Special Issue "Monitoring and Detection of Insect Resistance"

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Katarina M. Mikac
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Earth and Life Science, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Interests: population genetics and ecology of invasive insects (western corn rootworm, khapra beetle and Liposcelis psocids) and also those of conservation concern (endangered Lepidoptera in particular); geometric morphometrics and its application to pest management and invasive species monitoring
Prof. Renata Bažok
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department for Agricultural Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: western corn rootworm, wireworms, pests of sugar beet, pests of potato and brassica crops; resistance of insect pests to pesticides; other pests of field and vegetable crops; side effects of insecticides (beneficial organisms and ecotoxicology); integrated pest management; biological insecticides
Dr. Darija Lemic
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department for Agricultural Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: entomology; phytopharmacy; population genetics; geometric morphometrics; integrated pest management

Special Issue Information

Respected Colleagues,

In this Special Issue, we focus on current methods in the monitoring and detection of insect resistance. There is no doubt that over time insects have developed resistance to the myriad techniques (crop rotation, chemicals, host plant defenses) used to control them, and this resistance continues to prove challenging. Many historical (e.g., Colorado Potato Beetle resistance to DDT in 1952) and current (Western Corn Rootworm resistance to BtMaize in 2009) examples of insect resistance remind us that there is still much work to do, not only for the early detection of field resistance but also for finding novel methods of detection and control. We welcome papers dealing with the monitoring and detection of insect resistance and are especially interested in novel methods of resistance detection (e.g., use of artificial intelligence (AI) in integrated resistance management). If you are unsure as to whether your manuscript falls within the focus of this Special Issue, please feel free to send us an abstract.

Dr. Katarina M. Mikac
Prof. Renata Bažok
Dr. Darija Lemic
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Insects is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • monitoring resistance (traditional methods)
  • novel monitoring and detection methods
  • forecasting and predicting resistance
  • insect resistance management (and strategies)

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Cold Tolerance and Population Dynamics of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae)
Insects 2019, 10(10), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10100351 - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
In California’s San Joaquin Valley, feeding by the coreid pest, Leptoglossus zonatus, can cause considerable economic loss on almond and pistachio. This research was conducted to improve understanding of how winter temperatures affect mortality of overwintering adult L. zonatus and to develop [...] Read more.
In California’s San Joaquin Valley, feeding by the coreid pest, Leptoglossus zonatus, can cause considerable economic loss on almond and pistachio. This research was conducted to improve understanding of how winter temperatures affect mortality of overwintering adult L. zonatus and to develop a better understanding of the role pomegranate plays in the species’ life-history. We exposed 7410 field-collected adult L. zonatus to temperatures between −2 and −10 °C for a period of three, four, or six hours using insect incubators. At six hours of exposure, the, LD50 and LD95 occur at −5.8 and −9.7 °C, respectively. We classified L. zonatus as chill-intolerant. Temperatures cold enough to affect substantial mortality of overwintering L. zonatus rarely occur in the San Joaquin Valley. Whole aggregation destructive sampling from a pomegranate hedgerow in Fresno County was conducted to determine population dynamics. At late summer to early fall, aggregations consisted of >90% immature stages. By early to mid-winter, mean aggregation size decreased, consisting of only three to 12 late-instars and adults. During years one and two of the experiment, L. zonatus produced a generation on pomegranate, mostly between September and mid-November. Overwintering did not occur on pomegranate, rather the majority of adults emigrated to other overwintering locations by mid-winter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Detection of Insect Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle
Codling Moth Wing Morphology Changes Due to Insecticide Resistance
Insects 2019, 10(10), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10100310 - 21 Sep 2019
Abstract
The codling moth (CM) (Cydia pomonella L.) is the most important apple pest in Croatia and Europe. Owing to its economic importance, it is a highly controlled species and the intense selection pressure the species is under has likely caused it to [...] Read more.
The codling moth (CM) (Cydia pomonella L.) is the most important apple pest in Croatia and Europe. Owing to its economic importance, it is a highly controlled species and the intense selection pressure the species is under has likely caused it to change its phenotype in response. Intensive application of chemical-based insecticide treatments for the control of CM has led to resistance development. In this study, the forewing morphologies of 294 CM (11 populations) were investigated using geometric morphometric procedures based on the venation patterns of 18 landmarks. Finite element method (FEM) was also used to further investigate the dispersal capabilities of moths by modelling wing deformation versus wind speed. Three treatments were investigated and comprised populations from integrated and ecological (susceptible) orchards and laboratory-reared non-resistant populations. Forewing shape differences were found among the three treatment populations investigated. Across all three population treatments, the movement of landmarks 1, 7, 8, 9, and 12 drove the wing shape differences found. A reliable pattern of differences in forewing shape as related to control practice type was observed. FEM revealed that as wind speed (m/s−1) increased, so too did wing deformation (mm) for CM from each of the three treatments modelled. CM from the ecological orchards displayed the least deformation followed by integrated then laboratory-reared CM, which had the highest wing deformation at the highest wind speeds. This study presents an affordable and accessible technique that reliably demonstrates wing shape differences, and thus its use as a population biomarker to detect resistance should be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Detection of Insect Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle
Tolerance of High Oral Doses of Nonradioactive and Radioactive Caesium Chloride in the Pale Grass Blue Butterfly Zizeeria maha
Insects 2019, 10(9), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090290 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The biological effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been examined in the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). In previous internal exposure experiments, larvae were given field-collected contaminated host plant leaves that contained up to 43.5 kBq/kg (leaf) of radioactive [...] Read more.
The biological effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been examined in the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). In previous internal exposure experiments, larvae were given field-collected contaminated host plant leaves that contained up to 43.5 kBq/kg (leaf) of radioactive caesium. Larvae ingested up to 480 kBq/kg (larva), resulting in high mortality and abnormality rates. However, these results need to be compared with the toxicological data of caesium. Here, we examined the toxicity of both nonradioactive and radioactive caesium chloride on the pale grass blue butterfly. Larvae were fed a caesium-containing artificial diet, ingesting up to 149 MBq/kg (larva) of radioactive caesium (137Cs) or a much higher amount of nonradioactive caesium. We examined the pupation rate, eclosion rate, survival rate up to the adult stage, and the forewing size. In contrast to previous internal exposure experiments using field-collected contaminated leaves, we could not detect any effect. We conclude that the butterfly is tolerant to ionising radiation from 137Cs in the range tested but is vulnerable to radioactive contamination in the field. These results suggest that the biological effects in the field may be mediated through ecological systems and cannot be estimated solely based on radiation doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Detection of Insect Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of Relative Development and Reproductivity Fitness Cost in Three Insecticide-Resistant Strains of Aedes aegypti from Thailand
Insects 2019, 10(9), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10090265 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Knockdown resistance (kdr) and detoxification enzymes are major resistance mechanisms in insecticide-resistant Aedes aegypti throughout the world. Persistence of the resistance phenotype is associated with high fitness of resistance alleles in the absence of insecticide pressure. This study determined the relative [...] Read more.
Knockdown resistance (kdr) and detoxification enzymes are major resistance mechanisms in insecticide-resistant Aedes aegypti throughout the world. Persistence of the resistance phenotype is associated with high fitness of resistance alleles in the absence of insecticide pressure. This study determined the relative fitness cost of three insecticide-resistant strains of Aedes aegypti—PMD, PMD-R, and UPK-R—and a hybrid under similar laboratory conditions in the absence of insecticide. The PMD strain is resistant to DDT with no kdr alleles; the PMD-R is resistant to DDT and permethrin with 1534C homozygous kdr alleles; and UPK-R is resistant to DDT, permethrin, and deltamethrin with 989P + 1016G homozygous alleles. The DDT-resistant PMD strain had the highest fitness compared with the two DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strains (PMD-R and UPK-R) and hybrid. Consistent fitness costs were observed in the DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strains and hybrid, including shorter wing length, reduced egg hatchability, shorter female lifespan, and shorter viability of eggs after storage, whereas no effect was observed on blood feeding rate. In addition, reduced egg production was observed in the PMD-R strain and prolonged developmental time was seen in the UPK-R strain. The corresponding hybrid that is heterozygous for kdr alleles was fitter than either of the homozygous mutant genotypes. This is in accordance with the high frequency of heterozygous genotypes observed in natural populations of Ae. aegypti in Chiang Mai city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Detection of Insect Resistance)
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Open AccessArticle
A Re-Evaluation of Olive Fruit Fly Organophosphate-Resistant Ace Alleles in Iberia, and Field-Testing Population Effects after in-Practice Dimethoate Use
Insects 2019, 10(8), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects10080232 - 01 Aug 2019
Abstract
The management of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) is traditionally based upon the use of organophosphate insecticides, mainly dimethoate. In this evolutionary arms race between man and pest, the flies have adapted a pesticide resistance, implying two point-mutations of the [...] Read more.
The management of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) is traditionally based upon the use of organophosphate insecticides, mainly dimethoate. In this evolutionary arms race between man and pest, the flies have adapted a pesticide resistance, implying two point-mutations of the Ace gene -I214V and G488S- and a 9bp deletion -Δ3Q. We revisited 11 Iberian locations to evaluate this adaptation of organophosphate (OP)-resistant alleles through amplicon sequencing. Screening for populations where the wild type is prevalent allows an identification of hotspots for targeted mitigation measures; we have hence refined the scale to the region with the lowest OP-resistant alleles frequency 71 locations were sampled and individuals checked using a fast and low-cost allele-specific-primer polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR) method]. An increase in Ace gene point-mutations was observed, and the Δ3Q mutation remains undetected. The lowest frequencies of the OP-resistant alleles remain in the west, underlining the hypothesis of an introduction of resistance from eastern Mediterranean areas. A field test was performed by sampling the fly population before and after in-practice dimethoate application. A clear reduction in olive fruit fly numbers was observed, with no relevant changes in the genotypic frequencies of the resistance alleles. The findings are discussed in frame of the type and intensity of the selection pressure that has led to the adaptation to resistance and its consequences from the producer perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring and Detection of Insect Resistance)
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