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Water, Volume 14, Issue 14 (July-2 2022) – 139 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): On a global scale, climate change has caused enormous damage, in particular flow-type landslides. The majority of existing studies on rain-induced landslides have focused on humid regions; however, little is known about landslide occurrence in arid and semi-arid environments. In Chile, landslides generated by hydrometeorological processes are one of the most frequent hazards. Moreover, climate change records indicate that the frequency of rainfall has decreased and will decrease but increase in intensity. Focusing on the Atacama Desert, despite being in a hyper-arid climate, this area has presented torrential rainfall events that have triggered the activation of the basins located in mountainous areas, causing the death of civilians and considerable economic damage. In addition, it is common for homes or mining areas to be in areas adjacent to the main channel, increasing the risk. View this paper
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16 pages, 5175 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Approach for Floodplain Mapping through Identification of Hazard Using Publicly Available Data Sets over Canada
by Mohit Prakash Mohanty and Slobodan P. Simonovic
Water 2022, 14(14), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142280 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2614
Abstract
Quantifying flood inundation and hazards over large regions is paramount for gaining critical information on flood risk over the vulnerable population and environment. Readily available global data and enhancement in computational simulations have made it easier to simulate flooding at a large scale. [...] Read more.
Quantifying flood inundation and hazards over large regions is paramount for gaining critical information on flood risk over the vulnerable population and environment. Readily available global data and enhancement in computational simulations have made it easier to simulate flooding at a large scale. This study explores the usability of publicly available datasets in flood inundation and hazard mapping, and ensures the flood-related information reaches the end-users efficiently. Runoff from the North American Regional Reanalysis and other relevant inputs are fed to the CaMa-Flood model to generate flooding patterns for 1 in 100 and 1 in 200-year return period events over Canada. The simulated floodplain maps are overlaid on the property footprints of 34 cities (falling within the top 100 populated cities of Canada) to determine the degree of exposure during 1991, 2001 and 2011. Lastly, Flood Map Viewer—a web-based public tool, is developed to disseminate extensive flood-related information. The development of the tool is motivated by the commitment of the Canadian government to contribute $63 M over the next three years for the development of flood maps, especially in high-flood risk areas. The results from the study indicate that around 80 percent of inundated spots belong to high and very-high hazard classes in a 200-year event, which is roughly 4 percent more than observed during the 100-year event. We notice an increase in the properties exposed to flooding during the last three decades, with a signature rise in Toronto, Montreal and Edmonton. The flood-related information derived from the study can be used along with vulnerability and exposure components to quantify flood risk. This will help develop appropriate pathways for resilience building for long-term sustainable benefits. Full article
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21 pages, 9980 KiB  
Article
Experience of Application of Natural Treatment Systems for Wastewater (NTSW) in Livestock Farms in Canary Islands
by Carlos A. Mendieta-Pino, Tania Garcia-Ramirez, Alejandro Ramos-Martin and Sebastian O. Perez-Baez
Water 2022, 14(14), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142279 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
A real-scale application experience Natural Treatment Systems for Wastewater (NTSW) operating in continues with livestock farms for one year. These systems are based on digesters, subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SVFCW) and [...] Read more.
A real-scale application experience Natural Treatment Systems for Wastewater (NTSW) operating in continues with livestock farms for one year. These systems are based on digesters, subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SVFCW) and facultative ponds. Chemical Oxygen Demand removal efficiency (CODRE) has obtained between 70 and 90%. Likewise, it have been possible to compare the operation of cascade flow digesters (CFD) (<76% CODRE) versus complete mixing digesters (CMD) (<50% CODRE). Facultative ponds (FP) when combined with (SSFCW), removed a higher percentage of CODRE compared with ponds (92%). Correlations of interest have been found between the variables evaluated in each plant. Finally, different elements are alternated in the same system, this system is capable of supporting variations in changes in flow rate and organic load coming from the farm, maintaining an adequate elimination of COD and other parameters of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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15 pages, 6205 KiB  
Article
Suspended Matter and Hydrocarbons Fluxes in the Kara and Laptev Seas
by E. V. Koltovskaya and I. A. Nemirovskaya
Water 2022, 14(14), 2278; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142278 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
The distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM) by filtration and the magnitude of its fluxs using sediment traps in the Kara and Laptev Seas (cruise 72 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, August–September 2018) was studied. The composition of the SPM was determined [...] Read more.
The distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM) by filtration and the magnitude of its fluxs using sediment traps in the Kara and Laptev Seas (cruise 72 of the R/V Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, August–September 2018) was studied. The composition of the SPM was determined by the material composition using an electron microscope, the organic component (Corg and hydrocarbons) and the inorganic component (amorphous silica and calcium carbonate). It was found that the SPM content in surface waters varied from 0.2 to 5.9 mg/L (on average 0.90 mg/L) with a maximum in the Blagopolychia Bay and aliphatic hydrocarbons from 10 to 49 µg/L (average 22 µg/L) with a maximum in the area of the removals of the river Ob. The SPM flux decreased from the surface to the near-bottom horizon only into the Blagopolychia Bay (from 13,127 to 11,900 mg/m2/day), but in most samples the flux increased in the near-bottom horizon with a maximum of 6920 mg/m2/day in the Ob’s discharge water area and correlated with the maximum of the Corg flux 695 mg/m2/day. In the composition of SPM, as well as in organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, allochthonous basically prevailed over autochthonous. Full article
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19 pages, 16370 KiB  
Article
Nitrate Contamination in Groundwater: Evaluating the Effects of Demographic Aging and Depopulation in an Island with Intensive Citrus Cultivation
by Sharon Bih Kimbi, Shin-Ichi Onodera, Takuya Ishida, Mitsuyo Saito, Masayuki Tamura, Yusuke Tomozawa and Itaru Nagasaka
Water 2022, 14(14), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142277 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Despite rapid population aging and depopulation in Japan, groundwater nitrate contamination still poses serious environmental problems. One of the main factors contributing to elevated nitrate levels in Japanese groundwater sources is agricultural intensification, frequently because of increased fertilizer use. We investigated the impact [...] Read more.
Despite rapid population aging and depopulation in Japan, groundwater nitrate contamination still poses serious environmental problems. One of the main factors contributing to elevated nitrate levels in Japanese groundwater sources is agricultural intensification, frequently because of increased fertilizer use. We investigated the impact of population aging and depopulation on groundwater nitrate contamination on a western Japanese island that has extensive citrus farming. In comparison to Ocho village, where the average age of farmers is 73 years, Kubi village’s farmers are slightly older on average, at 76 years, and agricultural land has decreased by 46% over the past ten years, from 2005 to 2015. Ocho had 830 residents, which was twice as many as Kubi. In comparison to Ocho (4.8 mg/L), Kubi village had higher average NO3−N concentrations (6.6 mg/L). NO3−N contamination sources in Kubi and Ocho were determined using stable nitrogen isotopes and a Bayesian isotope mixing model. These source distributions were more strongly associated with social and land use factors. It was believed that the older farmers in Kubi employed a significant quantity of chemical fertilizers, which caused inefficient nitrogen uptake by plants, leading to increased leaching and more groundwater contamination than in Ocho. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
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10 pages, 1750 KiB  
Article
Depth-Dependent Concentrations of E. coli in Agricultural Irrigation Ponds
by Matthew D. Stocker, Jaclyn E. Smith and Yakov A. Pachepsky
Water 2022, 14(14), 2276; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142276 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Microbial water quality surveys of irrigation sources are conducted by measuring the concentrations of generic E. coli. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependence of E. coli concentrations on the water sampling depth at different times of the day. [...] Read more.
Microbial water quality surveys of irrigation sources are conducted by measuring the concentrations of generic E. coli. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependence of E. coli concentrations on the water sampling depth at different times of the day. Three irrigation ponds were sampled in Maryland eleven times during the growing seasons of 2019–2021. Water was collected in replicates at the surface (0 cm) and then in 50 cm depth intervals at 9:00, 12:00, and 15:00. Ponds 1 and 2 were sampled to 150 cm, whereas Pond 3 was only sampled to the 50 cm depth due to it having a shallower average depth. An analysis of variance test revealed that E. coli concentrations significantly differed by depth in only one pond (p > 0.05) but on multiple dates. Additionally, the sampling time of day was significant at only two of eleven of the observation dates across ponds; in those cases, the average concentrations across the pond increased in the order of 9:00 > 12:00 > 15:00. This study shows that E. coli concentrations measured in irrigation ponds may substantially differ depending on the sampling depth and time of day, and that these factors should be accounted for in the monitoring design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Microbiological Water Quality)
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23 pages, 2192 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Microalgal Bacterial Dynamics in Pig-Farming Biogas Digestate under Impacts of Light Intensity and Nutrient Using Physicochemical Parameters
by Anh Le Pham, Khanh Duy Luu, Thuy Thi Duong, Thanh Mai Thi Dinh, Son Quoc Nguyen, Toan Khanh Nguyen, Hung Cong Duong, Quynh Phuong Thi Le and Thu Phuong Le
Water 2022, 14(14), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142275 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Determination of the dynamics between microalgae and bacteria in pig farming biogas digestate is vital for a consistent and reliable application towards sustainable wastewater treatment and biofuel production. This study assesses the reliability of using physicochemical parameters as indicators for the rapid evaluation [...] Read more.
Determination of the dynamics between microalgae and bacteria in pig farming biogas digestate is vital for a consistent and reliable application towards sustainable wastewater treatment and biofuel production. This study assesses the reliability of using physicochemical parameters as indicators for the rapid evaluation of microalgal bacterial dynamics in real digestate under impacts of light, nutrient loads, and N:P ratios. The relationship between variation profiles of nutrients, biomass and physicochemical properties in each experiment was analyzed. High light and high nutrient load enhanced biomass growth and nutrient removal rate. Ammonium addition (high N:P ratio) elevated NH3 level which inhibited the growth of microalgae, subsequently reducing the biomass growth and nutrient removal. Low N:P ratio triggered the accumulation of phosphorus and the growth of chlorophyll-a but exerted little influence on treatment. Variation profiles of dissolved oxygen, nutrient and biomass were highly consistent in every experiment allowing us to identify the shift from microalgal to bacterial predomination under unfavorable conditions including low light intensity and high N:P ratio. Strong linear correlation was also found between total nitrogen removal and electrical conductivity (R2 = 0.9754). The results show the great potential of rapid evaluation of microalgal bacterial dynamics for large scale system optimization and modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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4 pages, 217 KiB  
Editorial
Applications of Agro-Hydrological Sensors and Models for Sustainable Irrigation
by Jaume Puig-Bargués and Giovanni Rallo
Water 2022, 14(14), 2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142274 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1715
Abstract
In the last two decades, research on water resource monitoring and management has mainly been aimed at reducing irrigation water volume and energy consumption [...] Full article
11 pages, 5387 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of the Earth Pressure on Horizontally Composite Breakwaters According to Different Shoulder Widths of Rubble Mounds
by Jae-Sung Lee, Dal Soo Lee and Sang-Ho Oh
Water 2022, 14(14), 2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142273 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
A series of physical experiments were carried out to investigate the characteristics of the horizontal active earth pressure exerted by rubble stones placed in front of horizontally composite breakwaters. Typically, the shoulder width of rubble mounds is shorter than the failure wedge assumed [...] Read more.
A series of physical experiments were carried out to investigate the characteristics of the horizontal active earth pressure exerted by rubble stones placed in front of horizontally composite breakwaters. Typically, the shoulder width of rubble mounds is shorter than the failure wedge assumed by Rankine’s earth pressure theory; therefore, it is not appropriate to apply the theory for the estimation of the horizontal pressure of rubble stones on the caisson. Considering this, physical experiments were conducted to evaluate the horizontal earth pressure with rubble stones having different shoulder widths in front of the caisson. The experimental results showed that the horizontal pressure was considerably lower than that obtained by Rankine’s theory when the shoulder width was shorter than the failure wedge width. Even when the shoulder width was sufficiently large to apply the theory, the earth pressure was approximately 17% lower than the value calculated byRankine’s theory. Based on these analyses, an empirical equation is proposed that can estimate the earth pressure on the caisson for a wide range of shoulder widths of rubble mounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
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23 pages, 3881 KiB  
Article
Monitoring and Analysis of Water Level–Water Storage Capacity Changes in Ngoring Lake Based on Multisource Remote Sensing Data
by Weidong Zhu, Shubing Zhao, Zhenge Qiu, Naiying He, Yaqin Li, Ziya Zou and Fei Yang
Water 2022, 14(14), 2272; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142272 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2038
Abstract
Mastering the fluctuation of water levels and the water storage capacity of plateau lakes is greatly important for monitoring the water balance of the Tibetan Plateau and predicting regional and global climate change. The water level of plateau lakes is difficult to measure, [...] Read more.
Mastering the fluctuation of water levels and the water storage capacity of plateau lakes is greatly important for monitoring the water balance of the Tibetan Plateau and predicting regional and global climate change. The water level of plateau lakes is difficult to measure, and the ground measured data of long-time series are difficult to obtain. Ngoring Lake is considered in this study, using spaceborne single-photon lidar ICESat-2/ATL13 inland lake standard data products, the water level values provided by Hydroweb laboratory, and the image data of an optical remote sensing satellite. A new method is proposed in the absence of measured data. The method uses multisource remote sensing data to estimate the long-term changes in the water levels, surface area, and water storage capacity of Ngoring Lake in the past three decades. The results show that the water level values of ICESat-2 and Hydroweb on overlapping observation days are highly correlated, with R2 = 0.9776, MAE = 0.420 m, RMSE = 0.077 m, and the average absolute height difference is 0.049 m. The fusion of multiple altimetry data can obtain more continuous long-time series water-level observation results. From 1992 to 2021, the water body information of Ngoring Lake basin fluctuated greatly and showed different variation characteristics in different time periods. The lowest water level in January 1997 was approximately 4268.49 m, and it rose to its highest in October 2009, approximately 4272.44 m. The change in the water level in the basin was mainly affected by natural factors, such as precipitation, air temperature, and human activities. The analysis shows that ICESat-2 can be combined with other remote sensing data to realize the long-time series dynamic monitoring of plateau lakes, showing great advantages in the comprehensive observation of plateau lakes in no man’s land. Full article
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25 pages, 4073 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Variation and Driving Factors of Water Supply Services in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of China Based on Supply-Demand Balance
by Jia He, Yiqiu Zhao and Chuanhao Wen
Water 2022, 14(14), 2271; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142271 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
Water supply services (WSSs) are critical to human survival and development. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model enables an integrated, dynamic, and visual assessment of ecosystem services at different scales. In addition, Geodetector is an effective tool for identifying [...] Read more.
Water supply services (WSSs) are critical to human survival and development. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model enables an integrated, dynamic, and visual assessment of ecosystem services at different scales. In addition, Geodetector is an effective tool for identifying the main driving factors of spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem services. Therefore, this article takes the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), the most prominent strategic reserve of freshwater resources in China, as the study area and uses the InVEST model to simulate the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the supply-demand balance of WSSs and freshwater security patterns in 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2018, and explores the key driving factors of freshwater security index (FSI) with Geodetector. The total supply of WSSs in the TGRA decreased by 1.05% overall between 2005 and 2018, with the head and tail areas being low-value regions for water yield and the central part of the belly areas being high-value regions for water yield. The total demand for WSSs in the TGRA increased by 9.1%, with the tail zones and the central part of the belly zones being the high water consumption areas. In contrast, the head zones are of low water consumption. The multi-year average FSI of the TGRA is 0.12, 0.1, 0.21, and 0.16, showing an upward trend. The key ecological function areas in the TGRA are high-value FSI regions, while the tail zones in the key development areas are low-value FSI regions. Industrial water consumption significantly impacts FSI, with a multi-year average q value of 0.82. Meanwhile, the q value of industrial and domestic water consumption on FSI in 2018 increased by 43.54% and 30%, respectively, compared with 2005. This study analyzes the spatiotemporal variation of WSSs and detects the drivers in the natural-economic-social perspective and innovation in ecosystem services research. The study results can guide water resource security management in other large reservoirs or specific reservoir areas. Full article
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16 pages, 1494 KiB  
Article
Measuring Technical Efficiency for Closuring Yield Gap and Improving Water Productivity of the Irrigated Durum Wheat in Tunisia
by Fraj Chemak, Houda Mazhoud, Zouhair Rached, Anissa Gara, Rahma Rahmeni and Habib Ghannem
Water 2022, 14(14), 2270; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142270 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1789
Abstract
In Tunisia, the development of the irrigated cereal sector plays a key role in the mitigation of the fluctuation of the rainfed production and to ensure a minimum of production. However, the archived yields remain under the expected potential performance, and the water [...] Read more.
In Tunisia, the development of the irrigated cereal sector plays a key role in the mitigation of the fluctuation of the rainfed production and to ensure a minimum of production. However, the archived yields remain under the expected potential performance, and the water productivity is very low. Hence, this work aims to investigate the performance of the irrigated durum wheat activity and to identify eventual determinants to improve the water productivity. To reach the objective, a field survey was carried out with a sample of 555 farmers. We adopted a data envelopment analysis approach to assess the technical efficiency and water use efficiency. A Tobit model was estimated to identify determinants of the technical performance. The results showed that the technical efficiency reached only 63%, which meant that farmers could increase the durum wheat yield from 3.5 tha−1 to 4.8 tha−1. The water use efficiency reached only 30%, which translates to an unwise use of the water resource. The results also showed an eventual improvement of the water productivity by more importantly saving the irrigation water rather than optimizing the production. To improve the performances, the results revealed some key determinants that could be taken into account by policy makers to implement appropriate strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Saving in Agriculture)
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14 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Mechanism and Pricing of Drainage Rights Trading Based on the Bilateral Call Auction Model and Wealth Utility Function
by Juqin Shen, Tingting Zhu and Fuhua Sun
Water 2022, 14(14), 2269; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142269 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
In the context of the high incidence of flooding disputes among neighboring subjects in the basin, exploring the drainage rights trading mechanism and clarifying the pricing method of drainage rights are new ideas to manage flooding disasters. In this study, the trading mechanism [...] Read more.
In the context of the high incidence of flooding disputes among neighboring subjects in the basin, exploring the drainage rights trading mechanism and clarifying the pricing method of drainage rights are new ideas to manage flooding disasters. In this study, the trading mechanism of drainage rights is constructed using a bilateral call auction model, in which the price constraint, the control total quantity constraint, the clearing rule, and the matching rule are explained. In addition, we adopt the wealth utility concept to construct a function, apply the social welfare function to associate the wealth utility functions of both sides of the transaction, and draw on the environmental Gini coefficient concept to construct a pricing model for drainage rights transactions based on fairness and efficiency. Finally, we conduct an arithmetic simulation of the drainage rights trading mechanism and transaction pricing for China’s Jiangsu section of the Huaihe River Basin. The study’s results show that the trading mechanism model can give the optimal trading scheme when multiple subjects are trading drainage rights. This fills the gap in existing studies and can lead to efficient trading of drainage rights. At the same time, the pricing model can give the optimal transaction price that considers efficiency and fairness, providing a more practical pricing theory for drainage rights trading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
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13 pages, 1530 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Reference Evapotranspiration Estimation Methods for the Assessment of Hydrological Impacts of Photovoltaic Power Plants in Mediterranean Climates
by Tagele Mossie Aschale, Guido Sciuto, David J. Peres, Aurora Gullotta and Antonino Cancelliere
Water 2022, 14(14), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142268 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2403
Abstract
Large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plants may affect the hydrological cycle in all its components. Among the various components, evapotranspiration is one of the most important. As a preliminary step for assessing the impacts of PV plants on evapotranspiration, in this study, we performed [...] Read more.
Large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plants may affect the hydrological cycle in all its components. Among the various components, evapotranspiration is one of the most important. As a preliminary step for assessing the impacts of PV plants on evapotranspiration, in this study, we performed an evaluation study of methods for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ETo). FAO and ASCE recommend the Penman–Monteith (PM) method for the estimation of ETo when the data for all involved variables are available. However, this is often not the case, and different empirical methods to estimate ETo, requiring mainly temperature data, need to be used. This study aimed at assessing the performance of different temperature- and radiation-based empirical ETo estimation methods against the standardized PM ETo method in an experimental photovoltaic power plant in Piazza Armerina, Sicily, Italy, where a meteorological station and a set of sensors for soil moisture were installed. The meteorological data were obtained from the Lab from July 2019 to end of January 2022. By taking the ETo estimations from the PM method as a benchmark, the study assessed the performance of various empirical methods. In particular, the following methods were considered: Hargreaves and Samani (HS), Baier and Robertson (BR), Priestley and Taylor (PT), Makkink (MKK), Turc (TUR), Thornthwaite (THN), Blaney and Criddle (BG), Ritchie (RT), and Jensen and Haise (JH) methods, using several performance metrics. The result showed that the PT is the best method, with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.91. The second method in order of performance is HS, which, however, performs significantly worse than PT (NSE = 0.51); nevertheless, this is the best among methods using only temperature data. BG, TUR, and THN underestimate ETo, while MKK, BG, RT, and JH showed overestimation of ETo against the PM ETo estimation method. The PT and HS methods are thus the most reliable in the studied site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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12 pages, 676 KiB  
Article
Species Diversity, Distribution, and Abundance of Freshwater Snails in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
by Onyekachi Esther Nwoko, Chester Kalinda, Tawanda Manyangadze and Moses John Chimbari
Water 2022, 14(14), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142267 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3792
Abstract
Disease distribution is correlated to the distribution of the freshwater snails which in turn is influenced by the physicochemical status of the habitats. This study aimed to evaluate freshwater snail species diversity, abundance, and distribution in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa, between December [...] Read more.
Disease distribution is correlated to the distribution of the freshwater snails which in turn is influenced by the physicochemical status of the habitats. This study aimed to evaluate freshwater snail species diversity, abundance, and distribution in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) province, South Africa, between December 2020 to February 2021. A total of 4576 freshwater snails consisting of 8 species were collected from 127 sites in 11 districts. Tarebia granifera snails were the most abundant (n = 2201), while bivalves (n = 95) were the least abundant. The highest and least Shannon–Weiner Simpson’s diversity indices were recorded in Ugu and iLembe districts, respectively. A negative relationship was observed between rainfall, Bulinus tropicus, Lymnaea natalensis, bivalves, and Physa acuta, while temperature had a positive relationship with B. globosus, B. pfeifferi, and T. granifera. A positive relationship was observed between B. globosus and B. pfeifferi (r = 0.713, p < 0.05). Snail presence constitutes potential health and economic risks to humans and animals in contact with the waterbody. Hence, our study described the current distribution, abundance, and species diversity of freshwater snails in the KZN province with insights into the possibilities of snail-based biological control for schistosomes intermediate host snails. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biodiversity and Functionality of Aquatic Ecosystems)
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15 pages, 10567 KiB  
Article
Driving Effects and Spatial-Temporal Variations in Economic Losses Due to Flood Disasters in China
by Zhixiong Zhang, Qing Li, Changjun Liu, Liuqian Ding, Qiang Ma and Yao Chen
Water 2022, 14(14), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142266 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
The economic loss caused by frequent flood disasters poses a great threat to China’s economic prosperity. This study analyzes the driving factors of flood-related economic losses in China. We used the extended Kaya identity to establish a factor decomposition model and the logarithmic [...] Read more.
The economic loss caused by frequent flood disasters poses a great threat to China’s economic prosperity. This study analyzes the driving factors of flood-related economic losses in China. We used the extended Kaya identity to establish a factor decomposition model and the logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition method to identify five flood-related driving effects for economic loss: demographic effect, economic effect, flash flood disaster control effect, capital efficiency effect, and loss-rainfall effect. Among these factors, the flash flood disaster control effect most obviously reduced flood-related economic losses. Considering the weak foundation of flash flood disaster prevention and control in China, non-engineering measures for flash flood prevention and control have been implemented since 2010, achieving remarkable results. Influenced by these measures, the loss-rainfall effect also showed reduction output characteristics. The demographic, economic, and capital efficiency effects showed incremental effect characteristics. China’s current economic growth leads to an increase in flood control pressure, thus explaining the incremental effect of the economic effect. This study discusses the relationship between flood-related economic loss and flash flood disaster prevention and control in China, adding value for the adjustment and formulation of future flood disaster prevention policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flash Floods: Forecasting, Monitoring and Mitigation Strategies)
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15 pages, 3713 KiB  
Article
Effects of Groin Type and Bed Properties on Flow in Groin Fields: Comparison of Fixed- and Mobile-Bed Experiments
by Jianqiang Xu, Yang Xue, Senjun Huang, Liyuan Zhang and Faxing Zhang
Water 2022, 14(14), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142265 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
Groin type and vegetation in groin fields directly affect flow field, bank protection, and river evolution. Many studies focus on fixed-bed contexts, but there are few studies on the influence of riverbed changes on hydrodynamic characteristics around groins. In this study, three types [...] Read more.
Groin type and vegetation in groin fields directly affect flow field, bank protection, and river evolution. Many studies focus on fixed-bed contexts, but there are few studies on the influence of riverbed changes on hydrodynamic characteristics around groins. In this study, three types of groins are investigated experimentally in fixed and mobile beds in terms of time-averaged flow characteristics, turbulence characteristics, and bed changes. In both fixed- and mobile-bed experiments, vegetation reduced erosion of the groin field and main stream. Compared with the fixed-bed experiment, the velocity in the main stream was decreased in the mobile-bed experiment, and the longitudinal turbulence intensity and lateral momentum exchange were increased. In this study, an improved three-dimensional groin group (upstream wing submerged T-shaped groin group) produced a lower sediment scouring capacity, average scour depth, and entrainment coefficient k than I-shaped and T-shaped groin groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetation-Influenced Water Flow and Sediment Transport)
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19 pages, 5789 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of À Trous-Based Record Extension Techniques for Water Quality Record Extension
by Samah Anwar, Bahaa Khalil, Mohamed Seddik, Abdelhamid Eltahan and Aiman El Saadi
Water 2022, 14(14), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142264 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Hydrological data in general and water quality (WQ) data in particular frequently suffer from missing records and/or short-gauged monitoring/sampling sites. Many statistical regression techniques are employed to substitute missing values or to extend records at short-gauged sites, such as the Kendall-Theil robust line [...] Read more.
Hydrological data in general and water quality (WQ) data in particular frequently suffer from missing records and/or short-gauged monitoring/sampling sites. Many statistical regression techniques are employed to substitute missing values or to extend records at short-gauged sites, such as the Kendall-Theil robust line (KTRL), its modified version (KTRL2), ordinary least squares regression (OLS), four MOVE techniques, and the robust line of organic correlation (RLOC). In this study, in aspiring to achieve better accuracy and precision, the À Trous-Haar wavelet transform (WT) was adopted as a data denoising preprocessing step prior to applying record extension techniques. An empirical study was performed using real WQ data, from the National WQ monitoring network in the Nile Delta in Egypt, to evaluate the performance of these eight record-extension techniques with and without the WT data preprocessing step. Evaluations included the accuracy and precision of the techniques when used for the restoration of WQ missing values and for the extension of the WQ short-gauged variable. The results indicated that for the restoration of missing values, the KTRL and WT-KTRL outperformed other techniques. However, for the extension of short-gauged variables, WT-KTRL2, WT-MOVE3, and WT-MOVE4 techniques showed more accurate and precise results compared with both other techniques and their counterparts without the WT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Modeling and Monitoring)
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14 pages, 3755 KiB  
Article
Impact of Hydrological Conditions on the Isotopic Composition of the Sava River in the Area of the Zagreb Aquifer
by Zoran Kovač, Jadranka Barešić, Jelena Parlov and Andreja Sironić
Water 2022, 14(14), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142263 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
The Zagreb aquifer is the main source of potable water for the inhabitants of the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County. It presents a strategic water reserve protected by the Republic of Croatia. All previous studies related to the definition of the groundwater–surface [...] Read more.
The Zagreb aquifer is the main source of potable water for the inhabitants of the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County. It presents a strategic water reserve protected by the Republic of Croatia. All previous studies related to the definition of the groundwater–surface interaction in the study area have been made based on the isotopic composition of the Sava River from the location of the Domovinski Most bridge, which is located downstream of most pumping well fields. In 2019, a new monitoring station was established at the Podsusedski Most bridge, at the entrance of the Sava River into the Zagreb aquifer, approximately 23 km upstream of the Domovinski Most bridge. Within this research, water isotope data (δ2H, δ18O, deuterium excess) from both Sava River and groundwater sites were used along with hydrologic data to examine the extent to which hydrologic conditions affect the isotope signature and whether the interaction between groundwater and the Sava River causes a change in the isotopic composition of the Sava River. In addition, δ18O amplitudes were estimated for different time periods, as well as the mean residence time for the hydrological year 2019/2020. For that purpose, different statistical methods were applied to the new monthly data for six years for the Domovinski Most bridge and two years for the Podsusedski Most bridge. The δ18O amplitudes vary from 0.22 to 1.86 depending on the time interval and hydrological conditions, while the mean residence time for the hydrological year 2019/2020 was estimated to be about 2.5 months. Full article
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12 pages, 27298 KiB  
Article
Generate_SWMM_inp: An Open-Source QGIS Plugin to Import and Export Model Input Files for SWMM
by Jannik Schilling and Jens Tränckner
Water 2022, 14(14), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142262 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7139
Abstract
SWMM is an open-source model and software developed by the US EPA for the simulation of rainfall-runoff and routing in water bodies, sewer systems and wastewater infrastructures. It has been applied in numerous practical works and research projects. For a new SWMM model, [...] Read more.
SWMM is an open-source model and software developed by the US EPA for the simulation of rainfall-runoff and routing in water bodies, sewer systems and wastewater infrastructures. It has been applied in numerous practical works and research projects. For a new SWMM model, objects such as nodes, links and catchments can either be drawn via SWMM’s graphical user interface (GUI) or specified manually in a plain text file in “.inp” format (“input file”). Since the required data regarding sewer geometries and river systems are usually available as spatial data in a GIS environment, there is a need for user-friendly interfaces for the model setup. SWMM contains neither an import function for geodata nor processing tools as provided in geographic information systems (GIS) such as the open-source software QGIS. Existing approaches were script-based or required commercial all-in-one products. We developed a free and open-source QGIS plugin to generate SWMM models from geodata and to import existing SWMM input files into QGIS. An application example is presented to demonstrate the basic features and usage of the plugin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Methods and Applications of Stormwater Management)
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19 pages, 1994 KiB  
Article
Gender Perspective of Flood Early Warning Systems: People-Centered Approach
by Ashfaq Ahmad Shah, Ayat Ullah, Nasir Abbas Khan, Indrajit Pal, Bader Alhafi Alotaibi and Abou Traore
Water 2022, 14(14), 2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142261 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4049
Abstract
Natural hazards early warning systems (EWS) are built on a solid technical and scientific foundation. However, a significant focus must be on those at risk and a systems approach that considers all the key risk factors. A people-centered flood EWS has proved to [...] Read more.
Natural hazards early warning systems (EWS) are built on a solid technical and scientific foundation. However, a significant focus must be on those at risk and a systems approach that considers all the key risk factors. A people-centered flood EWS has proved to be more successful at conveying risk messages and protecting lives during times of crisis. The present study intends to analyze the gender perspective of flood early warning systems in Pakistan by using four components of a people-centered approach. The data acquired from the different sources in this study (including institutional key informant interviews = 30 and community focus groups = 32) is analyzed using a paradigm of gender analysis. The findings regarding gender analysis revealed that there was a lack of participation from women in the risk assessment process, and the institutions did not pay enough attention to the conventional knowledge and views of women and men. In most cases, women were not given hazard alerts since they only receive information about possible risks from men. Women were still reluctant to participate in the planning process for disaster response and capacity building because of societal norms and impediments. In addition, the study revealed that the EWS did not satisfy most of the requirements specified in a people-centered gender-sensitive EWS owing to the bureaucratic approach, lack of residents’ engagement, communication breakdown between people (at risk), and official risk messages. Full article
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18 pages, 4106 KiB  
Article
Photo-Fenton Degradation of Ciprofloxacin by Novel Graphene Quantum Dots/α-FeOOH Nanocomposites for the Production of Safe Drinking Water from Surface Water
by Md. Nahid Pervez, Shengjia Ma, Siqi Huang, Vincenzo Naddeo and Yaping Zhao
Water 2022, 14(14), 2260; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142260 - 20 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3160
Abstract
In the current work, novel graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-doped goethite (α-FeOOH) nanocomposites (GQDs/α-FeOOH) were prepared by following a feasible hydrolysis method and applied for ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal. Results showed that the CIP degradation efficiency was significant (93.73%, 0.0566 min−1) in the [...] Read more.
In the current work, novel graphene quantum dots (GQDs)-doped goethite (α-FeOOH) nanocomposites (GQDs/α-FeOOH) were prepared by following a feasible hydrolysis method and applied for ciprofloxacin (CIP) removal. Results showed that the CIP degradation efficiency was significant (93.73%, 0.0566 min−1) in the GQDs/α-FeOOH + H2O2 + Vis system using much lower amounts of H2O2 (0.50 mM), which is 3.9 times the α-FeOOH + H2O2 + Vis system. It was found that •OH, O2, and 1O2 were mainly responsible for CIP degradation in the GQDs/α-FeOOH photo-Fenton system. GQDs/α-FeOOH demonstrated broad-spectrum UV–vis-IR responsiveness in the degradation of ciprofloxacin as a function of the doping of GQDs. Additionally, GQDs/α-FeOOH showed outstanding durability (recyclability up to 3 cycles with a lower iron leaking amount, 0.020 mg L−1), a broad range of application pH, and a pretty acceptable catalytic efficacy in a variety of surface water matrices. Overall, GQDs/α-FeOOH have been shown to be an effective photocatalyst for the remediation of emerging contaminants via the workable exploitation of solar energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
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14 pages, 3741 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Surface Water–Groundwater Interactions Based on Isotopic Data from the Kaidu River Basin, South Tianshan Mountain
by Yuting Fan, Ye Wu, Yun Wang, Shengxia Jiang, Shulong Yu and Huaming Shang
Water 2022, 14(14), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142259 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
The unique climate conditions and water source composition in the Tianshan Mountain provide a good experimental site for verifying the relationships between water resources and climate change on a larger scale. With the help of water isotopes (D, 18O), a more reliable [...] Read more.
The unique climate conditions and water source composition in the Tianshan Mountain provide a good experimental site for verifying the relationships between water resources and climate change on a larger scale. With the help of water isotopes (D, 18O), a more reliable conceptual model of groundwater systems can be constructed on both local and regional scales, especially in areas that are susceptible to climate change and under pressure from intensive human activities. In this paper, we present δ18O, δD, d-excess, RWLs and altitude effects of river water and groundwater based on the data derived from our network of stable isotope sampling sites along the Kaidu River. Stable isotope mass balance was applied to study the interactions between groundwater and surface water and to quantify the recharge proportions between bodies of water in typical regions. The results showed that the Kaidu River is composed of precipitation, ice and snow melt, baseflow and groundwater. The percentage of groundwater increased with the distance between upstream (the runoff producing area) and the leading edge of the glacier. The two recharge areas are the spring overflow from the mountain area to the alluvial layer of the inclined plain and the leading edge of the alluvial plains to areas with fine soil. The groundwater recharge ratio is about 23% in high mountain areas but 46% or more in the middle and lower reaches. These results generated a more comprehensive understanding of the hydrological cycle of inland rivers in arid regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Isotope Tracers in Watershed Hydrology)
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19 pages, 7216 KiB  
Article
GALDIT Modification for Seasonal Seawater Intrusion Mapping Using Multi Criteria Decision Making Methods
by Jeong-Seok Yang, Yong-Wook Jeong, Amos Agossou, Jin-Sik Sohn and Jae-Boem Lee
Water 2022, 14(14), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142258 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2825
Abstract
Recently, coastal aquifers have been found to be increasingly exposed to seawater intrusion (SWI) due to climate change and anthropogenic activities. Various method exists for coastal aquifer vulnerability mapping and the one most commonly used is GALDIT because of its simplicity. The present [...] Read more.
Recently, coastal aquifers have been found to be increasingly exposed to seawater intrusion (SWI) due to climate change and anthropogenic activities. Various method exists for coastal aquifer vulnerability mapping and the one most commonly used is GALDIT because of its simplicity. The present study modified the original GALDIT ratings and weights using Shannon’s entropy theory to study the seasonal vulnerability of coastal aquifer in the coastal region of Benin, West Africa. Thus, the monthly GALDIT index for the study region was computed using 5 years of (2015–2019) average data of GALDIT dynamic input parameters. The original and modified GALDIT approaches were validated using total dissolved solid (TDS) concentration. Pearson’s correlation and Spearman coefficient correlations were calculated, and generally the modification of the GALDIT parameters’ relative weight using entropy has improved the method as this gave a better correlation with TDS concentration (0.739). From the calculated monthly GALDIT index, the most vulnerable period was identified using TOPSIS method. Based on TOPSIS results, the coastal aquifer of Benin is more vulnerable to seawater intrusion in February due to the decrease of groundwater level in that period and less vulnerable in July. The performed sensitivity analysis showed that height of groundwater level above the mean sea level, distance from shore, and thickness of the saturated aquifer have the most influence in vulnerability to SWI assessment in the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
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14 pages, 1644 KiB  
Article
Influence of Solar Photovoltaic System on the Concentration and Environmental Risks of Heavy Metals in Subsidence Pond Water from Coal Mining Area: A Case Study from Huainan Subsidence Pond
by Xingming Wang, Yingying Zhao, Zhaoxia Chu, Xiaokun Yu, Tingyu Fan, Gang Li, Jiamei Zhang, Xiaoping Xu, Quan Zhen, Xiaojing Cheng and Zhongbing Dong
Water 2022, 14(14), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142257 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
The subsidence pond is an important water resource for coal mining areas in China. In order to take full advantage of the subsidence pond, a floating photovoltaic cover or a pillaring photovoltaic cover were installed on the surface water of the subsidence pond [...] Read more.
The subsidence pond is an important water resource for coal mining areas in China. In order to take full advantage of the subsidence pond, a floating photovoltaic cover or a pillaring photovoltaic cover were installed on the surface water of the subsidence pond in the Huainan coal field. Different photovoltaic systems (floating/pilling cover) equipped in the subsidence pond may affect the water quality; thus, assessing the metals in the subsidence pond with the solar photovoltaic system is of great importance for environment control. In this research, surface water samples were collected from three different subsidence ponds, with or without the solar photovoltaic system. The concentrations of Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Mn, and Zn in the water of the subsidence pond were determined using ICP-MS and AFS. Then, the health risk posed by the heavy metal in different subsidence pond waters via the ingestion pathway was evaluated and analyzed using the assessment model recommended by USEPA. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Mn, and Zn in the water of different subsidence ponds were less than the environmental quality standards for surface water (China, Grade II). Cr showed a higher non-carcinogenic risk than the other metals, and the photovoltaic cover actually decreased the total non-carcinogenic risk in the photovoltaic subsidence pond compared with the natural subsidence pond. Non-carcinogenic risks of single and total heavy metals in the subsidence ponds with or without solar photovoltaic systems were below 1; thus, these risks in different subsidence ponds were considered to be at an acceptable level. However, the potential single carcinogenic risks of Cr, Ni, and As; and the multielement carcinogenic risks of Pb, Cr, Ni, and As exceeded the limits of 1 × 10−6 and 1 × 10−4, respectively, suggesting that these metals showed single and total potential health risks in the subsidence pond, with or without the solar photovoltaic system. Further, the subsidence pond with the photovoltaic cover showed higher total carcinogenic risks in comparison with the natural subsidence pond. Therefore, a subsidence pond with a solar photovoltaic system should be monitored periodically to ensure the water safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Risk Assessment of Emerging Pollutants in Drinking Water)
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11 pages, 4543 KiB  
Communication
Land Cover Change Effects on Stormflow Characteristics across Broad Hydroclimate Representative Urban Watersheds in the United States
by Kul Khand and Gabriel B. Senay
Water 2022, 14(14), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142256 - 19 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Urban development alters stormflow characteristics and is associated with increasing flood risks. The long-term evaluation of stormflow characteristics that exacerbate floods, such as peak stormflow and time-to-peak stormflow at varying levels of urbanization across different hydroclimates, is limited. This study investigated the long-term [...] Read more.
Urban development alters stormflow characteristics and is associated with increasing flood risks. The long-term evaluation of stormflow characteristics that exacerbate floods, such as peak stormflow and time-to-peak stormflow at varying levels of urbanization across different hydroclimates, is limited. This study investigated the long-term (1980s to 2010s) effects of increasing urbanization on key stormflow characteristics using observed 15 min streamflow data across six broad hydroclimate representative urban watersheds in the conterminous United States. The results indicate upward trends in peak stormflow and downward trends in time-to-peak stormflow at four out of six watersheds. The watershed in the Great Plains region had the largest annual increasing (decreasing) percent change in peak stormflow (time-to-peak stormflow). With the current change rates, peak stormflow in the Great Plains region watershed is expected to increase by 55.4% and have a 2.71 h faster time-to-peak stormflow in the next decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecohydrological Response to Environmental Change)
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12 pages, 1590 KiB  
Article
Insight into the Impacts and Removal Pathways of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Anaerobic Digestion
by Hongyu Xie, Yuqi Chen, Yuzheng Wang, Zhe Kong, Wenzhi Cao and Yanlong Zhang
Water 2022, 14(14), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142255 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2556
Abstract
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) that accumulates in wastewater and excess sludge interact with the anaerobes and deteriorate the energy recovery and pollutants removal performance in the anaerobic digestion (AD) system. However, the interaction between PFOA and microbial metabolism in the AD systems remains unclear. [...] Read more.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) that accumulates in wastewater and excess sludge interact with the anaerobes and deteriorate the energy recovery and pollutants removal performance in the anaerobic digestion (AD) system. However, the interaction between PFOA and microbial metabolism in the AD systems remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects and mechanism of PFOA on the AD process as well as the removal pathways of PFOA in an AD system. The results showed that the methane recovery efficiency was inhibited by 7.6–19.7% with the increased PFOA concentration of 0.5–3.0 mg/L, and the specific methanogenesis activity (SMA) was inhibited by 8.6–22.3%. The electron transfer system (ETS) was inhibited by 22.1–37.3% in the PFOA-containing groups. However, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) gradually increased due to the toxicity of PFOA, and the ratio of protein to polysaccharide shows an upward trend, which led to the formation of sludge aggregates and resistance to the toxic of PFOA. The PFOA mass balance analysis indicated that 64.2–71.6% of PFOA was removed in the AD system, and sludge adsorption was the main removal pathway, accounting for 36.1–61.2% of the removed PFOA. In addition, the anaerobes are proposed to have the potential to reduce PFOA through biochemical degradation since 10.4–28.2% of PFOA was missing in the AD system. This study provides a significant reference for the treatment of high-strength PFOA-containing wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of PFAS from Water)
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16 pages, 5916 KiB  
Article
Deep Q-Value Neural Network (DQN) Reinforcement Learning for the Techno-Economic Optimization of a Solar-Driven Nanofluid-Assisted Desalination Technology
by Sina Jafari, Siamak Hoseinzadeh and Ali Sohani
Water 2022, 14(14), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142254 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
A solar-driven desalination system, featuring a single-slope solar still is studied here. For this design, Al2O3 nanofluid is utilized, and the condition achieving the highest efficiency and cost-effectiveness is found using a reinforcement learning called a deep Q-value neural network [...] Read more.
A solar-driven desalination system, featuring a single-slope solar still is studied here. For this design, Al2O3 nanofluid is utilized, and the condition achieving the highest efficiency and cost-effectiveness is found using a reinforcement learning called a deep Q-value neural network (DQN). The results of optimization are implemented for the built experimental setup. Experimental data obtained under the climatic conditions of Tehran, Iran, are employed to compare the enhancement potential of the optimized solar still system with nanofluid (OSTSWNF) with the solar still system with water (STSWWA). The hourly fluid temperatures in the basin as well as the hourly and cumulative freshwater production (HFWP and CFWP) are discussed. A number of other parameters, including daily water production and efficiency in addition to the cost per liter (CPL) of the resulting desalinated water, are also taken into account. The results reveal that annual water production increases from 1326.8 L to 1652.4 L, representing ~25% growth. Moreover, the annual average efficiency improves by ~32%, rising from 41.6% to 54.7%. A great economic enhancement is seen as well, with the CPL decreasing by ~8%, i.e., from USD 0.0258/L to USD 0.0237/L. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems Flexibility for Water Desalination)
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19 pages, 5905 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Method for Enhancing Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) Process Wastewater Treatment Plant
by Chong Liu, Kai Qian and Yuguang Li
Water 2022, 14(14), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142253 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Ensuring the stable operation of urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and achieving energy conservation and emission reduction have become serious problems with the improvement of national requirements for WWTP effluent. Based on a wastewater quality analysis, identification of the contaminant removal, and a [...] Read more.
Ensuring the stable operation of urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and achieving energy conservation and emission reduction have become serious problems with the improvement of national requirements for WWTP effluent. Based on a wastewater quality analysis, identification of the contaminant removal, and a simulation and optimization of the wastewater treatment process, a practical engineering diagnosis method for the cyclic activated sludge technology process of WWTPs in China and an optimal control scheme are proposed in this study. Results showed that exceeding the standard of effluent nitrogen and phosphorus due to unreasonable process cycle setting and insufficient influent carbon source is dangerous. The total nitrogen removal rate increased by 9.5% and steadily increased to 67% when agitation was added to the first 40 min of the cycle. Additionally, the total phosphorus (TP) was reduced to 0.27 mg/L after replacing the phosphorus removal agent polyferric sulfate with polyaluminum iron. The corresponding increase in the TP removal rate to 97% resulted in a reduction in the treatment cost by 0.008 CNY/t. Full article
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13 pages, 7174 KiB  
Article
Research on Influence of Rotation Center Eccentricity on Radial Force of Single-Blade Centrifugal Pump
by Chuanlong Wang, Linwei Tan, Weidong Shi, Cheng Chen and Egbo Munachi Francis
Water 2022, 14(14), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142252 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
To estimate the influence of the rotation center eccentricity of the single-blade centrifugal pump impeller on the radial force on it, and to explore the effective radial force balance method, a single blade pump with a power of 2.2 kW is analyzed. The [...] Read more.
To estimate the influence of the rotation center eccentricity of the single-blade centrifugal pump impeller on the radial force on it, and to explore the effective radial force balance method, a single blade pump with a power of 2.2 kW is analyzed. The accuracy of Numerical Simulation Methods are verified by tests of external characteristics (under three rotation-speeds of 1470 r/min, 2000 r/min, and 2940 r/min) and pressure distributions. There are five models with different rotation center coordinates (model a with (0,1), model b with (−1,0), model c with (0,−1), model d with (1,0), and model e with (0,0.5)) which are analyzed. The results show that the radial force of model c and model d reduced by 8.1% and 9.8%, respectively, which means the offset of the center of the impeller to the positive direction of the x-axis and the negative direction of the y-axis can effectively reduce the radial force. At the eccentricity of the impeller (2,−2), the radial force under all operating conditions is reduced, most obviously at 1.0 Qd, which is about 17%. The study may prove helpful to designers and pump manufacturers to find a path forward for an optimal eccentricity to minimize the radial force. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CFD in Fluid Machinery Design and Optimization)
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21 pages, 5080 KiB  
Article
The Adsorptive Removal of Bengal Rose by Artichoke Leaves: Optimization by Full Factorials Design
by Amel Khalfaoui, Mohamed Nadir Khelifi, Anouar Khelfaoui, Abderrezzaq Benalia, Kerroum Derbal, Corrado Gisonni, Gaetano Crispino and Antonio Panico
Water 2022, 14(14), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142251 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2266
Abstract
Currently, the dye industry is increasing its production as a consequence of the growing need for their products in different manufacturing sectors, such as textiles, plastics, food, paper, etc... Thereafter, these industries generate very large volumes of effluents contaminated by these dyes, which [...] Read more.
Currently, the dye industry is increasing its production as a consequence of the growing need for their products in different manufacturing sectors, such as textiles, plastics, food, paper, etc... Thereafter, these industries generate very large volumes of effluents contaminated by these dyes, which require proper removal treatment before final discharge of the effluents into the environment. In this study, artichoke leaves were used as an economical and eco-friendly bio-adsorbent for Bengal Rose (BR) dye removal. Bio-adsorbent obtained from artichoke leaves was ground to powder size. The resulting powder was characterized by different methods, such as Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR), pH at point of zero charge (pHpzc), equilibrium pH, iodine number, methylene blue number, phenol number, density, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Thereafter, the bio-adsorbent was used to study its capability for removing BR dye by testing contact time, initial concentration of dye and temperature. The results show that the saturation of bio-sorbent was reached after 40 min and the removal rate of BR dye by artichoke leaves powder (ALP) was 4.07 mg/g, which corresponds to a removal efficiency of 80.1%. A design of experiences (DOE) based on a two-level full factorial design (23) was used to study the effects of different parameters, such as pH, temperature and bio-adsorbent dosage on BR dye removal efficiency. The obtained results show that the highest removal efficiency was 86.5% for the optimized values of pH (4), temperature (80 °C) and bio-adsorbent dosage (8 g/L). Furthermore, a satisfying accordance between experimental and predicted data was observed. The kinetic and isotherm studies show that the pseudo-second order model simulated adequately the obtained data and it was found that Langmuir and Temkin isotherm models are liable and suitable for evaluating the adsorption process performance. Free energy change of adsorption (ΔG°), enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°) were furthermore calculated to predict the nature of the adsorption process. Full article
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