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Water, Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Attribution of Runoff Change for the Xinshui River Catchment on the Loess Plateau of China in a Changing Environment
Water 2016, 8(6), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060267 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
Stream flow plays a crucial role in the environment, society, and the economy, and identifying the causes of changes in runoff is important to understanding the impact of climate change and human activity. This study examines the variation trends in recorded runoff for [...] Read more.
Stream flow plays a crucial role in the environment, society, and the economy, and identifying the causes of changes in runoff is important to understanding the impact of climate change and human activity. This study examines the variation trends in recorded runoff for the Xinshui River, a tributary of the Yellow River on the Loess Plateau, and uses hydrological simulations to investigate how climate change and human activity have contributed to those trends. Results show that the recorded runoff at the Daning station on the Xinshui River declined significantly from 1955–2008 with an abrupt change occurring in 1973. The Simplified Water Balance Model (SWBM) simulates monthly discharge well with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) coefficient of 78% and a relative error of volumetric fit (RE) of 0.32%. Runoff depth over the catchment in 1973–2008 fell by 25.5 mm relative to the previous period, with human activity and climate change contributing 60.6% and 39.4% of the total runoff reduction, respectively. However, the impacts induced by climate change and human activities are both tending to increase. Therefore, efforts to improve the ecology of the Loess Plateau should give sufficient attention to the impacts of climate change and human activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Estimating Loess Plateau Average Annual Precipitation with Multiple Linear Regression Kriging and Geographically Weighted Regression Kriging
Water 2016, 8(6), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060266 - 22 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2553
Abstract
Estimating the spatial distribution of precipitation is an important and challenging task in hydrology, climatology, ecology, and environmental science. In order to generate a highly accurate distribution map of average annual precipitation for the Loess Plateau in China, multiple linear regression Kriging (MLRK) [...] Read more.
Estimating the spatial distribution of precipitation is an important and challenging task in hydrology, climatology, ecology, and environmental science. In order to generate a highly accurate distribution map of average annual precipitation for the Loess Plateau in China, multiple linear regression Kriging (MLRK) and geographically weighted regression Kriging (GWRK) methods were employed using precipitation data from the period 1980–2010 from 435 meteorological stations. The predictors in regression Kriging were selected by stepwise regression analysis from many auxiliary environmental factors, such as elevation (DEM), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), solar radiation, slope, and aspect. All predictor distribution maps had a 500 m spatial resolution. Validation precipitation data from 130 hydrometeorological stations were used to assess the prediction accuracies of the MLRK and GWRK approaches. Results showed that both prediction maps with a 500 m spatial resolution interpolated by MLRK and GWRK had a high accuracy and captured detailed spatial distribution data; however, MLRK produced a lower prediction error and a higher variance explanation than GWRK, although the differences were small, in contrast to conclusions from similar studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flume Experiments for Optimizing the Hydraulic Performance of a Deep-Water Wetland Utilizing Emergent Vegetation and Obstructions
Water 2016, 8(6), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060265 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2314
Abstract
Constructed ponds and wetlands are widely used in urban areas for stormwater management, ecological conservation, and pollution treatment. The treatment efficiency of these systems is strongly related to the hydrodynamics and hydraulic residence time. In this study, we developed a physical model and [...] Read more.
Constructed ponds and wetlands are widely used in urban areas for stormwater management, ecological conservation, and pollution treatment. The treatment efficiency of these systems is strongly related to the hydrodynamics and hydraulic residence time. In this study, we developed a physical model and used rhodamine-WT as a tracer to conduct flume experiments. An equivalent Reynolds number was assumed, and the flume was a 1/25-scale model. Emergent obstructions (EOs), submerged obstructions (SOs), and high- and low-density emergent vegetation were placed along the sides of the flume, and 49 tracer tests were performed. We altered the density, spatial extent, aspect ratio, and configurations of the obstructions and emergent vegetation to observe changes in the hydraulic efficiency of a deep-water wetland. In the cases of low-aspect-ratio obstructions, the effects of the EOs on the hydraulic efficiency were significantly stronger than those of the SOs. In contrast, in the cases of high-aspect-ratio obstructions, the improvement effects of the EOs were weaker than those of the SOs. The high-aspect-ratio EOs altered the flow direction and constrained the water conveyance area, which apparently caused a short-circuited flow phenomenon, resulting in a decrease in hydraulic efficiency. Most cases revealed that the emergent vegetation improved the hydraulic efficiency more than the EOs. The high-density emergent vegetation (HEV) improved the hydraulic efficiency more than the low-density emergent vegetation (LEV). Three cases involving HEV, two cases involving LEV, and one case involving EOs attained a good hydraulic efficiency (λ > 0.75). To achieve greater water purification, aquatic planting in constructed wetlands should not be overly dense. The HEV configuration in case 3-1 achieved optimum hydraulic performance for compliance with applicable water treatment standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands Systems and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Rainwater Harvesting and Greywater Reuse for Water Consumption Reduction and Wastewater Minimization
Water 2016, 8(6), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060264 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3006
Abstract
Northeastern Mexico is a semiarid region with water scarcity and a strong pressure on water sources caused by the rapid increase of population and industrialization. In this region, rainwater harvesting alone is not enough to meet water supply demands due to the irregular [...] Read more.
Northeastern Mexico is a semiarid region with water scarcity and a strong pressure on water sources caused by the rapid increase of population and industrialization. In this region, rainwater harvesting alone is not enough to meet water supply demands due to the irregular distribution of rainfall in time and space. Thus, in this study the reliability of integrating rainwater harvesting with greywater reuse to reduce water consumption and minimize wastewater generation in the Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey Campus, was assessed. Potable water consumption and greywater generation in main facilities of the campus were determined. Rainwater that can be potentially harvested in roofs and parking areas of the campus was estimated based on a statistical analysis of the rainfall. Based on these data, potential water savings and wastewater minimization were determined. Characterization of rainwater and greywater was carried out to determine the treatment necessities for each water source. Additionally, the capacity of water storage tanks was estimated. For the selected treatment systems, an economic assessment was conducted to determine the viability of the alternatives proposed. Results showed that water consumption can be reduced by 48% and wastewater generation can be minimized by 59%. Implementation of rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse systems in the Monterrey Campus will generate important economic benefits to the institution. Amortization of the investments will be achieved in only six years, where the net present value (NPV) will be on the order of US $50,483.2, the internal rate of return (IRR) of 4.6% and the benefits–investment ratio (B/I) of 1.7. From the seventh year, the project will present an IRR greater than the minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR). In a decade, the IRR will be 14.4%, more than twice the MARR, the NPV of US $290,412.1 and the B/I of 3.1, denoting economic feasibility. Based on these results, it is clear that integrating rainwater harvesting with greywater reuse resulted in a more feasible and reliable strategy than those strategies based only on rainwater harvesting. Furthermore, the investments can be amortized in a shorter period of time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Predictive Uncertainty Estimation on a Precipitation and Temperature Reanalysis Ensemble for Shigar Basin, Central Karakoram
Water 2016, 8(6), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060263 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2085
Abstract
The Upper Indus Basin (UIB) and the Karakoram Range are the subject of ongoing hydro-glaciological studies to investigate possible glacier mass balance shifts due to climatic change. Because of the high altitude and remote location, the Karakoram Range is difficult to access and, [...] Read more.
The Upper Indus Basin (UIB) and the Karakoram Range are the subject of ongoing hydro-glaciological studies to investigate possible glacier mass balance shifts due to climatic change. Because of the high altitude and remote location, the Karakoram Range is difficult to access and, therefore, remains scarcely monitored. In situ precipitation and temperature measurements are only available at valley locations. High-altitude observations exist only for very limited periods. Gridded precipitation and temperature data generated from the spatial interpolation of in situ observations are unreliable for this region because of the extreme topography. Besides satellite measurements, which offer spatial coverage, but underestimate precipitation in this area, atmospheric reanalyses remain one of the few alternatives. Here, we apply a proven approach to quantify the uncertainty associated with an ensemble of monthly precipitation and temperature reanalysis data for 1979–2009 in Shigar Basin, Central Karakoram. A Model-Conditional Processor (MCP) of uncertainty is calibrated on precipitation and temperature in situ data measured in the proximity of the study region. An ensemble of independent reanalyses is processed to determine the predictive uncertainty of monthly observations. As to be expected, the informative gain achieved by post-processing temperature reanalyses is considerable, whereas significantly less gain is achieved for precipitation post-processing. The proposed approach indicates a systematic assessment procedure for predictive uncertainty through probabilistic weighting of multiple re-forecasts, which are bias-corrected on ground observations. The approach also supports an educated reconstruction of gap-filling for missing in situ observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uncertainty Analysis and Modeling in Hydrological Forecasting)
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Open AccessArticle
Micro Radar Surface Velocimetry for Hydrologic Signal Processing Using a Bandpass Filtering Approach
Water 2016, 8(6), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060262 - 21 Jun 2016
Viewed by 1996
Abstract
The collection of hydrological data is particularly important for the utilization and management of water resources, water conservation, and flood control. Most of the hydrological observation operations should be conducted manually and are time-consuming, strenuous, dangerous, and have low precision. In this study, [...] Read more.
The collection of hydrological data is particularly important for the utilization and management of water resources, water conservation, and flood control. Most of the hydrological observation operations should be conducted manually and are time-consuming, strenuous, dangerous, and have low precision. In this study, the shortcomings of the manual observations are overcome and the uncertainties related to the radar-based flow velocity estimations by a sensor in the radar surface current meter are explored. This includes an automatic observation feature and analyses are conducted using the radar signals that are received by the instruments for the real-time observation of the signals. In this study, experiments were conducted at the Water Resources Planning Institute (WRPI) of the Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taiwan and the surface velocity was estimated using the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT), wavelet transform (WT), and a bandpass filter. The experimental results after signal processing using the bandpass filter were precise, when the tilt angle ranged between 20 and 40 degrees. The 10.525 GHz radar surface current meter adopted in this study is suitable for a tilt angle of 20–40 degrees; the measurement error will be relatively large if the tilt angle is less than 20 degrees or more than 40 degrees. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Streamside Management Zones for Conserving Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities Following Timber Harvest in Eastern Kentucky Headwater Catchments
Water 2016, 8(6), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060261 - 21 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1870
Abstract
Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ) configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests [...] Read more.
Headwater streams generally comprise the majority of stream area in a watershed and can have a strong influence on downstream food webs. Our objective was to determine the effect of altering streamside management zone (SMZ) configurations on headwater aquatic insect communities. Timber harvests were implemented within six watersheds in eastern Kentucky. The SMZ configurations varied in width, canopy retention and best management practice (BMP) utilization at the watershed scale. Benthic macroinvertebrate samples collected one year before and four years after harvest indicated few differences among treatments, although post-treatment abundance was elevated in some of the treatment streams relative to the unharvested controls. Jaccard index values were similar across SMZ treatments after logging, indicating strong community overlap. These findings suggest that stream invertebrate communities did respond to the timber harvest, though not negatively. Results also suggest that SMZ criteria for aquatic habitats in steeply sloping topography, including at least 50 percent canopy retention and widths of at least 16.8 m, appear to be adequate for protecting benthic macroinvertebrate communities from logging impacts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
International Severe Weather and Flash Flood Hazard Early Warning Systems—Leveraging Coordination, Cooperation, and Partnerships through a Hydrometeorological Project in Southern Africa
Water 2016, 8(6), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060258 - 20 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2292
Abstract
Climate, weather and water hazards do not recognize national boundaries. Transboundary/regional programs and cooperation are essential to reduce the loss of lives and damage to livelihoods when facing these hazards. The development and implementation of systems to provide early warnings for severe weather [...] Read more.
Climate, weather and water hazards do not recognize national boundaries. Transboundary/regional programs and cooperation are essential to reduce the loss of lives and damage to livelihoods when facing these hazards. The development and implementation of systems to provide early warnings for severe weather events such as cyclones and flash floods requires data and information sharing in real time, and coordination among the government agencies at all levels. Within a country, this includes local, municipal, provincial-to-national levels as well as regional and international entities involved in hydrometeorological services and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). Of key importance are the National Meteorological and Hydrologic Services (NMHSs). The NMHS is generally the authority solely responsible for issuing warnings for these hazards. However, in many regions of the world, the linkages and interfaces between the NMHS and other agencies are weak or non-existent. Therefore, there is a critical need to assess, strengthen, and formalize collaborations when addressing the concept of reducing risk and impacts from severe weather and floods. The U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance; the United Nations World Meteorological Organization (WMO); the WMO Southern Africa Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, hosted by the South African Weather Service; the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Weather Service and the Hydrologic Research Center (a non-profit corporation) are currently implementing a project working with Southern Africa NMHSs on addressing this gap. The project aims to strengthen coordination and collaboration mechanisms from national to local levels. The project partners are working with the NMHSs to apply and implement appropriate tools and infrastructure to enhance currently operational severe weather and flash flood early warning systems in each country in support of delivery and communication of warnings for the DRR entities at the regional, national and local levels in order to reduce the loss of life and property. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Prioritization of Watersheds across Mali Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques for Agricultural Development Planning
Water 2016, 8(6), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060260 - 18 Jun 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3245
Abstract
Implementing agricultural water management programs over appropriate spatial extents can have positive effects on water access and erosion management. Lack of access to water for domestic and agricultural uses represents a major constraint on agricultural productivity and perpetuates poverty and hunger in sub-Saharan [...] Read more.
Implementing agricultural water management programs over appropriate spatial extents can have positive effects on water access and erosion management. Lack of access to water for domestic and agricultural uses represents a major constraint on agricultural productivity and perpetuates poverty and hunger in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This lack of access is the result of erratic precipitation, poor water management, limited knowledge of hydrological systems, and inadequate investment in water infrastructure. Water management programs should be made by multi-disciplinary teams that consider the interrelationship between hydraulic and anthropogenic factors. This paper proposes a method to prioritize watersheds for water management and agricultural development across Mali (Western Africa) using remote sensing data and GIS tools. The method involves deriving a set of relevant thematic layers from satellite imagery. Satellite images from Landsat ETM+ were used to generate thematic layers such as land use/land cover. Slope and drainage density maps were derived from Shuttle RADAR Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at 90 m spatial resolution. Population grids were available from the Global rural-urban mapping project (GRUMP) database for the year 2000 and mean rainfall maps were extracted from Tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) grids for each year between 1988 and 2014. Each thematic layer was divided into classes that were assigned a rank for agriculture and livelihoods development provided by experts in the relevant field (e.g., Soil scientist ranking the soil classes) and published literature on those themes. Zones of priority were delineated based on the combination of high scoring ranks from each thematic layer. Five categories of priority zones ranging from “very high” to “very low” were determined based on total score percentages. Field verification was then undertaken in selected categories to check the priority assigned to each class using a random sampling method. Watershed boundaries were prepared at 1000 ha scale and overlaid on the priority map to identify watersheds that were in a very high priority zone. The importance and efficiency of using remote sensing to prioritize watershed interventions across countries is critical due to the limited technical and financial resources available in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Protection and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Creation of an SWMM Toolkit for Its Application in Urban Drainage Networks Optimization
Water 2016, 8(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060259 - 18 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic simulation engine of flow in sewer systems developed by the USEPA. It has been successfully used for analyzing and designing both storm water and waste water systems. However, despite including some interfacing functions, these [...] Read more.
The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic simulation engine of flow in sewer systems developed by the USEPA. It has been successfully used for analyzing and designing both storm water and waste water systems. However, despite including some interfacing functions, these functions are insufficient for certain simulations. This paper describes some new functions that have been added to the existing ones to form a library of functions (Toolkit). The Toolkit presented here will allow the direct modification of network data during simulation without the need to access the input file. To support the use of this library, a testing protocol was performed in order to evaluate both calculation time and accuracy of results. Finally, a case study is presented. In this application, this library will be used for the design of a sewerage network by using a genetic algorithm based on successive iterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Method for Monitoring Water Quality Using Landsat Imagery
Water 2016, 8(6), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060257 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2668
Abstract
Regular monitoring of water quality is increasingly necessary to keep pace with rapid environmental change and protect human health and well-being. Remote sensing has been suggested as a potential solution for monitoring certain water quality parameters without the need for in situ sampling, [...] Read more.
Regular monitoring of water quality is increasingly necessary to keep pace with rapid environmental change and protect human health and well-being. Remote sensing has been suggested as a potential solution for monitoring certain water quality parameters without the need for in situ sampling, but universal methods and tools are lacking. While many studies have developed predictive relationships between remotely sensed surface reflectance and water parameters, these relationships are often unique to a particular geographic region and have little applicability in other areas. In order to remotely monitor water quality, these relationships must be developed on a region by region basis. This paper presents an automated method for processing remotely sensed images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and extracting corrected reflectance measurements around known sample locations to allow rapid development of predictive water quality relationships to improve remote monitoring. Using open Python scripting, this study (1) provides an openly accessible and simple method for processing publicly available remote sensing data; and (2) allows determination of relationships between sampled water quality parameters and reflectance values to ultimately allow predictive monitoring. The method is demonstrated through a case study of the Ozark/Ouchita-Appalachian ecoregion in eastern Oklahoma using data collected for the Beneficial Use Monitoring Program (BUMP). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design Criteria for Suspended Pipelines Based on Structural Analysis
Water 2016, 8(6), 256; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060256 - 17 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Mathematical models have become the target of numerous attempts to obtain results that can be extrapolated to the study of hydraulic pressure infrastructures associated with different engineering requests. Simulation analysis based on finite element method (FEM) models are used to determine the vulnerability [...] Read more.
Mathematical models have become the target of numerous attempts to obtain results that can be extrapolated to the study of hydraulic pressure infrastructures associated with different engineering requests. Simulation analysis based on finite element method (FEM) models are used to determine the vulnerability of hydraulic systems under different types of actions (e.g., natural events and pressure variation). As part of the numerical simulation of a suspended pipeline, the adequacy of existing supports to sustain the pressure loads is verified. With a certain value of load application, the pipeline is forced to sway sideways, possibly lifting up off its deadweight supports. Thus, identifying the frequency, consequences and predictability of accidental events is of extreme importance. This study focuses on the stability of vertical supports associated with extreme transient loads and how a pipeline design can be improved using FEM simulations, in the design stage, to avoid accidents. Distribution of bending moments, axial forces, displacements and deformations along the pipeline and supports are studied for a set of important parametric variations. A good representation of the pipeline displacements is obtained using FEM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Systems towards New Future Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulations of Suspended Sediment Dynamics Due to Seasonal Forcing in the Mekong Coastal Area
Water 2016, 8(6), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060255 - 16 Jun 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2722
Abstract
The Mekong River is ranked as the 8th in terms of water discharge and as the 10th in terms of sediment load in the world. During the last 4500 years, its delta prograded more than 250 km to the south due to a [...] Read more.
The Mekong River is ranked as the 8th in terms of water discharge and as the 10th in terms of sediment load in the world. During the last 4500 years, its delta prograded more than 250 km to the south due to a tremendous amount of sediments deposited, and turned from a “tide-dominated” delta into a “wave-and-tide dominated” delta. This study aims at completing our knowledge on the fate of sediments that may be stored in estuarine or coastal systems, or dispersed over the continental shelf and slope. Sediment transport in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) coastal area was studied by numerical simulations using the Delft3D model. The model configuration was calibrated and validated from data collected in situ during 4 periods from 2012 to 2014. Then, 50 scenarios corresponding to different wave conditions (derived from the wave climate) and river discharge values typical of low flow and flood seasons enabled us to quantify the dispersal patterns of fluvial sediments close to the mouths and along the coast. Sediments mostly settled in the estuary and close to the mouths under calm conditions, and suspended sediment with higher concentrations extend further offshore with higher waves. Waves from the Southeast enhanced the concentration all along the MRD coastal zone. Waves from the South and Southwest induced coastal erosion, higher suspended sediment concentrations in front of the southern delta, and a net transport towards the Northeast of the delta. Because of episodes of Southern and Southwestern waves during the low flow season, the net alongshore suspended sediment transport is oriented Northeastward and decreases from the Southwestern part of the coastal zone (~960 × 103 t yr−1) to the Northeastern part (~650 × 103 t yr−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Microeconomics of Deficit Irrigation and Subjective Water Response Function for Intensive Olive Groves
Water 2016, 8(6), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060254 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
This research paper analyzes the economics of deficit irrigation based on the use of subjective estimates of the crop yield–water relationship to determine water supply in irrigated olive groves. Interviewed farmers were asked to give three estimates for the yield-water relationship as a [...] Read more.
This research paper analyzes the economics of deficit irrigation based on the use of subjective estimates of the crop yield–water relationship to determine water supply in irrigated olive groves. Interviewed farmers were asked to give three estimates for the yield-water relationship as a function of water supply (full irrigation, usual deficit irrigation and extreme deficit irrigation). Those responses are contrasted with the actual irrigation dose and the results appear to support the hypothesis that a majority of farmers use deficit irrigation as a strategy that maximizes the value of limited water input rather than the conventional microeconomic behavior of maximizing the return to land. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Energy Constraints on Water Allocation Decisions: The Elaboration and Application of a System-Wide Economic-Water-Energy Model (SEWEM)
Water 2016, 8(6), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060253 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2840
Abstract
Worldwide, demand for water, energy, and food are on the rise due to population and industrial growth. Because of such increasing demands and in spite of the limitedness of key resources, more efficient ways to meet these demands become obligatory. Especially considering the [...] Read more.
Worldwide, demand for water, energy, and food are on the rise due to population and industrial growth. Because of such increasing demands and in spite of the limitedness of key resources, more efficient ways to meet these demands become obligatory. Especially considering the multiple interlinkages between water, energy, and food/livelihood systems, an integrated management of key resources such as water, land, and energy deems essential for realizing synergetic efficiencies, for consistent policy decisions, and for sustainable development, in particular across the river basins of the world. Therefore, the general framework of a system-wide economic-water-energy model (SEWEM), which is applicable across river basins and adjustable to different spatial scales such as sub-catchments, is presented here to meet the demands for an effective analytical tool in dealing with water-energy-food/livelihood nexus challenges. Previous hydro-economic models often ignored energy requirements, for instance, for irrigation water supply, as well as energy supply constraints, which recurrently might have led to an overestimation of the optimal levels of ground and surface water uses. The SEWEM was developed to address this gap and analyze how optimal levels of surface and groundwater uses, as well as on irrigation and power production benefits, change in response to the consideration of energy supply constraints and energy requirements for water pumping and other agricultural production operations. This is illustrated for the case of the Aral Sea Basin (ASB) in Central Asia, where surface and groundwater supplies heavily depend on pumping and thus on energy availability. The findings underlined the overestimations of optimal water uses by a hydro-economic model that neglects energy constraints. Moreover, geographical conditions have affected the changes in optimal ratios of surface and groundwater uses and water distributions across the river basin when energy restrictions are taken into account. The results confirmed the importance of the consideration of energy constraints for the assessment of optimal water and land uses, and the essential role of an integrated analysis of water, energy, and food/livelihood systems for better-informed policy-making. Despite the added value of the SEWEM that can consider energy system constraints, further fine-tunings would make it even more relevant for addressing additional questions related to basin management. For example, improvements can be expected through considering the system dynamics, ecological aspects, income distribution effects, trade relationships, and institutional restrictions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Data and Model Simplification on the Results of a Wetland Water Resource Management Model
Water 2016, 8(6), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060252 - 14 Jun 2016
Viewed by 1997
Abstract
This paper presents the development of a wetland water balance model for use in a large river basin with many different wetlands. The basic model was primarily developed for a single wetland with a complex water management system involving large amounts of specialized [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of a wetland water balance model for use in a large river basin with many different wetlands. The basic model was primarily developed for a single wetland with a complex water management system involving large amounts of specialized input data and water management details. The aim was to simplify the model structure and to use only commonly available data as input for the model, with the least possible loss of accuracy. Results from different variants of the model and data adaptation were tested against results from a detailed model. This shows that using commonly available data and unifying and simplifying the input data is tolerable up to a certain level. The simplification of the model has greater effects on the evaluated water balance components than the data adaptation. Because this simplification was necessary for large-scale use, we suggest that, for reasons of comparability, simpler models should always be applied with uniform data bases for large regions, though these should only be moderately simplified. Further, we recommend using these simplified models only for large-scale comparisons and using more specific, detailed models for investigations on smaller scales. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Failure Analysis of a New Irrigation Water Allocation Mode Based on Copula Approaches in the Zhanghe Irrigation District, China
Water 2016, 8(6), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060251 - 14 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
The risk analysis of an irrigation water allocation strategy based on physical mechanisms is critically important in practice. Conventional risk analysis only considers the role of the channel system and ignores the factors related to on-farm ponds. This paper proposes a channel-pond joint [...] Read more.
The risk analysis of an irrigation water allocation strategy based on physical mechanisms is critically important in practice. Conventional risk analysis only considers the role of the channel system and ignores the factors related to on-farm ponds. This paper proposes a channel-pond joint water supply mode (CPJM) based on copula approaches. Two copulas, the Plackett copula and No.16 copula, are chosen and two types of analyses are carried out with the proposed mode: (1) a risk assessment of CPJM with joint probability and conditional probability; and (2) determination of the water supply strategy given the pond water supply frequency. With a case study of the second channel in the Zhanghe Irrigation District (ZID), Southern China, nine combinations of channel water supply frequency (CWSF) and pond water supply frequency (PWSF) are studied. The results reveal that the failure probabilities of the joint distribution and the conditional distribution of the CPJM are 0.02%–16.54% and 0.45%–33.08%, respectively, with corresponding return period of 42–5000 and 10–222 years. Nevertheless, a previous study has shown that the real probability is 33.3%, which means that the return period is equals to three years. Therefore, the objective failure evaluation of the irrigation water-use strategy is useful for water saving in this channel system. Moreover, the irrigation water allocation strategy can be determined and the failure charts relating the CWSF and PWSF can be obtained for a predetermined PWSF. Thus, the channel-pond joint water supply mode provides a more reasonable estimate of the irrigation water allocation strategy reliability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Submerged Pond Sand Filter—A Novel Approach to Rural Water Supply
Water 2016, 8(6), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060250 - 13 Jun 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2646
Abstract
This study describes the new design and function of a modified version of a traditional slow sand filter. The Submerged Pond Sand Filter is built inside a pond and has a vertical as well as a horizontal flow of water through a sloped [...] Read more.
This study describes the new design and function of a modified version of a traditional slow sand filter. The Submerged Pond Sand Filter is built inside a pond and has a vertical as well as a horizontal flow of water through a sloped filter opening. The filter provides treated drinking water to a rural Indian village. The filter has functioned with minimal maintenance for five years without being subject to the typical scraping off and changing of sand as needed in traditional slow sand filters every few months. This five-year study showed bacterial removal efficiency of 97% on average with a level of faecal coliforms of 2 ± 2 colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL measured in the treated water. Turbidity was visibly removed during treatment. When water was retrieved from the filter through a manual pump for long consistent time intervals (60 min), faecal coliform counts increased from four to 10 CFU/100 mL on average compared to shorter pumping intervals (5 min). Though the treated water did not comply with the World Health Organization standards of 0 CFU/100 mL, the filter significantly improved water quality and provided one of the best sources of drinkable water in a water-depleted area, where only surface water was available. Furthermore, it is a sustainable treatment method due to low maintenance requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in Water)
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Open AccessArticle
Hedging Rules for Water Supply Reservoir Based on the Model of Simulation and Optimization
Water 2016, 8(6), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060249 - 10 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1962
Abstract
This study proposes a hedging rule model which is composed of a two-period reservior operation model considering the damage depth and hedging rule parameter optimization model. The former solves hedging rules based on a given poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage [...] Read more.
This study proposes a hedging rule model which is composed of a two-period reservior operation model considering the damage depth and hedging rule parameter optimization model. The former solves hedging rules based on a given poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target, while the latter optimization model is used to optimize the weighting factor and carryover storage target based on the hedging rules. The coupling model gives the optimal poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target to guide release. The conclusions achieved from this study as follows: (1) the water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target have a direct impact on the three elements of the hedging rule; (2) parameters can guide reservoirs to supply water reasonably after optimization of the simulation and optimization model; and (3) in order to verify the utility of the hedging rule, the Heiquan reservoir is used as a case study and particle swarm optimization algorithm with a simulation model is adopted for optimizing the parameter. The results show that the proposed hedging rule can improve the operation performances of the water supply reservoir. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Inter-Laboratory Evaluation and Successful Implementation of MS2 Coliphage as a Surrogate to Establish Proficiency Using a BSL-3 Procedure
Water 2016, 8(6), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060248 - 10 Jun 2016
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1815
Abstract
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Water Laboratory Alliance relies on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s ultrafiltration-based Water Processing Procedure (WPP) for concentration of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) agents from 10 L to 100 L of drinking water. The WPP requires [...] Read more.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Water Laboratory Alliance relies on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s ultrafiltration-based Water Processing Procedure (WPP) for concentration of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) agents from 10 L to 100 L of drinking water. The WPP requires comprehensive training and practice to maintain proficiency, resulting in a critical need for quality control (QC) criteria. The aim of this study was to develop criteria using male-specific (MS2) coliphage (BSL-2 agent) to minimize safety hazards associated with BSL-3 agents and to use the criteria to evaluate analytical proficiency during a demonstration exercise. EPA Method 1602 with EasyPhage was used during the study to develop QC criteria for 100-mL, and 40–100 L samples. The demonstration exercise indicated that the MS2 criteria would allow laboratories to demonstrate proficiency using the WPP with 40–100 L samples. In addition, the QC criteria developed for 100-mL samples has broad applicability at laboratories that are using MS2 for other types of analyses, such as assessment of water treatment devices. The development of MS2 QC criteria allows laboratories to develop and confirm ongoing proficiency using the WPP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in Water)
Open AccessArticle
An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition, Self-Organizing Map, and Linear Genetic Programming Approach for Forecasting River Streamflow
Water 2016, 8(6), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060247 - 09 Jun 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
This study focused on employing Linear Genetic Programming (LGP), Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), and the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) in modeling the rainfall–runoff relationship in a mid-size catchment. Models were assessed with regard to their ability to capture daily discharge at Lock and [...] Read more.
This study focused on employing Linear Genetic Programming (LGP), Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), and the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) in modeling the rainfall–runoff relationship in a mid-size catchment. Models were assessed with regard to their ability to capture daily discharge at Lock and Dam 10 along the Kentucky River as well as the hybrid design of EEM-SOM-LGP to make predictions multiple time-steps ahead. Different model designs were implemented to demonstrate the improvements of hybrid designs compared to LGP as a standalone application. Additionally, LGP was utilized to gain a better understanding of the catchment in question and to assess its ability to capture different aspects of the flow hydrograph. As a standalone application, LGP was able to outperform published Artificial Neural Network (ANN) results over the same dataset, posting an average absolute relative error (AARE) of 17.118 and Nash-Sutcliff (E) of 0.937. Utilizing EEMD derived IMF runoff subcomponents for forecasting daily discharge resulted in an AARE of 14.232 and E of 0.981. Clustering the EEMD-derived input space through an SOM before LGP application returned the strongest results, posting an AARE of 10.122 and E of 0.987. Applying LGP to the distinctive low and high flow seasons demonstrated a loss in correlation for the low flow season with an under-predictive nature signified by a normalized mean biased error (NMBE) of −2.353. Separating the rising and falling trends of the hydrograph showed that the falling trends were more easily captured with an AARE of 8.511 and E of 0.968 compared to the rising trends AARE of 38.744 and E of 0.948. Utilizing the EEMD-SOM-LGP design to make predictions multiple-time-steps ahead resulted in a AARE of 43.365 and E of 0.902 for predicting streamflow three days ahead. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of utilizing EEMD and an SOM in conjunction with LGP for streamflow forecasting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Transboundary Jhelum River Basin of Pakistan and India
Water 2016, 8(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060246 - 09 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3646
Abstract
Pakistan’s economy is significantly reliant on agriculture. However, Pakistan is included in the most water-stressed countries in the world, and its water resources are considerably vulnerable to climate variability and climate change. Therefore, in the present study, the water resources of the Jhelum [...] Read more.
Pakistan’s economy is significantly reliant on agriculture. However, Pakistan is included in the most water-stressed countries in the world, and its water resources are considerably vulnerable to climate variability and climate change. Therefore, in the present study, the water resources of the Jhelum River basin, which provides water to 6 million hectares of land of Pakistan and hydropower production, were assessed under the scenarios A2 and B2 of HadCM3. A hydrological model, Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS), was set up, calibrated, and validated for the Jhelum basin, and then streamflow was simulated for three future periods: 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2099. The simulated streamflow of each period was compared with the simulated streamflow of the baseline period (1971–2000) to find the changes in the following indicators: mean flow, low flow, median flow, high flow, and center-of-volume dates (CVDs). The results of the study showed an increase of 10%–15% in the mean annual flow as compared to the baseline flow at the end of this century. Winter, spring, and autumn showed an increase in streamflow at most of the sites in all three periods. However, summer (the monsoon season in the basin) showed decreased streamflow at most of the sites. Maximum increase at Azad Pattan was projected in winter in the 2080s, with about 37%–39% increase in flow under both scenarios. Low and median flows were projected to increase, but a decline in high flow was detected in the future under both scenarios. It was also concluded that half of the annual flow in the basin will pass by the Azad Pattan site one week earlier than it does now. On the whole, the Jhelum basin would face more temporal and magnitudinal variations in high, low, and mean flows relative to present conditions. This shows that without a consideration of climate change impacts, proper utilization and management of water resources in the basin will be more difficult. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Role of Conservation Adoption Premiums on Participation in Water Quality Trading Programs
Water 2016, 8(6), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060245 - 09 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Over half of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds in the United States are threatened or impaired, mostly by nutrients. One policy to improve water quality is water quality trading (WQT). While the concept is appealing, adoption of conservation practices in these programs has been [...] Read more.
Over half of lakes, reservoirs, and ponds in the United States are threatened or impaired, mostly by nutrients. One policy to improve water quality is water quality trading (WQT). While the concept is appealing, adoption of conservation practices in these programs has been anemic at best. Using a case study in the newly-formed WQT market in Jordan Lake, North Carolina, we propose that part of the problem is a large adoption premium (AP) for this program. AP is the amount that farmers require over and above direct adoption costs to participate. In this study, farmers were asked at in-person interviews about their willingness to accept (WTA) a payment to adopt a particular conservation practice (riparian buffers) in order to generate and sell credits. We compared farmers’ WTA to their direct cost of participation, which allowed us to estimate an AP. On average, the AP more than doubles the cost of purchasing credits. The AP sums all of the known indirect costs already cited in the literature, and more, into a single value and is relatively simple to estimate. Knowing the AP would improve the ability of policy makers to accurately estimate what is needed to boost adoption rates in WQT programs and other conservation programs as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Evaluation of a Floating Treatment Wetland in an Urban Catchment
Water 2016, 8(6), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060244 - 08 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2732
Abstract
Floating Treatment Wetland (FTW) systems are purpose-built devices designed to replicate the water treatment processes that occur in and around naturally occurring floating vegetated islands. FTWs can be used to improve the water quality of water storage ponds by contributing to water treatment [...] Read more.
Floating Treatment Wetland (FTW) systems are purpose-built devices designed to replicate the water treatment processes that occur in and around naturally occurring floating vegetated islands. FTWs can be used to improve the water quality of water storage ponds by contributing to water treatment processes through adhesion, filtration, nutrient uptake (direct use by plants), and sequestration. This paper presents the results of a twelve-month investigation into the pollution removal performance of a FTW receiving stormwater runoff from a 7.46 ha urban residential catchment. As anticipated, there was a high degree of variation in FTW treatment performance between individual rainfall events. Overall pollution removal performance was calculated to be 80% for Total Suspended Solids (TSS), 53% for Total Phosphorous (TP), and 17% for Total Nitrogen (TN) for a FTW footprint of 0.14% of the contributing catchment. TSS and TP concentrations were found to be significantly reduced after FTW treatment. The minimum FTW footprint to catchment size ratio required to achieve regulated nutrient removal rates was calculated to be 0.37%. Sum of loads calculations based on flow resulted in pollution load reductions of TSS 76%, TP 55%, and TN 17%. Pollution treatment performance (particularly for TN) was found to be affected by low influent concentrations, and highly-variable inflow concentrations. The study demonstrated that FTWs are an effective treatment solution for the removal of pollution from urban stormwater runoff. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Large Constructed Wetlands for Phosphorus Control: A Review
Water 2016, 8(6), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060243 - 07 Jun 2016
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2614
Abstract
This paper reviews aspects of the performance of large (>40 ha) constructed treatment wetlands intended for phosphorus control. Thirty-seven such wetlands have been built and have good data records, with a median size of 754 ha. All are successfully removing phosphorus from a [...] Read more.
This paper reviews aspects of the performance of large (>40 ha) constructed treatment wetlands intended for phosphorus control. Thirty-seven such wetlands have been built and have good data records, with a median size of 754 ha. All are successfully removing phosphorus from a variety of waters. Period of record median concentration reductions were 71%, load reductions 0.77 gP·m−2·year−1, and rate coefficients 12.5 m·year−1. Large wetlands have a narrower performance spectrum than the larger group of all sizes. Some systems display startup trends, ranging to several years, likely resulting from antecedent soil and vegetation conditions. There are internal longitudinal gradients in concentration, which vary with lateral position and flow conditions. Accretion in inlet zones may require attention. Concentrations are reduced to plateau values, in the range of about 10–50 mgP·m−3. Vegetation type has an effect upon performance measures, and its presence facilitates performance. Trends in the performance measures over the history of individual systems display only small changes, with both increases and decreases occurring. Such trends remove little of the variance in behavior. Seasonality is typically weak for steady flow systems, and most variability appears to be stochastic. Stormwater systems display differences between wet and dry season behavior, which appear to be flow-driven. Several models of system performance have been developed, both steady and dynamic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constructed Wetlands for Water Treatment: New Developments)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Risk Due to Chemicals Transferred in a Watershed: A Case of an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery Site
Water 2016, 8(6), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060242 - 04 Jun 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the potential risks of chemicals that can affect an aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) site. ASTR is a water supply system that injects surface water into an aquifer and then extracts naturally filtered groundwater. The pilot [...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of the potential risks of chemicals that can affect an aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) site. ASTR is a water supply system that injects surface water into an aquifer and then extracts naturally filtered groundwater. The pilot site of the ASTR supplying drinking water is located downstream of the Nakdong River in South Korea. Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) was adopted to ensure suitable water quality in response to the deteriorated water quality of the Nakdong River. HACCP is a proactive management system for ensuring consistent confidence in food (or water). Hazard analysis, the first of the seven principles of HACCP, assesses physical, microbial, chemical, and radioactive hazards. This study focuses on the chemicals that are most likely to be involved in major hazardous events. Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR) data were used to analyze potential risks of chemicals. A PRTR is a national environmental database of potentially hazardous chemicals. Potential risk analysis considers the total amount of chemicals transferred off-site for treatment or disposal. Fifty-five cities and the top 10 chemicals released in the Nakdong River basin were investigated. Potential risk was defined as a function of total transfers, the relative distance, and toxicity. The top 10 cities with high potential risks were identified, and the city with the highest potential risk turned out to be Ulju. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Protection and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization and Sorptivity of the Plesiomonas shigelloides Strain and Its Potential Use to Remove Cd2+ from Wastewater
Water 2016, 8(6), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060241 - 03 Jun 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
In this study, the ability of adsorbing Cd2+ ions of Plesiomonas shigelloides was discovered. Herein, the method and mechanisms of adsorbing Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions is discussed. The cadmium-resistant bacterium was collected from the sediment of Harbin section of the [...] Read more.
In this study, the ability of adsorbing Cd2+ ions of Plesiomonas shigelloides was discovered. Herein, the method and mechanisms of adsorbing Cd2+ ions from aqueous solutions is discussed. The cadmium-resistant bacterium was collected from the sediment of Harbin section of the Songhua River in China, and then isolated, identified and characterized. The isolated strain was identified as Plesiomonas shigelloides H5 on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the sequencing of the 16SrDNA gene, and phylogeny analysis. P. shigelloides H5 was Gram-negative and bacillus. Maximum tolerance concentration (MTC) of the strain was 150 mg/L. The maximum adsorption rate and adsorption amounts was 42.71% ± 0.88% and 106.775 ± 2.325 mg/g when dried biomass was presented in a 50 mg/L Cd2+ solution. Dried biomass was in accordance with Lagergren pseudo-second-order models. A field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were applied to identify the surface morphology and functional groups. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that Cd2+ was also absorbed into cells to form precipitates. The results revealed that the surface functional groups of P. shigelloides H5 can bind to heavy metal ions. To sum up, the ability of adsorbing cadmium ions of Plesiomonas shigelloides was discovered, which might be helpful in wastewater treatment in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Long-Term Study of Ecological Impacts of River Channelization on the Population of an Endangered Fish: Lessons Learned for Assessment and Restoration
Water 2016, 8(6), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060240 - 03 Jun 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
Projects to assess environmental impact or restoration success in rivers focus on project-specific questions but can also provide valuable insights for future projects. Both restoration actions and impact assessments can become “adaptive” by using the knowledge gained from long-term monitoring and analysis to [...] Read more.
Projects to assess environmental impact or restoration success in rivers focus on project-specific questions but can also provide valuable insights for future projects. Both restoration actions and impact assessments can become “adaptive” by using the knowledge gained from long-term monitoring and analysis to revise the actions, monitoring, conceptual model, or interpretation of findings so that subsequent actions or assessments are better informed. Assessments of impact or restoration success are especially challenging when the indicators of interest are imperiled species and/or the impacts being addressed are complex. From 1997 to 2015, we worked closely with two federal agencies to monitor habitat availability for and population density of Roanoke logperch (Percina rex), an endangered fish, in a 24-km-long segment of the upper Roanoke River, VA. We primarily used a Before-After-Control-Impact analytical framework to assess potential impacts of a river channelization project on the P. rex population. In this paper, we summarize how our extensive monitoring facilitated the evolution of our (a) conceptual understanding of the ecosystem and fish population dynamics; (b) choices of ecological indicators and analytical tools; and (c) conclusions regarding the magnitude, mechanisms, and significance of observed impacts. Our experience with this case study taught us important lessons about how to adaptively develop and conduct a monitoring program, which we believe are broadly applicable to assessments of environmental impact and restoration success in other rivers. In particular, we learned that (a) pre-treatment planning can enhance monitoring effectiveness, help avoid unforeseen pitfalls, and lead to more robust conclusions; (b) developing adaptable conceptual and analytical models early was crucial to organizing our knowledge, guiding our study design, and analyzing our data; (c) catchment-wide processes that we did not monitor, or initially consider, had profound implications for interpreting our findings; and (d) using multiple analytical frameworks, with varying assumptions, led to clearer interpretation of findings than the use of a single framework alone. Broader integration of these guiding principles into monitoring studies, though potentially challenging, could lead to more scientifically defensible assessments of project effects. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Water Resources Assessment and Management in Drylands
Water 2016, 8(6), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060239 - 03 Jun 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1799
Abstract
Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation [...] Read more.
Drylands regions of the world face difficult issues in maintaining water resources to meet current demands which will intensify in the future with population increases, infrastructure development, increased agricultural water demands, and climate change impacts on the hydrologic system. New water resources evaluation and management methods will be needed to assure that water resources in drylands are optimally managed in a sustainable manner. Development of water management and conservation methods is a multi-disciplinary endeavor. Scientists and engineers must collaborate and cooperate with water managers, planners, and politicians to successfully adopt new strategies to manage water not only for humans, but to maintain all aspects of the environment. This particularly applies to drylands regions where resources are already limited and conflicts over water are occurring. Every aspect of the hydrologic cycle needs to be assessed to be able to quantify the available water resources, to monitor natural and anthropogenic changes, and to develop flexible policies and management strategies that can change as conditions dictate. Optimal, sustainable water management is achieved by cooperation and not conflict, thereby necessitating the need for high quality scientific research and input into the process. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A New Practical Method to Simulate Flood-Induced Bridge Pier Scour—A Case Study of Mingchu Bridge Piers on the Cho-Shui River
Water 2016, 8(6), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8060238 - 03 Jun 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2082
Abstract
The evolution of bridge pier scour is very important for bridge safety warning and assessment. During typhoon seasons in Taiwan, the torrential river flow often causes scour monitoring instruments to fail in their attempt to measure the temporal variations of pier scour depths. [...] Read more.
The evolution of bridge pier scour is very important for bridge safety warning and assessment. During typhoon seasons in Taiwan, the torrential river flow often causes scour monitoring instruments to fail in their attempt to measure the temporal variations of pier scour depths. To better understand the scouring phenomenon during a large flood event, this study proposes a fast and reliable method for bridge pier scour simulation. The proposed method consists of two main components: (1) a robust finite-volume hydraulic model that simulates the flow depth and velocities; and (2) two scour depth computation algorithms that predict the temporal development of the general and local scour depths. The greatest advantage of this method is that it is very straight-forward and reliable, giving bridge managers sufficient time to make an informed decision for bridge safety warning. Only a few hydraulic flow conditions near the bridge are necessary to simulate the scour depth evolution. Moreover, the method can be applied for both general and local scour simulations. To demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method, field data collected using the “numbered-brick” method were performed at the Mingchu Bridge, which is located along an incised channel reach of the Cho-Shui River in Taiwan. The simulated water levels and total scour depths are in good agreements with the field data. Finally, to help bridge authorities responsible for making a decision towards bridge scour warning, a bridge safety curve (scoured bed level-discharge relationship) is proposed. Based on the results of two flood events, the study shows that the proposed method can quickly and accurately simulate the bridge pier scour. Full article
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