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Water, Volume 8, Issue 7 (July 2016)

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Open AccessArticle
Development of Dynamic Ground Water Data Assimilation for Quantifying Soil Hydraulic Properties from Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture
Water 2016, 8(7), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070311 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2120
Abstract
Several inversion modeling-based approaches have been developed/used to extract soil hydraulic properties (α, n, θres, θsat, Ksat) from remotely sensed (RS) soil moisture footprints. Hydrological models with shallow ground water (SGW) table depths in soils simulate [...] Read more.
Several inversion modeling-based approaches have been developed/used to extract soil hydraulic properties (α, n, θres, θsat, Ksat) from remotely sensed (RS) soil moisture footprints. Hydrological models with shallow ground water (SGW) table depths in soils simulate daily root zone soil moisture dynamics based on the extracted soil parameters. The presence of SGW table depths in soils significantly influences model performances; however, SGW table depths are usually unknown in the field, thus, unknown SGW table depths might cause uncertainties in the model outputs. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we developed a dynamic ground water (DGW) data assimilation approach that can consider SGW table depths across time for quantifying effective soil hydraulic properties in the unsaturated zone. In order to verify the DGW data assimilation scheme, numerical experiments comprising synthetic and field validation experiments were conducted. For the numerical studies, the Little Washita (LW) watershed in Oklahoma and Olney (OLN)/Bondville (BOND) sites in Illinois were selected as different hydroclimatic regions. For the synthetic conditions, we tested the DGW scheme using various soil textures and vegetation covers with fixed and dynamically changing SGW table depths across time in homogeneous and heterogeneous (layered) soil columns. The DGW-based soil parameters matched the observations under various synthetic conditions better than those that only consider fixed ground water (FGW) table depths in time. For the field validations, our proposed data assimilation scheme performed well in predicting the soil hydraulic properties and SGW table depths at the point, airborne sensing, and satellite scales, even though uncertainties exist. These findings support the robustness of our proposed DGW approach in application to regional fields. Thus, the DGW scheme could improve the availability and applicability of pixel-scale soil moisture footprints based on satellite platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture)
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial and Temporal Variation in Local Stormwater Infrastructure Use and Stormwater Management Paradigms over the 20th Century
Water 2016, 8(7), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070310 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2320
Abstract
Stormwater management has significant consequences for urban hydrology, water quality, and flood risk, and has changed substantially over history, but it is unknown how these paradigm shifts play out at the local scale and whether local changes in stormwater infrastructure use follow similar [...] Read more.
Stormwater management has significant consequences for urban hydrology, water quality, and flood risk, and has changed substantially over history, but it is unknown how these paradigm shifts play out at the local scale and whether local changes in stormwater infrastructure use follow similar trajectories across cities. This research addressed: (1) How does current infrastructure use and past infrastructure transitions vary across three cities with similar biophysical and climatic contexts but different development histories? and (2) How did stormwater and flood management paradigms change from early urbanization to current day in a single city? The use of storm sewers, detention basins, and canals for stormwater management was quantified for three cities in Utah, USA, over the 20th century. Stormwater management paradigms were quantified using media content analysis of newspaper articles from historic and recent periods in Salt Lake City. Results suggest that stormwater infrastructure development is decoupled from imperviousness across cities, and that newer and smaller cities follow different trajectories of stormwater management over time. This research highlights that there is no single model of urban hydrology and that heterogeneity in urban water management over time and space reflects shifting priorities and social learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Drainage and Urban Stormwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Maize Transpiration, Water Use and Productivity for Developing Improved Supplemental Irrigation Schedules in Western Uruguay to Cope with Climate Variability
Water 2016, 8(7), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070309 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2486
Abstract
Various maize irrigation treatments including full and deficit irrigation were used to calibrate and validate the soil water balance and irrigation scheduling model SIMDualKc at Paysandú, western Uruguay. The model adopts the dual crop coefficient approach to partition actual evapotranspiration (ETc act [...] Read more.
Various maize irrigation treatments including full and deficit irrigation were used to calibrate and validate the soil water balance and irrigation scheduling model SIMDualKc at Paysandú, western Uruguay. The model adopts the dual crop coefficient approach to partition actual evapotranspiration (ETc act) into actual transpiration (Tc act) and soil evaporation (Es). Low errors of estimation were obtained for simulating soil water content (Root mean square errors (RMSE) ≤ 0.014 cm3·cm−3 with calibrated parameters, and RMSE ≤ 0.023 cm3·cm−3 with default parameters). The ratio Es/Tc act ranged from 26% to 33% and Es/ETc act varied from 20% to 25%, with higher values when the crop was stressed offering less soil coverage. Due to rainfall regime, runoff and deep percolation were quite large. The Stewarts phasic model was tested and used to predict maize yield from Tc act with acceptable errors, in the range of those reported in literature. Water productivity values were high, ranging 1.39 to 2.17 kg·m−3 and 1.75 to 2.55 kg·m−3 when considering total water use and crop ET, respectively. Using a 22-year climatic data series, rainfed maize was assessed with poor results for nearly 40% of the years. Differently, alternative supplemental irrigation schedules assessed for the dry and very dry years have shown good results, particularly for mild deficit irrigation. Overall, results show appropriateness for using SIMDualKc to support the irrigation practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Water Management in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of a Flood Event through a Sediment Analysis: The Tescio River Case Study
Water 2016, 8(7), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070308 - 22 Jul 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
This paper presents the hydrological analysis and grain size characteristics of fluvial sediments in a river basin and their combination to characterize a flood event. The overall objective of the research is the development of a practical methodology based on experimental surveys to [...] Read more.
This paper presents the hydrological analysis and grain size characteristics of fluvial sediments in a river basin and their combination to characterize a flood event. The overall objective of the research is the development of a practical methodology based on experimental surveys to reconstruct the hydraulic history of ungauged river reaches on the basis of the modifications detected on the riverbed during the dry season. The grain size analysis of fluvial deposits usually requires great technical and economical efforts and traditional sieving based on physical sampling is not appropriate to adequately represent the spatial distribution of sediments in a wide area of a riverbed with a reasonable number of samples. The use of photographic sampling techniques, on the other hand, allows for the quick and effective determination of the grain size distribution, through the use of a digital camera and specific graphical algorithms in large river stretches. A photographic sampling is employed to characterize the riverbed in a 3 km ungauged reach of the Tescio River, a tributary of the Chiascio River, located in central Italy, representative of many rivers in the same geographical area. To this end, the particle size distribution is reconstructed through the analysis of digital pictures of the sediments taken on the riverbed in dry conditions. The sampling has been performed after a flood event of known duration, which allows for the identification of the removal of the armor in one section along the river reach under investigation. The volume and composition of the eroded sediments made it possible to calculate the average flow rate associated with the flood event which caused the erosion, by means of the sediment transport laws and the hydrological analysis of the river basin. A hydraulic analysis of the river stretch under investigation was employed to verify the validity of the proposed procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Sediment Process)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Ryu, J., et al. Development of a Watershed-Scale Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment Model with the Asymptotic Curve Number Regression Equation. Water 2016, 8, 153
Water 2016, 8(7), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070307 - 21 Jul 2016
Viewed by 1439
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]: The author name “Bernard A. Engle” should be “Bernard A. Engel”[...]
Full article
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Long-Term Water Level Variation in Dongting Lake, China
Water 2016, 8(7), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070306 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2641
Abstract
The water level of Dongting Lake has changed because of the combined impact of climatic change and anthropogenic activities. A study of the long-term statistical properties of water level variations at Chenglingji station will help with the management of water resources in Dongting [...] Read more.
The water level of Dongting Lake has changed because of the combined impact of climatic change and anthropogenic activities. A study of the long-term statistical properties of water level variations at Chenglingji station will help with the management of water resources in Dongting Lake. In this case, 54 years of water level data for Dongting Lake were analyzed with the non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test, Sen’s slope test, and the Pettitt test. The results showed the following: (1) Trends in annual maximum lake water level (WLM), annual mean lake water level (WL), and annual minimum lake water level (WLm) increased from 1961 to 2014; however, the three variables showed different trends from 1981 to 2014; (2) The annual change trends in Dongting Lake between 1961–2014 and 1981–2014 were found to be from approximately 0.90 cm/year to −2.27 cm/year, 1.65 cm/year to −0.79 cm/year, and 4.58 cm/year to 2.56 cm/year for WLM, WL, and WLm, respectively; (3) A greater degree of increase in water level during the dry season (November–April) was found from 2003 to 2014 than from 1981 to 2002, but a smaller degree of increase, even to the point of decreasing, was found during the wet season (May–October); (4) The measured discharge data and numerical modeling results showed the operation of Three Gorge Reservoir (TGR) pushed to influence partly the recent inter-annual variation of water level in Dongting Lake region, especially in the flood and dry seasons. The analysis indicated that the water level of Dongting Lake has changed in the long term with decreasing of range between WLM and WLm, and may decrease the probability of future drought and flood events. These results can provide useful information for the management of Dongting Lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact Evaluation of Low Flow Showerheads for Hong Kong Residents
Water 2016, 8(7), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070305 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
The voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS) on showers for bathing in Hong Kong is a water conservation initiative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government. As shower water consumption has been identified as a potential area for carbon emissions reductions, [...] Read more.
The voluntary Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme (WELS) on showers for bathing in Hong Kong is a water conservation initiative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government. As shower water consumption has been identified as a potential area for carbon emissions reductions, this study examines, from a five-month measurement survey of the showering practices of 37 local residents, a range of showerheads with resistance factors k = 0.54–4.05 kPa·min2·L−2 with showering attributes including hot shower temperature, temperature difference between hot and cold water supply, flow rate and water consumption and shower duration. A Monte Carlo model is proposed for evaluating the water consumption and carbon-reducing impacts of WELS on showers for bathing at confidence intervals with input parameters determined from the measurement survey. The simulation results indicate that full implementation of WELS rated showerheads with k ≥ 4.02 can reduce water consumption by 37%, energy use by 25% and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 26%. This study is also a useful source of reference for policymakers and practitioners to evaluate the impacts of water efficient showerheads on water consumption, energy use, and CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle
Coping with Pluvial Floods by Private Households
Water 2016, 8(7), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070304 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2990
Abstract
Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban areas in recent years. With a projected increase in extreme precipitation as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, further insights, especially on the adverse consequences [...] Read more.
Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban areas in recent years. With a projected increase in extreme precipitation as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, further insights, especially on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods and their mitigation, are needed. To gain more knowledge, empirical damage data from three different pluvial flood events in Germany were collected through computer-aided telephone interviews. Pluvial flood awareness as well as flood experience were found to be low before the respective flood events. The level of private precaution increased considerably after all events, but is mainly focused on measures that are easy to implement. Lower inundation depths, smaller potential losses as compared with fluvial floods, as well as the fact that pluvial flooding may occur everywhere, are expected to cause a shift in damage mitigation from precaution to emergency response. However, an effective implementation of emergency measures was constrained by a low dissemination of early warnings in the study areas. Further improvements of early warning systems including dissemination as well as a rise in pluvial flood preparedness are important to reduce future pluvial flood damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Navigating towards Decoupled Aquaponic Systems: A System Dynamics Design Approach
Water 2016, 8(7), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070303 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6143
Abstract
The classical working principle of aquaponics is to provide nutrient-rich aquacultural water to a hydroponic plant culture unit, which in turn depurates the water that is returned to the aquaculture tanks. A known drawback is that a compromise away from optimal growing conditions [...] Read more.
The classical working principle of aquaponics is to provide nutrient-rich aquacultural water to a hydroponic plant culture unit, which in turn depurates the water that is returned to the aquaculture tanks. A known drawback is that a compromise away from optimal growing conditions for plants and fish must be achieved to produce both crops and fish in the same environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a theoretical concept of a decoupled aquaponic system (DAPS), and predict water, nutrient (N and P), fish, sludge, and plant levels. This has been approached by developing a dynamic aquaponic system model, using inputs from data found in literature covering the fields of aquaculture, hydroponics, and sludge treatment. The outputs from the model showed the dependency of aquacultural water quality on the hydroponic evapotranspiration rate. This result can be explained by the fact that DAPS is based on one-way flows. These one-way flows results in accumulations of remineralized nutrients in the hydroponic component ensuring optimal conditions for the plants. The study also suggests to size the cultivation area based on P availability in the hydroponic component as P is an exhaustible resource and has been identified one of the main limiting factors for plant growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
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Open AccessArticle
Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn
Water 2016, 8(7), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070302 - 20 Jul 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured [...] Read more.
Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour). Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3) L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3) L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial) light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day) = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67)). The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8) L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1) L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stormwater Pollutant Process Analysis with Long-Term Online Monitoring Data at Micro-Scale Sites
Water 2016, 8(7), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070299 - 20 Jul 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Stormwater runoff quality was measured with online turbidity sensors at four common types of small urban subcatchments: (i) a flat roof; (ii) a parking lot; (iii) a residential catchment; and (iv) a high-traffic street. Samples were taken to estimate site-specific correlations between total [...] Read more.
Stormwater runoff quality was measured with online turbidity sensors at four common types of small urban subcatchments: (i) a flat roof; (ii) a parking lot; (iii) a residential catchment; and (iv) a high-traffic street. Samples were taken to estimate site-specific correlations between total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. Continuous TSS time series were derived from online turbidity measurements and were used to estimate event loads and event mean concentrations. Rainfall runoff event characteristics were subjected to correlation analysis to TSS loads. Significant correlations were found for rainfall intensities at sites with high imperviousness and decrease with increasing catchment size. Antecedent dry weather periods are only correlated at the parking lot site. Intra-event TSS load distributions were studied with M (V)-curves. M (V)-curves are grouped at runoff quantiles and statistically described with boxplots. All sites show, in general, a more pronounced first-flush effect. While wash-off of the flat roof tends to be source-limited, the parking lot and high-traffic street sites show a more transport-limited behavior. Wash-off process of the residential catchment appears to be influenced by a composition of different subcatchments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Drainage and Urban Stormwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Ecosystem Services Valuation of Lakeside Wetland Park beside Chaohu Lake in China
Water 2016, 8(7), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070301 - 19 Jul 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2562
Abstract
Wetland ecosystems are one of the three great ecosystems on Earth. With a deepening of research on wetland ecosystems, researchers have paid more and more attention to wetland ecosystem services such as flood mitigation, climate control, pollution prevention, soil-erosion prevention, biodiversity maintenance, and [...] Read more.
Wetland ecosystems are one of the three great ecosystems on Earth. With a deepening of research on wetland ecosystems, researchers have paid more and more attention to wetland ecosystem services such as flood mitigation, climate control, pollution prevention, soil-erosion prevention, biodiversity maintenance, and bio-productivity protection. This study focuses on a lakeside wetland ecosystem in Hefei, a city in central China, and estimates the value of ecosystem services such as material production, air purification, water conservation, biodiversity, recreation, species conservation, education and scientific research. We adopted the market value method, carbon tax method, afforestation cost method, shadow engineering method and contingent value method (CVM) using questionnaire survey data during the study period. The results show that the total value of the ecosystem services of Lakeside Wetland Park was 144 million CNY in 2015. Among these services, the value of society service is the maximum at 91.73 million CNY, followed by ecological service and material production service (42.23 million CNY and 10.43 billion CNY in 2015 respectively). When considering wetland ecosystems for economic development, other services must be considered in addition to material production to obtain a longer-term economic value. This research reveals that there is scope for more comprehensive and integrated model development, including multiple wetland ecosystem services and appropriate handling of wetland ecosystem management impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tackling Complex Water Problems in China under Changing Environment)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation of the Effects of Ship Induced Waves on the Littoral Zone with Field Measurements and CFD Modeling
Water 2016, 8(7), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070300 - 19 Jul 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2602
Abstract
Waves induced by ship movement might be harmful for the habitat in the littoral zone of rivers due to the temporally increasing bed shear stress, the high-energy breaking waves and the consequently related detachment of benthic animals. In order to understand the complex [...] Read more.
Waves induced by ship movement might be harmful for the habitat in the littoral zone of rivers due to the temporally increasing bed shear stress, the high-energy breaking waves and the consequently related detachment of benthic animals. In order to understand the complex hydrodynamic phenomena resulting from littoral waves, we present the testing of a novel methodology that incorporates field observations and numerical tools. The study is performed at a section of the Danube River in Hungary and analyzes the influence of different ship types. The field methods consist of parallel acoustic measurements (using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV)) conducted at the riverbed and Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) of the water surface. ADV measurements provided near-bed flow velocities based on which the wave induced currents and local bed shear stress could be estimated. The LSPIV was able to quantify the dynamics of the breaking waves along the bank. Furthermore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was successfully applied to simulate the propagation and the breaking of littoral waves. The used techniques complement each other well and their joint application provides an adequate tool to support the improvement of riverine habitats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Consideration of Water Uses for Its Sustainable Management, the Case of Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan
Water 2016, 8(7), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070298 - 19 Jul 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
Water is an essential element for life, and development would not be possible without its availability. This study identified the main water consumers and their likely impact on water lake level for the case of Issyk-Kul Lake Basin, Kyrgyzstan. Data on precipitation, lake [...] Read more.
Water is an essential element for life, and development would not be possible without its availability. This study identified the main water consumers and their likely impact on water lake level for the case of Issyk-Kul Lake Basin, Kyrgyzstan. Data on precipitation, lake level, irrigation, household and industrial water consumption from 1980 to 2014 were provided by the Department of Water Resources and Irrigation, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation of the Kyrgyz Republic. The input data was analyzed with OriginPro 8.5 for Statistical Analysis. The results indicated a decreasing irrigation water consumption from 2029.42 to 461.76 million·m3 in 1980 and 2014, respectively. Likewise, households consumed 27.02 million·m3 in 1980 falling to 16.55 million·m3 in 2014, similar to the manufacture’s water consumption. However, it was noted that agriculture is a high water consumer, whose water demand for irrigation rises from April to August, the period during which the precipitation also increases. Nevertheless, manufactures and household water consumption do not have timed limits of use like in agriculture, which in turn affects the lake water level. Therefore, as the rainfall increases by April to August, we suggest to harvest and only use the rainfall water during its abundance period. This would help in restoring the lake’s water level during the time of rainwater uses, and leads to water consumption balance, flood management and lake biodiversity conservation as well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Generalized Linear Models to Identify Key Hydromorphological and Chemical Variables Determining the Occurrence of Macroinvertebrates in the Guayas River Basin (Ecuador)
Water 2016, 8(7), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070297 - 18 Jul 2016
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
The biotic integrity of the Guayas River basin in Ecuador is at environmental risk due to extensive anthropogenic activities. We investigated the potential impacts of hydromorphological and chemical variables on biotic integrity using macroinvertebrate-based bioassessments. The bioassessment methods utilized included the Biological Monitoring [...] Read more.
The biotic integrity of the Guayas River basin in Ecuador is at environmental risk due to extensive anthropogenic activities. We investigated the potential impacts of hydromorphological and chemical variables on biotic integrity using macroinvertebrate-based bioassessments. The bioassessment methods utilized included the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted for Colombia (BMWP-Col) and the average score per taxon (ASPT), via an extensive sampling campaign that was completed throughout the river basin at 120 sampling sites. The BMWP-Col classification ranged from very bad to good, and from probable severe pollution to clean water based on the ASPT scores. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and sensitivity analysis were used to relate the bioassessment index to hydromorphological and chemical variables. It was found that elevation, nitrate-N, sediment angularity, logs, presence of macrophytes, flow velocity, turbidity, bank shape, land use and chlorophyll were the key environmental variables affecting the BMWP-Col. From the analyses, it was observed that the rivers at the upstream higher elevations of the river basin were in better condition compared to lowland systems and that a higher flow velocity was linked to a better BMWP-Col score. The nitrate concentrations were very low in the entire river basin and did not relate to a negative impact on the macroinvertebrate communities. Although the results of the models provided insights into the ecosystem, cross fold model development and validation also showed that there was a level of uncertainty in the outcomes. However, the results of the models and sensitivity analysis can support water management actions to determine and focus on alterable variables, such as the land use at different elevations, monitoring of nitrate and chlorophyll concentrations, macrophyte presence, sediment transport and bank stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatiotemporal Variability in the Water Quality of Poyang Lake and Its Associated Responses to Hydrological Conditions
Water 2016, 8(7), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070296 - 18 Jul 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Determining the spatiotemporal water quality patterns and their corresponding driving factors is crucial for lake water quality managements. This study analyzed hydrological data and concentrations of 11 water quality parameters, including total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen and chlorophyll–a (Chl–a), for water samples [...] Read more.
Determining the spatiotemporal water quality patterns and their corresponding driving factors is crucial for lake water quality managements. This study analyzed hydrological data and concentrations of 11 water quality parameters, including total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen and chlorophyll–a (Chl–a), for water samples collected from 15 sampling sites between 2009 and 2014. The water quality of sites in the northern Poyang Lake–Yangtze River waterway was influenced by different environmental parameters compared to sites in central lake, especially for Chl–a concentration. All pollutant parameters were significantly higher in the river phase (water level <14 m) than in the lake phase (water level >14 m) (p < 0.05). These results were confirmed via principal component analysis, which identified three principal components that explained over 79% of the dataset variance. Among all the parameters related to climatic factors, eutrophication and organic pollution were the most important contributors in water quality. Dilution was the controlling factor that drove the seasonal variability in the water quality of the Poyang Lake, China. This work further indicated that regulating pollutant effluents in tributaries and water level within the lake could improve the water quality in Poyang Lake, which may give some impetus for water quality management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Lymnaea stagnalis Embryo Test for Toxicity Bioindication of Acidification and Ammonia Pollution in Water
Water 2016, 8(7), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070295 - 16 Jul 2016
Viewed by 2666
Abstract
The paper presents a study leading to a new acute toxicity test on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis Linnaeus). Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide were used as waterborne toxicants in laboratory experiments. The exposure [...] Read more.
The paper presents a study leading to a new acute toxicity test on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis Linnaeus). Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide were used as waterborne toxicants in laboratory experiments. The exposure time was 24 h. Tests were conducted in 5–10 replications for each toxicant. The toxicity of the substances was classified according to different scales and the test’s sensitivity was compared to that of the commonly used bioindicator Daphnia magna Straus. The assessment of toxicity impact was supported by microscopic observations. The probit method was used as a parametric statistical procedure to estimate LC50 and the associated 95% confidence interval. Our study showed that the early developmental stages of Lymnaea stagnalis are very sensitive bioindicators, making it possible to detect even very low levels of the above-mentioned water toxicants. The highest toxicity is shown by ammonium hydroxide with LC50/24h values, respectively, 24.27 for embryos and 24.72 for juvenile forms, and the lowest is shown by nitric acid ions with LC50/24h values, respectively, 105.19 for embryos and 170.47 for juvenile forms. It is highly cost-effective due to simple and efficient breeding and the small size of the organisms in the bioassay population. Compared with Daphnia magna, relatively low concentrations of toxicants caused a lethal effect on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail. Owing to their common occurrence and sensitivity, early developmental forms of Lymnaea stagnalis can be a valuable new tool in biomonitoring of the freshwater environment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions
Water 2016, 8(7), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070294 - 15 Jul 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2211
Abstract
Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the [...] Read more.
Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha). These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites). For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century), and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Drainage and Urban Stormwater Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Sea Level Acceleration in the China Seas
Water 2016, 8(7), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070293 - 15 Jul 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2007
Abstract
While global mean sea level rise (SLR) and acceleration (SLA) are indicators of climate change and are informative regarding the current state of the climate, assessments of regional and local SLR are essential for policy makers responding to, and preparing for, changes in [...] Read more.
While global mean sea level rise (SLR) and acceleration (SLA) are indicators of climate change and are informative regarding the current state of the climate, assessments of regional and local SLR are essential for policy makers responding to, and preparing for, changes in sea level. In this work, three acceleration detection techniques are used to demonstrate the robust SLA in the China Seas. Interannual to multidecadal sea level variations (periods >2 years), which are mainly related to natural internal climate variability and significantly affect estimation of sea level acceleration, are removed with empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis prior to the acceleration determination. Consistent SLAs of 0.085 ± 0.020 mm·yr−2 (1950–2013) and 0.074 ± 0.032 mm·yr−2 (1959–2013) in regional tide gauge records are shown to result from the three applied approaches in the Bohai Sea (BS) and East China Sea (ECS), respectively. The SLAs can be detected in records as short as 20 years if long-term sea level variability is adequately removed. The spatial distribution of SLA derived from a sea level reconstruction shows significant SLA in the BS, Yellow Sea (YS) and Yangtze River Estuary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sea Level Changes)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Field Pollutant Load Estimation Module and Linkage of QUAL2E with Watershed-Scale L-THIA ACN Model
Water 2016, 8(7), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070292 - 15 Jul 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
The Long Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model was previously improved by incorporating direct runoff lag time and baseflow. However, the improved model, called the L-THIA asymptotic curve number (ACN) model cannot simulate pollutant loads from a watershed or instream water quality. In [...] Read more.
The Long Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model was previously improved by incorporating direct runoff lag time and baseflow. However, the improved model, called the L-THIA asymptotic curve number (ACN) model cannot simulate pollutant loads from a watershed or instream water quality. In this study, a module for calculating pollutant loads from fields and through stream networks was developed, and the L-THIA ACN model was combined with the QUAL2E model (The enhanced stream water quality model) to predict instream water quality at a watershed scale. The new model (L-THIA ACN-WQ) was applied to two watersheds within the Korean total maximum daily loads management system. To evaluate the model, simulated results of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were compared with observed water quality data collected at eight-day intervals. Between simulated and observed data for TN pollutant loads in Dalcheon A watershed, the R2 and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were 0.81 and 0.79, respectively, and those for TP were 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. In the Pyungchang A watershed, the R2 and NSE were 0.66 and 0.64, respectively, for TN and both statistics were 0.66 for TP, indicating that model performed satisfactorily for both watersheds. Thus, the L-THIA ACN-WQ model can accurately simulate streamflow, instream pollutant loads, and water quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Existing Opportunities to Adapt the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin Water Resources Allocation Framework
Water 2016, 8(7), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070291 - 15 Jul 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2985
Abstract
The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB) Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S.) and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of [...] Read more.
The study of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB) Basin water allocation demonstrates how the United States (U.S.) and Mexico have consolidated a transboundary framework based on water sharing. However, the water supply no longer meets the ever-increasing demand for water or the expectations of different stakeholders. This paper explores opportunities for an enhanced management regime that will address past problems and better examine how to balance demands for a precious resource and environmental needs. Based on an overview of the RGB Basin context and the water allocation framework, as well as a discussion on stakeholders’ ability to achieve solutions, this paper explores three key questions: (1) Does the current binational water allocation framework meet current and future human and environmental needs? (2) How can the U.S.-Mexico water allocation framework be adapted to balance social and environmental water demands so it can support and preserve the RGB Basin ecosystem? (3) What are the main opportunities to be explored for expanding the U.S.-Mexico water resources allocation framework? The U.S.-Mexico water resources framework is subject to broad interpretation and may be adapted to the circumstances taking the fullest advantage of its flexibility. Policy recommendations highlight the existing flexibility of the binational framework, the potential to move forward with an ad hoc institutional arrangement, and the creation of political will to achieve change through stakeholders recommendations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Upstream Detention Reservoir Facilities for Downstream Flood Mitigation in Urban Areas
Water 2016, 8(7), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070290 - 14 Jul 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2492
Abstract
A detention reservoir is one of the most effective engineered solutions for flood damage mitigation in urban areas. Detention facilities are constructed to temporarily store storm water and then slowly drain when the peak period has passed. This delayed drainage may coincide with [...] Read more.
A detention reservoir is one of the most effective engineered solutions for flood damage mitigation in urban areas. Detention facilities are constructed to temporarily store storm water and then slowly drain when the peak period has passed. This delayed drainage may coincide with upstream floods and aggravate the flood risk downstream. Optimal operation and design are needed to improve the performance of detention reservoirs for flood reduction. This study couples hydrologic simulation software (EPA-SWMM) with an evolutional optimizer (extraordinary particle swarm optimization, EPSO) to minimize flood damage downstream while considering the inundation risk at the detention reservoir. The optimum design and operation are applied to an urban case study in Seoul, Korea, for historical severe flooding events and designed rainfall scenarios. The optimal facilities outperform the present facilities in terms of flood damage reduction both downstream and in the detention reservoir area. Specifically, the peak water level at the detention pond under optimal conditions is significantly smaller than that of the current conditions. The comparison of the total flooded volume in the whole watershed shows a dramatic reduction of 79% in a severe flooding event in 2010 and around 20% in 2011 and in 180 min designed rainfall scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydroinformatics and Urban Water Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Probability of Surface Artificialization in Zêzere Watershed (Portugal) Using Environmental Data
Water 2016, 8(7), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070289 - 13 Jul 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
The land use and land cover (LUC) of the Zêzere watershed (Portugal) have undergone major changes in recent decades, with the increase of artificial surfaces. This trend is quantified in some studies, but the probability of the increase of this type of LUC, [...] Read more.
The land use and land cover (LUC) of the Zêzere watershed (Portugal) have undergone major changes in recent decades, with the increase of artificial surfaces. This trend is quantified in some studies, but the probability of the increase of this type of LUC, nor the places where the next transitions or land use/cover changes (LUCC) for artificial surfaces will have high probability of occurrence has not yet been assessed. This research presents an evaluation of these two aspects, by means of bivariate statistical models (fuzzy logic and information value) and environmental data. The artificialization probability by sectors within the same watershed is also evaluated, to further understand which areas will require greater attention, taking into account the environmental conditions favorable to the occurrence of this process and bearing in mind the conditions under which this process took place in the past. The results obtained using these models were assessed independently, through curves of success, noting that the modeling through the fuzzy gamma presents slightly better efficiency in determining the probability of artificialization surfaces in the study area. The area with the highest probability of artificialization is mostly located in the SW of this watershed, but high probabilities are also present in the upstream sector, being those areas that require further preventive measures once they have influence on the water quality and quantity in the main reservoirs of this watershed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Protection and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Freshwater Provisioning for Different Ecosystem Services in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Current Status and Drivers
Water 2016, 8(7), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070288 - 13 Jul 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
With the high demand for freshwater and its vital role in sustaining multiple ecosystem services, it is important to quantify and evaluate freshwater provisioning for various services (e.g., drinking, fisheries, recreation). Research on ecosystem services has increased recently, though relatively fewer studies apply [...] Read more.
With the high demand for freshwater and its vital role in sustaining multiple ecosystem services, it is important to quantify and evaluate freshwater provisioning for various services (e.g., drinking, fisheries, recreation). Research on ecosystem services has increased recently, though relatively fewer studies apply a data driven approach to quantify freshwater provisioning for different ecosystem services. In this study, freshwater provisioning was quantified annually from 1995 to 2013 for 13 watersheds in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Results showed that the annual freshwater provision indices for all watersheds were less than one indicating that freshwater provisioning is diminished in the UMRB. The concentrations of sediment and nutrients (total nitrogen, and total phosphorus) are the most sensitive factors that impact freshwater provisioning in the UMRB. A significant linear relationship was observed between precipitation and freshwater provisioning index. During wet periods freshwater provisioning generally decreased in the study watersheds, primarily because of relatively high concentrations and loads of sediment and nutrients delivered from nonpoint sources. Results from this study may provide an insight, as well as an example of a data-driven approach to enhance freshwater provisioning for different ecosystem services and to develop a sustainable and integrated watershed management approach for the UMRB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bayesian Regression and Neuro-Fuzzy Methods Reliability Assessment for Estimating Streamflow
Water 2016, 8(7), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070287 - 13 Jul 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
Accurate and efficient estimation of streamflow in a watershed’s tributaries is prerequisite parameter for viable water resources management. This study couples process-driven and data-driven methods of streamflow forecasting as a more efficient and cost-effective approach to water resources planning and management. Two data-driven [...] Read more.
Accurate and efficient estimation of streamflow in a watershed’s tributaries is prerequisite parameter for viable water resources management. This study couples process-driven and data-driven methods of streamflow forecasting as a more efficient and cost-effective approach to water resources planning and management. Two data-driven methods, Bayesian regression and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), were tested separately as a faster alternative to a calibrated and validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to predict streamflow in the Saginaw River Watershed of Michigan. For the data-driven modeling process, four structures were assumed and tested: general, temporal, spatial, and spatiotemporal. Results showed that both Bayesian regression and ANFIS can replicate global (watershed) and local (subbasin) results similar to a calibrated SWAT model. At the global level, Bayesian regression and ANFIS model performance were satisfactory based on Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies of 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. At the subbasin level, Bayesian regression and ANFIS models were satisfactory for 155 and 151 subbasins out of 155 subbasins, respectively. Overall, the most accurate method was a spatiotemporal Bayesian regression model that outperformed other models at global and local scales. However, all ANFIS models performed satisfactory at both scales. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Isotopic Characterization of River Waters and Water Source Identification in an Inland River, Central Asia
Water 2016, 8(7), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070286 - 12 Jul 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Understanding runoff generation and dynamics is the basis for water resource management, while water isotopic ratios are a potential tool for studying the mechanism on a large scale. In this paper, spatial variations of δ18O and δD of river water and [...] Read more.
Understanding runoff generation and dynamics is the basis for water resource management, while water isotopic ratios are a potential tool for studying the mechanism on a large scale. In this paper, spatial variations of δ18O and δD of river water and their sources within a large region of the Tarim River were investigated. The results showed obvious spatial variations of both water isotope values along the river flow direction, and significant seasonal variation occurred within the river water isotopes. This indicated that different proportions of rain and melt water entering river water should lead to spatial variation, and for mid-stream and downstream regions, the transformation relationship between surface water and groundwater should consider less input of melt water. Furthermore, we quantitatively determine the ratio of different water sources using the stable isotope mass balance method and other stable tracer elements. Results showed the contribution of ice-snowmelt water varied from 14.97% to 40.85%, that of rain varied from 9.04% to 54.80%, and that of groundwater varied from 15.34% to 58.85%, and they also showed that baseflow is a factor connecting melt water and groundwater, which meant the Hotan River and the Yarkand River are melt water–dependent rivers, and seasonal precipitation is the main water supply source of baseflow in the Aksu River and the Kaidu River. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flood Adaptation Measures Applicable in the Design of Urban Public Spaces: Proposal for a Conceptual Framework
Water 2016, 8(7), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070284 - 12 Jul 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3713
Abstract
Assuming the importance of public space design in the implementation of effective adaptation action towards urban flooding, this paper identifies and systematizes a wide range of flood adaptation measures pertinent to the design of public spaces. It presents findings from both a systematic [...] Read more.
Assuming the importance of public space design in the implementation of effective adaptation action towards urban flooding, this paper identifies and systematizes a wide range of flood adaptation measures pertinent to the design of public spaces. It presents findings from both a systematic literature review and an empirical analysis retrieved from concrete public space design precedents. It concludes with the presentation of a conceptual framework that organizes the identified measures in accordance to their main, and secondary, infrastructural strategies. The intention behind the disclosed framework is to aid a multitude of professionals during the initial exploratory phases of public space projects that incorporate flooding adaptation capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Challenges)
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Open AccessArticle
Impacts of Salinity on Saint-Augustin Lake, Canada: Remediation Measures at Watershed Scale
Water 2016, 8(7), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070285 - 11 Jul 2016
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Winter road network management is a source of anthropogenic salinity in the Saint-Augustin Lake watershed (Quebec City, QC, Canada). To prevent the potential impact caused by road runoff involving de-icing salts (NaCl) and trace metals (Cd and Pb) on the watershed, a full-scale [...] Read more.
Winter road network management is a source of anthropogenic salinity in the Saint-Augustin Lake watershed (Quebec City, QC, Canada). To prevent the potential impact caused by road runoff involving de-icing salts (NaCl) and trace metals (Cd and Pb) on the watershed, a full-scale treatment chain system (including a detention basin, a filtering bed, and a constructed wetland) was built. Average Cl and Na concentrations in groundwater were higher in wells affected by road network (125 mg/L Cl and 64 mg/L Na) than in control wells (13 mg/L Cl and 33 mg/L Na) suggesting a contamination by de-icing salts. The monitoring of influent and effluent surface water in the treatment system has shown a seasonal dependence in NaCl concentrations and electrical conductivity values, being the highest in summer, linked with the lower precipitation and higher temperature. Concentration ranges were as follows: 114–846 mg/L Na and 158–1757 mg/L Cl (summer) > 61–559 mg/L Na and 63–799 mg/L Cl (spring and autumn). The treatment system removal efficiency was significant, however with seasonal variations: 16%–20% Cl, 3%–25% Na, 7%–10% Cd and 7%–36% Pb. The treatment system has shown an interesting potential to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic salinity at watershed scale with higher expected performances in the subsequent years of operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Watershed Protection and Management)
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Open AccessArticle
The Fall and Rise of the Kishon River
Water 2016, 8(7), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070283 - 09 Jul 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
This paper recounts the environmental history of a main waterway in Northern Israel—the Kishon, and deploys this history to examine the evolution of Israel water policy as it struggled to bridge the growing gap between its ambitions of development and the realities of [...] Read more.
This paper recounts the environmental history of a main waterway in Northern Israel—the Kishon, and deploys this history to examine the evolution of Israel water policy as it struggled to bridge the growing gap between its ambitions of development and the realities of its limited water supply. The first part of the paper describes the decay of the Kishon since the early 1950s, and the multiple scientific, political and legal attempts to alleviate its misfortunes, and discusses the reasons for their failings. Some of these reasons were administrative by nature, but the paper suggests a deeper reason, rooted in the ideological core of the infant state that was overwhelmingly concerned with the development of its infrastructure, and invited the pioneering Israeli society to consider the demise of the Kishon as a necessary sacrifice for progress. The second part of the paper describes the late-20th century developments that allowed for the recovery of the ailing river. Changing social mores, the growing importance of environmental politics, the advance of Israel’s water technologies, and an environmental scandal that endowed the rehabilitation of the Kishon with a new political and moral meaning, have all contributed to the rehabilitation of the river. Once a testament for the sacrifices involved in a struggle to create a viable state, the Kishon has become a theater for a confident society that has triumphed in its struggle against nature. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Tree-Based Models for Multi-Variate Flood Damage Assessment in Australia
Water 2016, 8(7), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8070282 - 09 Jul 2016
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2182
Abstract
Flood is a frequent natural hazard that has significant financial consequences for Australia. In Australia, physical losses caused by floods are commonly estimated by stage-damage functions. These methods usually consider only the depth of the water and the type of buildings at risk. [...] Read more.
Flood is a frequent natural hazard that has significant financial consequences for Australia. In Australia, physical losses caused by floods are commonly estimated by stage-damage functions. These methods usually consider only the depth of the water and the type of buildings at risk. However, flood damage is a complicated process, and it is dependent on a variety of factors which are rarely taken into account. This study explores the interaction, importance, and influence of water depth, flow velocity, water contamination, precautionary measures, emergency measures, flood experience, floor area, building value, building quality, and socioeconomic status. The study uses tree-based models (regression trees and bagging decision trees) and a dataset collected from 2012 to 2013 flood events in Queensland, which includes information on structural damages, impact parameters, and resistance variables. The tree-based approaches show water depth, floor area, precautionary measures, building value, and building quality to be important damage-influencing parameters. Furthermore, the performance of the tree-based models is validated and contrasted with the outcomes of a multi-parameter loss function (FLFArs) from Australia. The tree-based models are shown to be more accurate than the stage-damage function. Consequently, considering more parameters and taking advantage of tree-based models is recommended. The outcome is important for improving established Australian flood loss models and assisting decision-makers and insurance companies dealing with flood risk assessment. Full article
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