead to decreased immunity— and hormone—related gene expression. In newly emerged bees that had a naturally occurring baseline level of W. anomalus, we observed that the addition of N. ceranae led to a decrease in yeast levels. Overall, we show that yeasts can affect the microbiome, immunity, and physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology of Social Insect Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Genomic and Mitochondrial Data Identify Different Species Boundaries in Aposematically Polymorphic Eniclases Net-Winged Beetles (Coleoptera: Lycidae)
Insects 2019, 10(9), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090295 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 476
Abstract
Species delineation is essential for any evolutionary and biodiversity research, and recent advances in genomic sequencing have made it possible to robustly define species boundaries and detect hidden diversity. Here, we studied 14 species of aposematically colored New Guinean Eniclases (Coleoptera: Lycidae) whose [...] Read more.
Species delineation is essential for any evolutionary and biodiversity research, and recent advances in genomic sequencing have made it possible to robustly define species boundaries and detect hidden diversity. Here, we studied 14 species of aposematically colored New Guinean Eniclases (Coleoptera: Lycidae) whose conventional morphology- and single-locus mtDNA-based taxonomy has been contentious. We analyzed mitochondrial and restriction site associated DNA fragments to obtain a phylogenetic hypothesis and compared relationships recovered by the RAD analysis with species limits based on other information. The results show the presence of cryptic diversity and common mitonuclear discordance when over 30% of individuals were incorrectly assigned to species if only mitogenomic markers were considered. Nuclear data falsified the species rank of one species and identified one earlier unrecognized lineage deserving species rank. Further, our analyses demonstrate a highly variable phenotypic differentiation, with several pairs of cryptic species standing in contrast with genetically close but phenotypically highly divergent lineages. We show that morphological and mitogenomic analyses produce reliable information for taxonomy in most cases. Nevertheless, the species boundaries among closely related species should be based on all lines of evidence, including nuclear markers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Creating the Urban Farmer’s Almanac with Citizen Science Data
Insects 2019, 10(9), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090294 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Agriculture has long been a part of the urban landscape, from gardens to small scale farms. In recent decades, interest in producing food in cities has grown dramatically, with an estimated 30% of the global urban population engaged in some form of food [...] Read more.
Agriculture has long been a part of the urban landscape, from gardens to small scale farms. In recent decades, interest in producing food in cities has grown dramatically, with an estimated 30% of the global urban population engaged in some form of food production. Identifying and managing the insect biodiversity found on city farms is a complex task often requiring years of study and specialization, especially in urban landscapes which have a complicated tapestry of fragmentation, diversity, pollution, and introduced species. Supporting urban growers with relevant data informs insect management decision-making for both growers and their neighbors, yet this information can be difficult to come by. In this study, we introduced several web-based citizen science programs that can connect growers with useful data products and people to help with the who, what, where, and when of urban insects. Combining the power of citizen science volunteers with the efforts of urban farmers can result in a clearer picture of the diversity and ecosystem services in play, limited insecticide use, and enhanced non-chemical alternatives. Connecting urban farming practices with citizen science programs also demonstrates the ecosystem value of urban agriculture and engages more citizens with the topics of food production, security, and justice in their communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Small Farms and Gardens Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Variation in Performance and Resistance to Parasitism of Plutella xylostella Populations
Insects 2019, 10(9), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090293 - 11 Sep 2019
Viewed by 274
Abstract
Two major ecological factors determine the fitness of an insect herbivore: the ability to overcome plant resistance strategies (bottom-up effects) and the ability to avoid or resist attack by natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids (top-down effects). In response to differences in [...] Read more.
Two major ecological factors determine the fitness of an insect herbivore: the ability to overcome plant resistance strategies (bottom-up effects) and the ability to avoid or resist attack by natural enemies such as predators and parasitoids (top-down effects). In response to differences in selection pressure, variation may exist in host-plant adaptation and immunity against parasitism among populations of an insect herbivore. We investigated the variation in larval performance of six different Plutella xylostella populations originating from four continents when feeding on a native Dutch plant species, Brassica rapa. One of the used populations has successfully switched its host plant, and is now adapted to pea. In addition, we determined the resistance to attack by the endoparasitoid Diadegma semiclausum originating from the Netherlands (where it is also native) and measured parasitoid performance as a proxy for host resistance against parasitism. Pupal mortality, immature development times, and adult biomass of P. xylostella differed significantly across populations when feeding on the same host plant species. In addition, parasitism success differed in terms of parasitoid adult emergence and their biomass, but not their development times. Variation among natural populations of insects should be considered more when studying interactions between plants and insects up the food chain. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Twenty-five Years of Research Experience with the Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Management of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in Canada
Insects 2019, 10(9), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090292 - 10 Sep 2019
Viewed by 365
Abstract
The advent of novel genetic methods has led to renewed interest in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for management of insect pests, owing to applications in mass rearing and in the production of sterile offspring without use of irradiation. An area-wide management programme [...] Read more.
The advent of novel genetic methods has led to renewed interest in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for management of insect pests, owing to applications in mass rearing and in the production of sterile offspring without use of irradiation. An area-wide management programme for codling moth, Cydia pomonella, has employed the SIT and other management practices over a large area (3395 to 7331 ha) of orchards and neighbouring urban, public, or First Nations lands in British Columbia, Canada, for 25 years. This project is the first to employ the SIT for C. pomonella, and the longest-running application of area-wide techniques for its control, anywhere. It was derived from basic research and applied trials from the 1960s onwards. Many biological challenges were overcome, and lessons learnt, in transferring from small- to large-scale applications of mass rearing and the SIT, with particular regard to Lepidoptera. Research has proven essential to identifying, if not resolving, issues that threaten the implementation and success of any such programme. The major challenges encountered, and the resulting research, are reviewed, as well as future directions. Recommendations are given for application of the SIT as part of any area-wide management programme for C. pomonella. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
Open AccessReview
Neo Sex Chromosomes, Colour Polymorphism and Male-Killing in the African Queen Butterfly, Danaus chrysippus (L.)
Insects 2019, 10(9), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090291 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Danaus chrysippus (L.), one of the world’s commonest butterflies, has an extensive range throughout the Old-World tropics. In Africa it is divided into four geographical subspecies which overlap and hybridise freely in the East African Rift: Here alone a male-killing (MK) endosymbiont, Spiroplasma [...] Read more.
Danaus chrysippus (L.), one of the world’s commonest butterflies, has an extensive range throughout the Old-World tropics. In Africa it is divided into four geographical subspecies which overlap and hybridise freely in the East African Rift: Here alone a male-killing (MK) endosymbiont, Spiroplasma ixodetis, has invaded, causing female-biased populations to predominate. In ssp. chrysippus, inside the Rift only, an autosome carrying a colour locus has fused with the W chromosome to create a neo-W chromosome. A total of 40–100% of Rift females are neo-W and carry Spiroplasma, thus transmitting a linked, matrilineal neo-W, MK complex. As neo-W females have no sons, half the mother’s genes are lost in each generation. Paradoxically, although neo-W females have no close male relatives and are thereby forced to outbreed, MK restricts gene flow between subspecies and may thus promote speciation. The neo-W chromosome originated in the Nairobi region around 2.2 k years ago and subsequently spread throughout the Rift contact zone in some 26 k generations, possibly assisted by not having any competing brothers. Our work on the neo-W chromosome, the spread of Spiroplasma and possible speciation is ongoing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tolerance of High Oral Doses of Nonradioactive and Radioactive Caesium Chloride in the Pale Grass Blue Butterfly Zizeeria maha
Insects 2019, 10(9), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090290 - 09 Sep 2019
Viewed by 333
Abstract
The biological effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been examined in the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). In previous internal exposure experiments, larvae were given field-collected contaminated host plant leaves that contained up to 43.5 kBq/kg (leaf) of radioactive [...] Read more.
The biological effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been examined in the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). In previous internal exposure experiments, larvae were given field-collected contaminated host plant leaves that contained up to 43.5 kBq/kg (leaf) of radioactive caesium. Larvae ingested up to 480 kBq/kg (larva), resulting in high mortality and abnormality rates. However, these results need to be compared with the toxicological data of caesium. Here, we examined the toxicity of both nonradioactive and radioactive caesium chloride on the pale grass blue butterfly. Larvae were fed a caesium-containing artificial diet, ingesting up to 149 MBq/kg (larva) of radioactive caesium (137Cs) or a much higher amount of nonradioactive caesium. We examined the pupation rate, eclosion rate, survival rate up to the adult stage, and the forewing size. In contrast to previous internal exposure experiments using field-collected contaminated leaves, we could not detect any effect. We conclude that the butterfly is tolerant to ionising radiation from 137Cs in the range tested but is vulnerable to radioactive contamination in the field. These results suggest that the biological effects in the field may be mediated through ecological systems and cannot be estimated solely based on radiation doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Detection of Insect Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle
Passive Animal Surveillance to Identify Ticks in Wisconsin, 2011–2017
Insects 2019, 10(9), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090289 - 08 Sep 2019
Viewed by 396
Abstract
The introduction of new tick species poses a risk to human and animal health. Systematic active surveillance programs are expensive and uncommon. We evaluated a passive animal surveillance program as a monitoring tool to document the geographic distribution and host associations of ticks [...] Read more.
The introduction of new tick species poses a risk to human and animal health. Systematic active surveillance programs are expensive and uncommon. We evaluated a passive animal surveillance program as a monitoring tool to document the geographic distribution and host associations of ticks in Wisconsin. Passive surveillance partners included veterinary medical clinics, domestic animal shelters, and wildlife rehabilitation centers from 35 of the 72 Wisconsin counties. A total of 10,136 tick specimens were collected from 2325 animals from July 2011 to November 2017 and included Dermacentor variabilis Say (29.7% of all ticks), Ixodes texanus Banks (25.5%), Ixodes scapularis Say (19.5%), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard (13.8%), Ixodes cookei Packard (4.4%), and Dermacentor albipictus Packard (1.7%). Less common species (<1% of collection) included Ixodes dentatus Marx, Ixodes sculptus Neumann, Ixodes marxi Banks, Amblyomma americanum Linnaeus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille. Of the 2325 animals that were examined, most were domestic dogs (53%), eastern cottontail rabbits (16%), domestic cats (15%), and North American raccoons (11%). An additional 21 mammal and 11 bird species were examined at least once during the six years of the study. New county records are summarized for each species. Public health, academic, and veterinary and animal care partners formed a community of practice enabling effective statewide tick surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tick Surveillance and Tick-borne Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Propoxur Exposure on Insecticidal Susceptibility and Developmental Traits in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus
Insects 2019, 10(9), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090288 - 07 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Propoxur-sel strains of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were derived from a lab-bred strain following 16 generations of propoxur exposure under sublethal concentrations of LC25 (lethal concentration of 25%) and LC50 (lethal concentration of 50%), respectively. This resulted in resistance development in F16 [...] Read more.
Propoxur-sel strains of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus were derived from a lab-bred strain following 16 generations of propoxur exposure under sublethal concentrations of LC25 (lethal concentration of 25%) and LC50 (lethal concentration of 50%), respectively. This resulted in resistance development in F16 with ratios of 8.8× and 6.3×, respectively, compared with F0. The fecundity, longevity, sex ratio (F/M), and hatchability of the propoxur-exposed Cx. quinquefasciatus adult survivors and their offspring were decreased, with no effect on the emergence ratio and pupa survival rate. In addition, the intrinsic rates of increase (r), the net reproduction (R0), and the finite rate of increase (λ) of the Cx. quinquefasciatus offspring generations were also decreased significantly compared to F0. Correspondingly, the mean generation time (T) and the population double time (DT) in propoxur-sels were increased. Enhanced activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and esterase were also observed in propoxur-sels, indicating that a detoxification mechanism might be responsible for resistance development in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Except for the three genes cyp4d42v1, cyp4c52v1, and cyp6aa9 which displayed a coincidence in some degree in different treatments, induction by different doses of propoxur and constitutive expression in different generations of propoxur-sel strains resulted in an inconsistent identification of the P450 genes probably related with resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Seasonal Abundance of Psyllid Species on Carrots and Potato Crops in Spain
Insects 2019, 10(9), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090287 - 06 Sep 2019
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) can transmit the phloem restricted bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso). In Europe, Lso causes severe losses to carrot and represents a threat to the potato industry. A rising concern is Lso transmission from carrot to potato and within potato, [...] Read more.
Psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) can transmit the phloem restricted bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso). In Europe, Lso causes severe losses to carrot and represents a threat to the potato industry. A rising concern is Lso transmission from carrot to potato and within potato, and this has driven the need for monitoring populations of psyllid species which could serve as vectors on both crops. This would provide a fundamental understanding of the epidemiology of Lso. Different sampling methods were used to survey populations of psyllid species in commercial carrot and potato fields in central and eastern mainland Spain from 2015 to 2017. Two psyllid species, Bactericera trigonica and Bactericera nigricornis were found on carrot and potato crops. In carrot fields the most abundant species was B. trigonica (occurring from crop emergence to harvest); whereas in potato crops the most abundant psyllid species was B. nigricornis. Depending on field location, the maximum psyllid populations occurred between June and October. Since B. nigricornis was found on both carrot and potato and is the only psyllid species able to feed and reproduce on both these crops in Europe, there is the potential risk of Lso transmission from carrot to potato. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Living on the Edge: Using and Improving Trap Crops for Flea Beetle Management in Small-Scale Cropping Systems
Insects 2019, 10(9), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090286 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 367
Abstract
The use of trap crops to manage pest insects offers an attractive alternative to synthetic pesticides. Trap crops may work particularly well at smaller production scales, being highly amenable where crop diversification and reduction of synthetic inputs are prioritised over yield alone. This [...] Read more.
The use of trap crops to manage pest insects offers an attractive alternative to synthetic pesticides. Trap crops may work particularly well at smaller production scales, being highly amenable where crop diversification and reduction of synthetic inputs are prioritised over yield alone. This paper describes a series of experiments. The first was to demonstrate the potential of turnip rape (Brassica rapa L., var. Pasja) as a trap crop to arrest flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) to protect a main crop of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., var. Lateman). The subsequent experiments explored two possible approaches to improve the function of the trap crop—either by separating trap and main crop plants spatially, or by introducing companion plants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Amateur) into the main crop. In caged field experiments, feeding damage by flea beetles to crop border plantings of turnip rape far exceeded damage to cauliflower plants placed in the same position, indicating a “trap crop effect”. Neither turnip rape plants nor cauliflower as a border significantly reduced flea beetle damage to main crop cauliflower plants, although the numbers of feeding holes in these plants were lowest where a turnip rape border was used. In similar cages, leaving gaps of 3–6 m of bare soil between turnip rape and cauliflower plants significantly reduced feeding damage to the latter, as compared to when plants were adjacent. The results of a small-scale open field trial showed that a turnip rape trap crop alone reduced flea beetle damage to cauliflower, significantly so later in the season at higher pest pressures, but that addition of tomato companion plants did not improve pest control potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Small Farms and Gardens Pest Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiple Mating in the Citrophilous Mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae: Implications for Mating Disruption
Insects 2019, 10(9), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090285 - 05 Sep 2019
Viewed by 314
Abstract
The citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) is a primary pest of various crops, including grapevines. The use of insecticides against this species is difficult in most cases because its life cycle includes an extended duration of eggs, juveniles, and adults under [...] Read more.
The citrophilous mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) is a primary pest of various crops, including grapevines. The use of insecticides against this species is difficult in most cases because its life cycle includes an extended duration of eggs, juveniles, and adults under the bark and on the roots. Pheromone-based control strategies can present new eco-friendly opportunities to manage this species, as in the case of Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso). With this aim it is critical to understand behavioral aspects that may influence pheromone-based control strategies. Herein, the capability of males to fertilize multiple females was investigated, trying to understand whether this behavior could negatively impact the efficacy of mass trapping, mating disruption, or the lure and kill technique. Results showed that a P. calceolariae male can successfully mate and fertilize up to 13 females. The copulation time in subsequent mating events and the time between copulations did not change over time but the number of matings per day significantly decreased. In a further experiment, we investigated the mate location strategy of P. calceolariae males, testing the attractiveness of different loadings of sex pheromone on males in a flight tunnel. Males constantly exposed to 16 rubber septa loaded with the sex pheromone showed a significant decrease in female detection at 1 and 30 μg loadings (0.18 and 0.74 visits per female for each visit per septum, respectively), whereas in the control about 9.2-fold more of the released males successfully detected the female in the center of the array of 16 septa without pheromone. Male location of females in the control (45%) was significantly higher than in the arrays with surrounding pheromone (5% and 20% at 1 and 30 μg loadings, respectively). Mating only occurred in the control arrays (45%). This study represents a useful first step to developing pheromone-based strategies for the control of citrophilous mealybugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Insect Pheromones to Mating Disruption: Theory and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle
Oviposition Behavior and Distribution of Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus and E. brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Ailanthus altissima (Mill.)
Insects 2019, 10(9), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090284 - 04 Sep 2019
Viewed by 317
Abstract
(1) Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorrhychinae) is a major quarantine forest pest in China. It often co-occurs with E. brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorrhychinae) on a single host Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (tree of heaven). (2) In this study, to explain the coexistence [...] Read more.
(1) Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorrhychinae) is a major quarantine forest pest in China. It often co-occurs with E. brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorrhychinae) on a single host Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (tree of heaven). (2) In this study, to explain the coexistence of the two weevils on a single host, we investigated the oviposition behavior of E. scrobiculatus and oviposition sites of E. scrobiculatus and E. brandti under afield and laboratory conditions. (3) The characteristic behaviors of E. scrobiculatus females prior to oviposition included searching, locating, excavation, turning, locating the oviposition cavity, egg deposition, and hiding. (4) The oviposition sites used by E. scrobiculatus and E. brandti differed. Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus females laid eggs in the soil near A. altissima and compound leaf petioles, while E. brandti females laid eggs in A. altissima trunks. The eggs in compound leaf petioles did not hatch in the field. (5) Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus and E. brandti utilized different oviposition sites and these differences in habitat use may reduce the competition for resources between species during the larval period, thus facilitating their coexistence on A. altissima. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
First Insights into the Intrapuparial Development of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel): Application in Predicting Emergence Time for Tephritid Fly Control
Insects 2019, 10(9), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090283 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 346
Abstract
Intrapuparial development is a special pattern of metamorphosis in cyclorrhaphous flies, in which the pupa forms in an opaque, barrel-like puparium. This has been well studied in forensic insects for age estimations. In this study, the intrapuparial development of a quarantine agricultural pest, [...] Read more.
Intrapuparial development is a special pattern of metamorphosis in cyclorrhaphous flies, in which the pupa forms in an opaque, barrel-like puparium. This has been well studied in forensic insects for age estimations. In this study, the intrapuparial development of a quarantine agricultural pest, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was studied under a constant temperature of 27 ± 1 °C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity. Results showed that intrapuparial development could be divided into five stages: Larval-pupal apolysis, cryptocephalic pupa, phanerocephalic pupa, pharate adult, and emergent adult. It lays a morphology-based foundation for molecular mechanism studies and enhances the understanding of the physiological basis for changes in intrapuparial development. More importantly, the chronology of intrapuparial development can be used to predict the emergence time of tephritid flies, indicating when to spray insecticides to control these phytophagous agricultural pests. This may be an effective approach to reduce the use of insecticides and slow down the evolution of insecticidal resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Diet on the Composition and Stability of Proteins Secreted by Honey Bees in Honey
Insects 2019, 10(9), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090282 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 474
Abstract
Honey proteins are essential bee nutrients and antimicrobials that protect honey from microbial spoilage. The majority of the honey proteome includes bee-secreted peptides and proteins, produced in specialised glands; however, bees need to forage actively for nitrogen sources and other basic elements of [...] Read more.
Honey proteins are essential bee nutrients and antimicrobials that protect honey from microbial spoilage. The majority of the honey proteome includes bee-secreted peptides and proteins, produced in specialised glands; however, bees need to forage actively for nitrogen sources and other basic elements of protein synthesis. Nectar and pollen of different origins can vary significantly in their nutritional composition and other compounds such as plant secondary metabolites. Worker bees producing and ripening honey from nectar might therefore need to adjust protein secretions depending on the quality and specific contents of the starting material. Here, we assessed the impact of different food sources (sugar solutions with different additives) on honey proteome composition and stability, using controlled cage experiments. Honey-like products generated from sugar solution with or without additional protein, or plant secondary metabolites, differed neither in protein quality nor in protein quantity among samples. Storage for 4 weeks prevented protein degradation in most cases, without differences between food sources. The honey-like product proteome included several major royal jelly proteins, alpha-glucosidase and glucose oxidase. As none of the feeding regimes resulted in different protein profiles, we can conclude that worker bees may secrete a constant amount of each bee-specific protein into honey to preserve this highly valuable hive product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Nutritional Resource Exploitation by Insects)
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Open AccessArticle
EAG Responses of Adult Lobesia botrana Males and Females Collected from Vitis vinifera and Daphne gnidium to Larval Host-Plant Volatiles and Sex Pheromone
Insects 2019, 10(9), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090281 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 411
Abstract
We analysed electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female adults of the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis et Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) collected as larvae from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and flax-leaved daphne (Daphne gnidium L.). The host-plant odorants tested were [...] Read more.
We analysed electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female adults of the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis et Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) collected as larvae from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and flax-leaved daphne (Daphne gnidium L.). The host-plant odorants tested were either V. vinifera-specific [1-octen-3-ol, (E)-β-farnesene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene], D. gnidium-specific (2-ethyl-hexan-1-ol, benzothiazole, linalool-oxide, ethyl benzanoate), or were shared by both host-plants (linalool, methyl salicylate). Sex pheromone compounds were also tested. The male response to the major pheromone component (E7,Z9-12:Ac) was higher than to any other stimuli, whereas the response to the minor pheromone components (E7,Z9-12:OH and Z9-12:Ac) was not different from the response to the plant odorants. The female response to pheromone was lower or not different from that to plant odorants. Methyl salicylate elicited a higher response in females and (E)-β-farnesene elicited a higher response than several other plant odorants in both sexes. Non-significant interactions between host-plant odorant and sex indicated an absence of sex specialization for host-plant volatile detection. The lack of a significant interaction between plant volatiles and larval host-plants suggested that there was no specialization for plant-volatile detection between V. vinifera and D. gnidium individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Semiochemicals and Insect Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive Survey of Area-Wide Agricultural Pesticide Use in Southern United States Row Crops and Potential Impact on Honey Bee Colonies
Insects 2019, 10(9), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090280 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Honey bees forage across a large area, continually scouting the local landscape for ephemeral food resources. Beekeepers often rely on flowering plants in and around irrigated farmland to maintain their colonies during dry seasons, despite the potential risk of pesticide exposure. Recent declines [...] Read more.
Honey bees forage across a large area, continually scouting the local landscape for ephemeral food resources. Beekeepers often rely on flowering plants in and around irrigated farmland to maintain their colonies during dry seasons, despite the potential risk of pesticide exposure. Recent declines in pollinator abundance and diversity have focused attention on the role of pesticides and their effects on honey bee health. This investigation examined two types of landscapes within a two-mile (3.2 km) radius of honey bee colonies: an intensive agricultural setting and a rural setting without intensive agriculture. More than 10,000 acres of agricultural land was surveyed to quantify the area of cultivated crops and the area treated with pesticides, including seed treatments and foliar applications of insecticides. Samples of honey, bee bread (stored pollen), beeswax, and adult bees were collected from hives in both landscape types and screened for pesticide residues to determine if foraging bees were transporting pesticides to hives. Some samples of bee bread and honey did contain pesticide residues, but these were below known lethal dose (LD50) levels for honey bees. Beeswax samples contained the highest levels of contamination, but most were still relatively low. Samples were screened for 174 common agricultural pesticides and metabolites, but only 26 compounds were detected during the two-year study. These included one defoliant, one insect growth regulator, five herbicides, six fungicides, six insecticides never used in beekeeping, and five insecticides/miticides and their metabolites, which are used in beekeeping and for various other agricultural purposes, as well as two miticides exclusively used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Bee colonies foraging in agricultural landscapes are potentially exposed to numerous pesticide applications. While the residues detected in this study did not pose an acute lethal risk to adult honey bees, this study did not measure sublethal effects on bee colony health or performance, which merit further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stressors on Bee Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Transcriptomics Approach Reveals Putative Interaction of Candidatus Liberibacter Solanacearum with the Endoplasmic Reticulum of Its Psyllid Vector
Insects 2019, 10(9), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090279 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Candidatus Liberibacter solanacerum (CLso), transmitted by Bactericera trigonica in a persistent and propagative mode causes carrot yellows disease, inflicting hefty economic losses. Understanding the process of transmission of CLso by psyllids is fundamental to devise sustainable management strategies. Persistent transmission involves critical steps [...] Read more.
Candidatus Liberibacter solanacerum (CLso), transmitted by Bactericera trigonica in a persistent and propagative mode causes carrot yellows disease, inflicting hefty economic losses. Understanding the process of transmission of CLso by psyllids is fundamental to devise sustainable management strategies. Persistent transmission involves critical steps of adhesion, cell invasion, and replication before passage through the midgut barrier. This study uses a transcriptomic approach for the identification of differentially expressed genes with CLso infection in the midguts, adults, and nymphs of B. trigonica and their putative involvement in CLso transmission. Several genes related to focal adhesion and cellular invasion were upregulated after CLso infection. Interestingly, genes involved with proper functionality of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were upregulated in CLso infected samples. Notably, genes from the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) and the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway were overexpressed after CLso infection. Marker genes of the ERAD and UPR pathways were also upregulated in Diaphorina citri when infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas). Upregulation of the ERAD and UPR pathways indicate induction of ER stress by CLso/CLas in their psyllid vector. The role of ER in bacteria–host interactions is well-documented; however, the ER role following pathogenesis of CLso/CLas is unknown and requires further functional validation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Suppression of Gene Juvenile Hormone Diol Kinase Delays Pupation in Heortia vitessoides Moore
Insects 2019, 10(9), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090278 - 02 Sep 2019
Viewed by 377
Abstract
Juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) is a critical enzyme involved in juvenile hormone degradation in insects. In this study, HvJHDK in the Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) transcriptional library was cloned. Stage-specific expression patterns of HvJHDK, HvJHEH, and HvJHE as well [...] Read more.
Juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) is a critical enzyme involved in juvenile hormone degradation in insects. In this study, HvJHDK in the Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) transcriptional library was cloned. Stage-specific expression patterns of HvJHDK, HvJHEH, and HvJHE as well as juvenile hormone titers were determined. The three tested enzymes participated in juvenile hormone degradation. Moreover, juvenile hormone titers peaked after larval–larval molts, consistent with a role for juvenile hormone in inhibition of metamorphosis. HvJHDK was subsequently suppressed using RNA interference (RNAi) to reveal its functions. Different concentrations of dsJHDK elicited the optimal interference efficiency at different life stages of H. vitessoides. Suppression of HvJHDK decreased HvJHDK content and increased the juvenile hormone titer, thereby resulting in reduced triglyceride content, sharply declined survival rate, clearly lethal phenotypes, and extended larval growth. Moreover, suppression of HvJHDK upregulated HvJHEH and HvJHE expression levels, suggesting that there is feedback regulation in the juvenile hormone metabolic pathway. Taken together, our findings provide molecular references for the selection of novel insecticidal targets. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Non-Entomopathogenic Roles of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Promoting Plant Health and Growth
Insects 2019, 10(9), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090277 - 01 Sep 2019
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Multiple genera of hypocrealean fungi infect and kill a wide variety of arthropod pests. Several formulations based on these soilborne fungi are commercially available as biopesticides for controlling urban, garden, greenhouse, and agricultural pests. These fungi are an important part of integrated pest [...] Read more.
Multiple genera of hypocrealean fungi infect and kill a wide variety of arthropod pests. Several formulations based on these soilborne fungi are commercially available as biopesticides for controlling urban, garden, greenhouse, and agricultural pests. These fungi are an important part of integrated pest management strategies to maintain pest control efficacy, reduce the risk of chemical insecticide resistance, and offer environmentally sustainable pest suppression. While the entomopathogenic or pest management role of these fungi is well documented, several studies in the past decade or two have provided insights into their relationship with plants, soil, and plant pathogens, and their additional roles in promoting plant growth and health. This review highlights these endophytic, mycorrhiza-like, and disease-antagonizing roles of entomopathogenic fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Small Farms and Gardens Pest Management)
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