Pest Control in Fruit Trees

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019) | Viewed by 85249

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technology Transfer Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), 38010 San Michele, all'Adige (TN), Italy
Interests: IPM of apple and grape; pesticide efficacy; insecticide resistance management; biological control of pests; implementation of mating disruption technique

E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY, USA
Interests: implementation of pest management approaches in tree fruit; fruit pest management; sampling and monitoring; mating disruption, and invasive species

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tree fruit growers in temperate regions have faced challenges in managing the complex combination of arthropod pests present in these systems because of increasing pesticide regulatory restrictions, public concerns about food safety and environmental quality, the development of resistance to older pesticides by key pests, and the increased challenges posed by new invasive pest species. Growers are attempting to adopt newer tactics such as more selective, reduced-risk pesticides and increased reliance on sampling and monitoring techniques, plus pheromone-based mating disruption. These can be more expensive and require more time and precise use patterns due to their different modes of implementation. In this Special Issue, we hope to focus on more current and practical approaches that stress a basic understanding of pest biology and development, greater reliance on predictive models, and the effective use of more selective crop protectants and other sustainable tactics such as mating disruption and biological control. 

Dr. Claudio Ioriatti
Prof. Arthur Agnello
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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11 pages, 1730 KiB  
Article
Survey on Drosophila suzukii Natural Short-Term Dispersal Capacities Using the Mark−Release−Recapture Technique
by Sandra Vacas, Jaime Primo, Juan J. Manclús, Ángel Montoya and Vicente Navarro-Llopis
Insects 2019, 10(9), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090268 - 24 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3549
Abstract
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a key pest for soft fruits and cherries in Europe in less than a decade since the first outbreak in 2007. Although this pest’s passive dispersal ability has been observed over more than [...] Read more.
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a key pest for soft fruits and cherries in Europe in less than a decade since the first outbreak in 2007. Although this pest’s passive dispersal ability has been observed over more than 1400 km in 1 year, active spread has not yet been extensively studied. A mark−release−recapture (MRR) method based on protein-marked flies was employed to determine the flight capacity of D. suzukii. Sterile marked flies were released and recaptured in a trap grid at increasing distances from 10 to 250 m from the releasing point to study flight distance during periods ranging from 3 h to 1 week. MRR experiments were replicated in the presence and absence of host fruits to study how they could affect dispersal behavior. The dispersal capacity of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) was also studied under the same conditions. The results showed a low dispersal ability for D. suzukii, with a daily flight distance below 100 m with no predominant wind. The implications on natural dispersion and control methods based on attractants are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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17 pages, 2055 KiB  
Article
Impact of Exclusion Netting Row Covers on ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple Trees Grown under Northeastern North American Conditions: Effects on Photosynthesis and Fruit Quality
by Gérald Chouinard, Jonathan Veilleux, Francine Pelletier, Mikael Larose, Vincent Philion, Valentin Joubert and Daniel Cormier
Insects 2019, 10(7), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070214 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3834
Abstract
Exclusion nets have been used successfully to protect fruit from insect pests of apples under various conditions, but the effect of each particular netting system on the plant itself has rarely been investigated. In this study, a complete exclusion system—in which the soil [...] Read more.
Exclusion nets have been used successfully to protect fruit from insect pests of apples under various conditions, but the effect of each particular netting system on the plant itself has rarely been investigated. In this study, a complete exclusion system—in which the soil is also excluded—was used to grow ‘Honeycrisp’ apples for six years in southern Quebec, Canada. Abiotic conditions, as well as plant photosynthesis and fruit quality characteristics (colour, firmness, size, sugar content, number of seeds, ripeness and skin integrity) and yield were estimated yearly and compared in netted (either with or without a rainproof top) and unnetted row units. Although annual variations were high and results showed little or no difference between netted and unnetted rows for all measured variables, with the following exceptions; colour (increased red surface on fruits from unnetted rows some years), size (fruits from unnetted rows were smaller) and maturity (fruits from unnetted rows matured slightly faster). Fruits produced under nets had fewer microcracks at the surface than fruits produced without nets. Reduced cracking possibly helped decrease sooty blotch and flyspeck incidence and severity. Impacts for pest control and prospects for pesticide-free production are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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12 pages, 427 KiB  
Article
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Parasitism Response to Medfly Host Fruit and Fruit Infestation Age
by Ahlem Harbi, Luis de Pedro, Fernando A. A. Ferrara, José Tormos, Brahim Chermiti, Francisco Beitia and Beatriz Sabater-Munoz
Insects 2019, 10(7), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070211 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3825
Abstract
The parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is increasingly being used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs as a biological control agent in order to suppress tephritid fruit flies of economic importance. Innate and acquired behavioral responses—such as pest host fruit preference—of parasitoids [...] Read more.
The parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is increasingly being used in integrated pest management (IPM) programs as a biological control agent in order to suppress tephritid fruit flies of economic importance. Innate and acquired behavioral responses—such as pest host fruit preference—of parasitoids can modulate their efficiency in the field and should be taken into consideration prior to parasitoid species’ selection for mass-rearing. We have assessed the influence of medfly-infested (two infestation ages, 1 and 4-d-old) and uninfested fruit species on host preference and efficiency of D. longicaudata by using a multistep assay including olfactory, laboratory and semi-field trials. We found that D. longicaudata was significantly more attracted to medfly-infested apples for both infestation ages, with the oldest being the most preferred. D. longicaudata exhibited a significant preference among the four fruits tested. The implications of these behavioral responses of D. longicaudata to medfly host fruits and infestation age are discussed in relationship to its use in IPM programs in the Mediterranean basin area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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16 pages, 1316 KiB  
Article
Temporal Dynamics of Host Use by Drosophila suzukii in California’s San Joaquin Valley: Implications for Area-Wide Pest Management
by Xingeng Wang, Gülay Kaçar and Kent M. Daane
Insects 2019, 10(7), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070206 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3594
Abstract
A major challenge to the area-wide management of Drosophila suzukii is understanding the fly’s host use and temporal dynamics, which may dictate local movement patterns. We determined D. suzukii’s seasonal host use in California’s San Joaquin Valley by sampling common crop and [...] Read more.
A major challenge to the area-wide management of Drosophila suzukii is understanding the fly’s host use and temporal dynamics, which may dictate local movement patterns. We determined D. suzukii’s seasonal host use in California’s San Joaquin Valley by sampling common crop and non-crop fruits in a temporal sequence of fruit ripening. We then evaluated the suitability of selected fruits as hosts. Drosophila suzukii emerged from both intact and damaged cherries during the cooler, early season period. Fly density remained low through the hot spring–summer period and re-surged as temperatures lowered in fall when the fly did not cause damage to intact peach, nectarine, plum, pear, grape, pomegranate, apple, persimmon and citrus (in order of ripening) but did emerge from the damaged fruits of these crops. The fly also emerged from two ornamental fruits (loquats and cactus) but was not found on wild plum and two endemic wild fruits (buckthorn and bitter berry). Drosophila suzukii completed development (egg to adult) on cactus, mandarin carpel, pomegranate seed, wild plum and buckthorn at survival rates similar to cherry (51.2–68.8%), whereas it had a lower survival rate on bitter cherry (33.2%), table grape (31.5%), raisin grape (26.5%), and wine grape (4.5%). The high acidity levels of grapes negatively affected the fly’s fitness. Among 10 cherry cultivars, survival rate was not affected by sugar content, but it decreased with increasing egg density per gram of fruit. Results suggest that in California’s San Joaquin Valley, the early season crops are most vulnerable, summer fruits ripen during a period of low pest pressure, and late season fruits, when damaged, serve to sustain D. suzukii’s populations in this region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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15 pages, 984 KiB  
Article
Rainfastness of Insecticides Used to Control Spotted-Wing Drosophila in Tart Cherry Production
by Ignatius P. Andika, Christine Vandervoort and John C. Wise
Insects 2019, 10(7), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070203 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3276
Abstract
Tart cherry production is challenged by precipitation events that may reduce crop protection against spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) (SWD). Due to SWD’s devastating impacts on yield, growers are often faced with the option of insecticide reapplication. Semi-field bioassays were used to [...] Read more.
Tart cherry production is challenged by precipitation events that may reduce crop protection against spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) (SWD). Due to SWD’s devastating impacts on yield, growers are often faced with the option of insecticide reapplication. Semi-field bioassays were used to assess simulated rainfall effects towards adult mortality, immature survival, and residue wash-off from different plant tissues for several compounds. Tart cherry shoots were treated with 0, 12.7 or 25.4 mm of simulated rainfall and infested with SWD for 5 days. Adult mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 5 days after shoots were infested, while immature stage individuals were counted 9 days after the first infestation day. All insecticides demonstrated higher adult mortality and lower immature survival compared with the untreated control at 0 mm of rainfall. Adult mortality and immature survival caused by phosmet, zeta-cypermethrin, and spinetoram were adversely affected by simulated rainfall. In all bioassays, acetamiprid was the least affected by simulated rainfall. Residue analysis demonstrated phosmet and spinetoram residues to be the most sensitive to wash-off. This study demonstrates different rainfall effects on SWD control for several compounds. This information may provide a basis for making an informed decision on whether reapplication is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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21 pages, 2029 KiB  
Article
Olfactory Preference of Drosophila suzukii Shifts between Fruit and Fermentation Cues over the Season: Effects of Physiological Status
by Rik Clymans, Vincent Van Kerckvoorde, Eva Bangels, Wannes Akkermans, Ammar Alhmedi, Patrick De Clercq, Tim Beliën and Dany Bylemans
Insects 2019, 10(7), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070200 - 6 Jul 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 6718
Abstract
Worldwide monitoring programs of the invasive fruit pest Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), using fermentation baits like apple cider vinegar (ACV), revealed a counterintuitive period of low trap catches during summer, followed by an autumn peak. In this study, we demonstrate that ACV [...] Read more.
Worldwide monitoring programs of the invasive fruit pest Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), using fermentation baits like apple cider vinegar (ACV), revealed a counterintuitive period of low trap catches during summer, followed by an autumn peak. In this study, we demonstrate that ACV baited traps indeed provide a distorted image of the D. suzukii population dynamics as it is possible to capture higher numbers during this “low capture period” with synthetic lures. It was hypothesised that the preference of D. suzukii populations for fermentation cues like ACV is most pronounced during autumn, winter and spring, while the flies prefer fresh fruit cues during summer and that this seasonal preference is related to the changing physiology of the flies over the season. To test this hypothesis, the preference between fermentation cues (ACV) and host fruits (strawberries) and the effect of physiology (sex, seasonal morphology and feeding, mating and reproductive status) was investigated both in olfactometer laboratory experiments and a year-round field preference experiment. In olfactometer experiments we demonstrated that protein deprived females, virgin females with a full complement of unfertilised eggs and males show a strong preference for fermentation cues while fully fed reproductive summer morph females generally prefer fruit cues. These findings indicate that D. suzukii is attracted to fermentation volatiles in search of (protein-rich) food and to fruit volatiles in search of oviposition substrates. Winter morph and starved females displayed indiscriminating olfactory behaviour. In the field preference experiment, the hypothesised seasonal shift between fermentation and fruit cues was confirmed. This shift appeared to be highly temperature-related and was similarly observed for summer and winter morphs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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13 pages, 921 KiB  
Article
Insecticide Control of Drosophila suzukii in Commercial Sweet Cherry Crops under Cladding
by Bethan Shaw, Sebastian Hemer, Madeleine F. L. Cannon, Francesco Rogai and Michelle T. Fountain
Insects 2019, 10(7), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070196 - 4 Jul 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 4850
Abstract
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is a damaging invasive pest of sweet cherry. Using a series of laboratory leaf contact assays, semi-field, and orchard spray programs we aimed to determine the impact of insecticide programs on D. suzukii adult mortality and oviposition in cladding-protected sweet [...] Read more.
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is a damaging invasive pest of sweet cherry. Using a series of laboratory leaf contact assays, semi-field, and orchard spray programs we aimed to determine the impact of insecticide programs on D. suzukii adult mortality and oviposition in cladding-protected sweet cherry crops. Tests included assessing adult D. suzukii mortality after contact with leaves sprayed either one or two weeks previously and emergence of adults from fruits. Spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid, lime, pyrethrin, deltamethrin, and cyantraniliprole all reduced fruit damage up to day 7 after application. Of these active ingredients, only spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyantraniliprole gave satisfactory control up to 14 days. There was no significant difference in D. suzukii mortality when exposed to leaves treated either one or two weeks previously with an application of either spinosad, cyantraniliprole, or lambda-cyhalothrin; however, mortality was significantly higher than D. suzukii in contact with untreated leaves. In eight commercial orchards, fortnightly spray applications including spinosad, cyantraniliprole, and lambda-cyhalothrin gave effective control of D. suzukii until harvest with very few damaged fruits. These experiments demonstrate that currently approved plant protection products, applied to sweet cherry under protection, give at least two weeks protection from D. suzukii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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22 pages, 3146 KiB  
Article
Season Long Pest Management Efficacy and Spray Characteristics of a Solid Set Canopy Delivery System in High Density Apples
by Paul Owen-Smith, John Wise and Matthew J. Grieshop
Insects 2019, 10(7), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10070193 - 29 Jun 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3203
Abstract
Solid set canopy delivery systems (SSCDS) are a novel foliar agrochemical delivery system designed as an alternative for airblast sprayers in high density fruit production. This study tested the pest management potential, coverage, and chemical deposition of an SSCDS using commercially available microsprinkler [...] Read more.
Solid set canopy delivery systems (SSCDS) are a novel foliar agrochemical delivery system designed as an alternative for airblast sprayers in high density fruit production. This study tested the pest management potential, coverage, and chemical deposition of an SSCDS using commercially available microsprinkler components over the course of a growing season. Spray coverage and deposition for a representative airblast sprayer and SSCDS were evaluated using water sensitive paper and tartrazine dye, respectively. Foliar sprays for pest suppression were applied through both systems, and damage assessments were taken at the midpoint and end of the growing season. SSCDS sprays demonstrated similar levels of coverage on the adaxial leaf surface as airblast sprays, but significantly lower coverage on the abaxial surface. However, mean levels of foliar chemical deposition was generally higher in the SSCDS. Evaluations found minimal arthropod and fungal damage in both airblast and SSCDS treated plots compared to untreated trees. The SSCDS was shown to be a viable alternative to the airblast, with inherent advantages such as rapid application time and improved worker safety. Furthermore, higher deposition on SSCDS treated foliage supports the hypothesis that SSCDS provide a higher droplet capture rate in the canopy, with less off-target loss and drift than airblast sprayers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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11 pages, 6556 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of an Ongoing Wolbachia Spread in the European Cherry Fruit Fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae)
by Martin Schebeck, Lukas Feldkirchner, Christian Stauffer and Hannes Schuler
Insects 2019, 10(6), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10060172 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3530
Abstract
Numerous terrestrial arthropods are infected with the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia. This endosymbiont is usually transmitted vertically from infected females to their offspring and can alter the reproduction of hosts through various manipulations, like cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), enhancing its spread in new host populations. [...] Read more.
Numerous terrestrial arthropods are infected with the alphaproteobacterium Wolbachia. This endosymbiont is usually transmitted vertically from infected females to their offspring and can alter the reproduction of hosts through various manipulations, like cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), enhancing its spread in new host populations. Studies on the spatial and temporal dynamics of Wolbachia under natural conditions are scarce. Here, we analyzed Wolbachia infection frequencies in populations of the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.), in central Germany—an area of an ongoing spread of the CI-inducing strain wCer2. In total, 295 individuals from 19 populations were PCR-screened for the presence of wCer2 and their mitochondrial haplotype. Results were compared with historic data to understand the infection dynamics of the ongoing wCer2 invasion. An overall wCer2 infection frequency of about 30% was found, ranging from 0% to 100% per population. In contrast to an expected smooth transition from wCer2-infected to completely wCer2-uninfected populations, a relatively scattered infection pattern across geography was observed. Moreover, a strong Wolbachia-haplotype association was detected, with only a few rare misassociations. Our results show a complex dynamic of an ongoing Wolbachia spread in natural field populations of R. cerasi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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14 pages, 860 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Surrounding Margins in the Promotion of Natural Enemies in Mediterranean Apple Orchards
by Neus Rodríguez-Gasol, Jesús Avilla, Yahana Aparicio, Judit Arnó, Rosa Gabarra, Jordi Riudavets, Simó Alegre, Jaume Lordan and Georgina Alins
Insects 2019, 10(5), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10050148 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3329
Abstract
(1) Habitat management can enhance beneficial arthropod populations and provide ecosystem services such as biological control. However, the implementation of ecological infrastructures inside orchards has a number of practical limitations. Therefore, planting/growing insectary plants in the margins of orchards should be considered as [...] Read more.
(1) Habitat management can enhance beneficial arthropod populations and provide ecosystem services such as biological control. However, the implementation of ecological infrastructures inside orchards has a number of practical limitations. Therefore, planting/growing insectary plants in the margins of orchards should be considered as an alternative approach. (2) Here, we assessed the efficacy of a flower margin composed by four insectary plant species (Achillea millefolium, Lobularia maritima, Moricandia arvensis and Sinapis alba), which was placed on an edge of four Mediterranean apple orchards to attract natural enemies of two apple tree aphids (Dysaphis plantaginea and Eriosoma lanigerum). We also characterized the natural enemies present in the aphid colonies. (3) Our results show that the implementation of a flower margin at the edge of apple orchards attracts predators (Syrphidae, Thysanoptera, Araneae, Heteroptera, Coleoptera) and parasitoids. Parasitoids are the main natural enemies present in aphid colonies in our area. (4) The implementation of the flower margins successfully recruited natural enemy populations, and the presence of parasitoids in the surroundings of the orchards increased the parasitism of D. plantaginea colonies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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12 pages, 582 KiB  
Article
Hymenoptera Complex Associated with Myzus persicae and Hyalopterus spp. in Peach Orchards in Northeastern Spain and Prospects for Biological Control of Aphids
by Yahana Aparicio, Rosa Gabarra, Jordi Riudavets, Petr Starý, Željko Tomanović, Korana Kocić, Juli Pujade Villar, Mar Ferrer Suay, Victor Cuesta Porta and Judit Arnó
Insects 2019, 10(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040109 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3468
Abstract
Aphids are a serious pest for peach crops. They have traditionally been managed with insecticides, but there is increasing concern about the risk that insecticides pose to both humans and the environment. As a first step to use biological control in aphid management, [...] Read more.
Aphids are a serious pest for peach crops. They have traditionally been managed with insecticides, but there is increasing concern about the risk that insecticides pose to both humans and the environment. As a first step to use biological control in aphid management, we conducted a 3-year field survey in northeastern Spain to determine which parasitoids and hyperparasitoids were most prevalent on two aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Hyalopterus spp. Koch, the most harmful to peach trees. We collected 11 parasitoid species from M. persicae, with Aphidius matricariae (Haliday) being the most abundant. Two parasitoid species were also collected from Hyalopterus spp., Aphidius transcaspicus Telenga and Praon volucre (Haliday). Hyperparasitoid species overlapped between these aphids but their relative abundances differed. We also discuss the possible impacts of hyperparasitoids on parasitoid populations. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to implement biocontrol methods for aphids in integrated pest management programmes in peach orchards. There are a number of primary parasitoid species associated with these aphids, and the nearby crops and wild vegetation in the vicinity and within the orchards may provide a suitable habitat for them. Additionally, some of them are commercially available and might be usable in augmentative releases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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14 pages, 1732 KiB  
Article
Can Anastatus bifasciatus Be Used for Augmentative Biological Control of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Fruit Orchards?
by Judith M. Stahl, Dirk Babendreier, Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Caruso, Elena Costi, Lara Maistrello and Tim Haye
Insects 2019, 10(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10040108 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5382
Abstract
The generalist egg parasitoid Anastatus bifasciatus (Geoffroy) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is the most prevalent egg parasitoid of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Europe. To assess its efficacy against the pest H. halys and to validate the potential risks for non-target species [...] Read more.
The generalist egg parasitoid Anastatus bifasciatus (Geoffroy) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is the most prevalent egg parasitoid of the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Europe. To assess its efficacy against the pest H. halys and to validate the potential risks for non-target species in a realistic field setting, inundative releases were conducted over three consecutive years in four fruit orchards in Switzerland and Italy. In total, more than 4300 A. bifasciatus females were released, which was equivalent to 11,000 to 26,000 females per hectare, depending on distances between trees in each orchard. Parasitism of freeze-killed sentinel H. halys eggs achieved with the current release strategy was on average 6% (range: 2%–16%) and considered not high enough to effectively suppress the pest. However, the overall impact of A. bifasciatus on the mortality of H. halys eggs was likely underestimated. If pre-imaginal parasitoid mortality (3.3%) and host feeding (6%) are added to the observed parasitism (6%), the actual induced mortality of H. halys eggs may reach more than 15%. Parasitism of lepidopteran non-target species reached an average of 8% and thus, some degree of non-target parasitism after mass releases may be expected. To quantify the impact of the parasitoids in the orchards more precisely, naturally laid egg masses should be used in future trials to include host-finding cues of the host and host plants, and larger scale releases with potentially higher densities of parasitoids should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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15 pages, 3193 KiB  
Article
Recruiting on the Spot: A Biodegradable Formulation for Lacewings to Trigger Biological Control of Aphids
by Joakim Pålsson, Gunda Thöming, Rodrigo Silva, Mario Porcel, Teun Dekker and Marco Tasin
Insects 2019, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10010006 - 5 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4483
Abstract
Upon herbivory, plants release herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which induce chemical defenses in the plant as well as recruit natural enemies. However, whether synthetic HIPVs can be employed to enhance biological control in a cultivated crop in the field is yet to be [...] Read more.
Upon herbivory, plants release herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which induce chemical defenses in the plant as well as recruit natural enemies. However, whether synthetic HIPVs can be employed to enhance biological control in a cultivated crop in the field is yet to be explored. Here we show that a biodegradable formulation loaded with induced and food-signaling volatiles can selectively recruit the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, and reduce pest population under field conditions. In apple orchards, the new formulation attracted lacewing adults over a 4-week period, which correlated well with independent assessments of the longevity of the slow-release matrix measured through chemical analyses. In barley, lacewing eggs and larvae were significantly more abundant in treated plots, whereas a significant reduction of two aphid species was measured (98.9% and 93.6% of population reduction, for Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi, respectively). Results show the potential for semiochemical-based targeted recruitment of lacewings to enhance biological control of aphids in a field setting. Further research should enhance selective recruitment by rewarding attracted natural enemies and by optimizing the application technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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12 pages, 538 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Fruit Bagging as a Pest Management Option for Direct Pests of Apple
by Daniel L. Frank
Insects 2018, 9(4), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040178 - 1 Dec 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4336
Abstract
Bagging fruit with plastic, paper, and two-layer commercial bags was evaluated for control of insect pests and diseases in an experimental apple orchard planted with ‘Red Delicious’ trees. Results from fruit damage evaluations at harvest showed that bagging significantly reduced fruit damage from [...] Read more.
Bagging fruit with plastic, paper, and two-layer commercial bags was evaluated for control of insect pests and diseases in an experimental apple orchard planted with ‘Red Delicious’ trees. Results from fruit damage evaluations at harvest showed that bagging significantly reduced fruit damage from direct apple pests compared with non-bagged control plots, and generally provided similar levels of fruit protection when compared with a conventional pesticide spray program. Of the three bagging materials evaluated, plastic bags provided numerically higher levels of fruit protection from insect pests, and two-layer commercial bags provided numerically higher levels of fruit protection from fruit diseases. Fruit quality as measured by percentage Brix was higher in non-bagged control plots than all other treatment plots. Fruit quality as measured by fruit diameter was not significantly different among treatments. Plastic and two-layer commercial bags generally required less time to secure around apple fruit than paper bags. The proportion of bags that remained on fruit until harvest ranged from 0.54–0.71 (commercial bags), 0.64–0.82 (plastic bags), and 0.32–0.60 (paper bags), depending on the year. Full article
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18 pages, 2294 KiB  
Article
Overwintered Drosophila suzukii Are the Main Source for Infestations of the First Fruit Crops of the Season
by Aurore D. C. Panel, Laura Zeeman, Bart J. Van der Sluis, Peter Van Elk, Bart A. Pannebakker, Bregje Wertheim and Herman H. M. Helsen
Insects 2018, 9(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040145 - 22 Oct 2018
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 7417
Abstract
The mechanisms allowing the widespread invasive pest Drosophila suzukii to survive from early spring until the availability of the first fruit crops are still unclear. Seasonal biology and population dynamics of D. suzukii were investigated in order to better understand the contribution of [...] Read more.
The mechanisms allowing the widespread invasive pest Drosophila suzukii to survive from early spring until the availability of the first fruit crops are still unclear. Seasonal biology and population dynamics of D. suzukii were investigated in order to better understand the contribution of the early spring hosts to the infestation of the first fruit crops of the season. We identified hosts available to D. suzukii in early spring and assessed their suitability for the pest oviposition and reproductive success under field and laboratory conditions. The natural infestation rate of one of these hosts, Aucuba japonica, was assessed over springtime and the morphology of the flies that emerged from infested A. japonica fruits was characterized under field conditions. Then, these findings were correlated with long-term monitoring data on seasonal reproductive biology and morphology of the pest, using a cumulative degree-days (DD) analysis. Field sampling revealed that overwintered D. suzukii females were physiologically able to lay eggs at 87 DD which coincided with the detection of the first infested early spring hosts. The latter were continuously and increasingly infested by D. suzukii eggs in nature from early spring until the end of May, in particular Aucuba japonica. Individuals emerged from most of these hosts were characterized by a poor fitness and a rather low success of emergence. In the field, only few summer morphs emerged from naturally infested A. japonica fruits around the end of May-beginning of June. However, field monitoring in orchards revealed that D. suzukii individuals consisted solely of winter morphs until mid-June. These observations indicate that overwintered D. suzukii females are the predominant source for the infestations in the first available fruit crops of the season. We discuss these findings in the context of possible pest control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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Review

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16 pages, 3057 KiB  
Review
Sex Pheromone Aerosol Devices for Mating Disruption: Challenges for a Brighter Future
by Giovanni Benelli, Andrea Lucchi, Donald Thomson and Claudio Ioriatti
Insects 2019, 10(10), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10100308 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 7666
Abstract
Pheromone-mediated mating disruption (MD) represents an important tool to manage insect pests in agriculture and forestry. MD relies on the release of synthetic sex pheromones from dispensers in crops, interfering with mate finding and reproduction of a pest through both competitive and non-competitive [...] Read more.
Pheromone-mediated mating disruption (MD) represents an important tool to manage insect pests in agriculture and forestry. MD relies on the release of synthetic sex pheromones from dispensers in crops, interfering with mate finding and reproduction of a pest through both competitive and non-competitive mechanisms. MD programs primarily rely upon “passive” dispensers, used at high densities per hectare (200–3000 units∙ha−1). In addition to the labor required for their application, another disadvantage of “passive” dispensers is the continuous release of pheromones, regardless of the time of day or the pest flight activity. Aerosol delivery systems can overcome the drawbacks of passive dispensers as they are applied at far lower density (2–5 units∙ha−1) and they can be programmed to release pheromones at selected time intervals when the target pest is active. However, the mode of action of aerosol dispensers is still not well understood and there are concerns of whether they are as effective as passive dispensers. This review focuses on the history of aerosol dispensers, mode of action, and effectiveness on various crops; deployment strategies; and the movement of pheromone once released. Limitations of aerosols and challenges for future research and commercial use are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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30 pages, 346 KiB  
Review
Twenty-five Years of Research Experience with the Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Management of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in Canada
by Howard M. A. Thistlewood and Gary J. R. Judd
Insects 2019, 10(9), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090292 - 10 Sep 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4647
Abstract
The advent of novel genetic methods has led to renewed interest in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for management of insect pests, owing to applications in mass rearing and in the production of sterile offspring without use of irradiation. An area-wide management programme [...] Read more.
The advent of novel genetic methods has led to renewed interest in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for management of insect pests, owing to applications in mass rearing and in the production of sterile offspring without use of irradiation. An area-wide management programme for codling moth, Cydia pomonella, has employed the SIT and other management practices over a large area (3395 to 7331 ha) of orchards and neighbouring urban, public, or First Nations lands in British Columbia, Canada, for 25 years. This project is the first to employ the SIT for C. pomonella, and the longest-running application of area-wide techniques for its control, anywhere. It was derived from basic research and applied trials from the 1960s onwards. Many biological challenges were overcome, and lessons learnt, in transferring from small- to large-scale applications of mass rearing and the SIT, with particular regard to Lepidoptera. Research has proven essential to identifying, if not resolving, issues that threaten the implementation and success of any such programme. The major challenges encountered, and the resulting research, are reviewed, as well as future directions. Recommendations are given for application of the SIT as part of any area-wide management programme for C. pomonella. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
24 pages, 1186 KiB  
Review
Managing Floral Resources in Apple Orchards for Pest Control: Ideas, Experiences and Future Directions
by Annette Herz, Fabian Cahenzli, Servane Penvern, Lukas Pfiffner, Marco Tasin and Lene Sigsgaard
Insects 2019, 10(8), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10080247 - 11 Aug 2019
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 7049
Abstract
Functional biodiversity is of fundamental importance for pest control. Many natural enemies rely on floral resources to complete their life cycle. Farmers need to ensure the availability of suitable and sufficient floral biodiversity. This review summarizes 66 studies on the management of floral [...] Read more.
Functional biodiversity is of fundamental importance for pest control. Many natural enemies rely on floral resources to complete their life cycle. Farmers need to ensure the availability of suitable and sufficient floral biodiversity. This review summarizes 66 studies on the management of floral biodiversity in apple orchards, published since 1986. Approaches followed different degrees of intervention: short-term practices (mowing regime and weed maintenance, cover crops), establishment of durable ecological infrastructures (perennial flower strips, hedgerows) and re-design of the crop system (intercropping, agroforestry). Although short-term practices did not always target the nutrition of natural enemies by flowering plants, living conditions for them (alternative prey, provision of habitat) were often improved. Perennial flower strips reliably enhanced natural enemies and techniques for their introduction continuously developed. Resident natural enemies and their impact in pest control reacted positively to the introduction of a more diversified vegetation, whereas the response of very mobile organisms was often not directly linked to the measures taken. A careful selection and management of plants with particular traits exploitable by most natural enemies emerged as a key-point for success. Now the elaborated design of such measures needs to be adopted by stakeholders and policy makers to encourage farmers to implement these measures in their orchards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control in Fruit Trees)
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