Low-Carbon, Zero-Carbon and Negative-Carbon Wastewater Treatment Technology and Operation Strategies

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water-Energy Nexus".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 9577

Special Issue Editors

School of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: aerobic granular sludge; wastewater treatment; emering contaminants; sludge treatment and disposal; WWTP operation; resource recovery; carbon neutral

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Guest Editor
School of Water Conservancy & Civil Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China
Interests: restoration and protection of agricultural water and soil pollution
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
101 Research Institute of Ministry of Civil Affairs, Institute of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing, China
Interests: wastewater treatment; on-line monitoring systems; water disinfection; nitrogen and phosphorus removal
Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Interests: net zero carbon emissions; carbon market; urban energy–water nexus; energy System modelling and optimization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The problem of water pollution is becoming more serious, and the discharge of domestic sewage, industrial wastewater and farmland wastewater leads to environmental deterioration and even climate change. Therefore, low-carbon, zero-carbon or even negative-carbon wastewater treatment technology and operation strategies have been proposed all over the world in order to ensure an early carbon peak and achieve carbon neutrality. This Special Issue aims to collect environmental governance technologies that conform to the carbon neutrality concept; establish scientific and reasonable engineering operation strategies; and obtain modular, automated and intelligent engineering equipment through technological research and development, innovation and integration. The papers included in the Special Issue will lay the foundation for the improvement of the water ecosystem, the optimal allocation of energy, the recycling and utilization of resources and even the comprehensive management of environmental pollution.

Dr. Shuo Wang
Prof. Dr. Nan Sun
Dr. Chong Liu
Dr. Weiqi Hua
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • municipal wastewater treatment
  • industrial wastewater treatment
  • valuable chemicals recovery
  • emerging contaminants
  • sludge and cyanobacteria treatment
  • agricultural wastewater treatment
  • urban energy–water nexus
  • carbon neutrality net zero emissions target case study

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1115 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Evolutionary Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Land and Water Resource Systems in Major Grain-Producing Areas
by Kun Cheng, Qiang Fu, Nan Sun, Zixin Wang and Yuxin Zhao
Water 2023, 15(14), 2553; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15142553 - 12 Jul 2023
Viewed by 810
Abstract
In the process of rapid advancement of agricultural production, the dynamic evolution characteristics of land and water resources in the main grain-producing areas and the influencing factors are less studied. This study takes Heilongjiang Province, the main grain-producing area in China, as an [...] Read more.
In the process of rapid advancement of agricultural production, the dynamic evolution characteristics of land and water resources in the main grain-producing areas and the influencing factors are less studied. This study takes Heilongjiang Province, the main grain-producing area in China, as an example, constructs an index system from three functions: production, life, and ecology, uses information entropy to determine the weights and importance of each index, uses the rate of change of the index to determine the basic data of the dynamic development of the system, combines the weights to determine the dynamic evolution characteristics, and compares and analyzes them with the static evolution characteristics determined by the actual data. The results showed that there were differences in the important indicators under different conditions, and the important indicators under static and dynamic conditions were the proportion of the tertiary industry to GDP(A7) and GDP per unit area(A8), with importance weights of 7.45% and 8.0%, respectively. The static evolution index of the land and water resource system increased slowly from 0.16 to 0.91, while the dynamic evolution index fluctuated and declined from 0.58 to 0.34, indicating that the ability of the land and water resource system in the study area to maximize comprehensive benefits is constantly weakening. Managers can pre-control the development speed of the important indicators under dynamic conditions and promote the sustainable development of the land and water resource system. Full article
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20 pages, 3007 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Analysis of the Water Environment Carrying Capacity of Harbin City Based on an Optimized Set Pair Analysis Posture-Deviation Coefficient Method Evaluation Model
by Nan Sun, Zhongbao Yao, Yunpeng Xie, Tianyi Wang, Jinzhao Yang, Xinyu Li and Qiang Fu
Water 2023, 15(8), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081575 - 18 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
To scientifically measure the water environment carrying capacity of Harbin City and its change trend, based on analysis of the implications of the sustainability of the urban water environment’s carrying capacity, an evaluation index system for the sustainability of the water environment carrying [...] Read more.
To scientifically measure the water environment carrying capacity of Harbin City and its change trend, based on analysis of the implications of the sustainability of the urban water environment’s carrying capacity, an evaluation index system for the sustainability of the water environment carrying capacity of Harbin City was constructed. Most existing evaluation methods rely on static data to construct correlation functions between research objects and rank criteria, while the dynamic nature of the information is not considered enough. In this paper, we use hierarchical analysis (analytic hierarchy process, AHP) to determine the weights of each index of the system and then apply the projection tracing method (projection pursuit, PP) to optimize the determined weights. Combining the set pair analysis posture evaluation method and bias coefficients method to explore the dynamic balance mechanism between different index factor levels, a sustainability evaluation model for water environment carrying capacity integrating informational evolution is constructed. Finally, the applicability of the optimization model is tested by comparing the confidence criterion judging method. The model realizes quantitative evaluation of the carrying capacity of the urban water environment. It provides a new and effective means for accurate and reasonable determination of the coefficient of variance and the number of links and dynamic analysis of the water environment carrying capacity system and judgment of its sustainable development trend. The results show that the weight for water resource quality is 0.55, which is the subsystem with the greatest overall impact on the carrying capacity of the water environment in Harbin. The evaluation level of the set-to-potential eigenvalue for 2010–2017 is biased positive 2, and the rest of the years are quasi 2. The reduced value of the coefficient of oppositeness corresponding to the years 2010–2017 is more significant. The maximum value of the dynamic evolution of the load-carrying capacity level is nearly −0.35. From the vertical comparison of different levels, it is found that the water environment carrying capacity of Harbin City gradually recovered to the normal loadable level over time. This overall shows an improving trend. Full article
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16 pages, 4716 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Operation of a Pilot-Scale Sulfur-Based Autotrophic Denitrification System for Deep Nitrogen Removal
by Yan Wang, Weiyi Xu, Xue Yang, Zhengming Ren, Kaiwen Huang, Feiyue Qian and Ji Li
Water 2023, 15(3), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15030428 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification is a novel biological denitrification process characterized by the absence of an organic carbon source, a short reaction time, a high denitrification rate, a low treatment cost, and a small footprint. However, the technique is facing challenges with respect to [...] Read more.
Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification is a novel biological denitrification process characterized by the absence of an organic carbon source, a short reaction time, a high denitrification rate, a low treatment cost, and a small footprint. However, the technique is facing challenges with respect to engineering applications. In this study, a pilot-scale sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification system was established with an optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.21 h, which achieved the highest denitrification load of 1158 mg/(L·d) and a denitrification rate of 164 gNO3-N/(m3·h). Effective backwashing is the basis for the long-term stable and efficient nitrogen removal performance, which recovered its normal nitrogen removal performance within 0.5 h. In addition, the operation cost is merely 0.013 $/t, indicating that the sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process presents good economic applicability, and the relatively low operation cost will lay a foundation for practical application. Full article
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19 pages, 1471 KiB  
Article
Occurrence Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Organophosphorus Compounds in a Wastewater Treatment Plant and Upstream Enterprises
by Aimin Li, Guochen Zheng, Ning Chen, Weiyi Xu, Yuzhi Li, Fei Shen, Shuo Wang, Guangli Cao and Ji Li
Water 2022, 14(23), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14233942 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
Organophosphorus compounds have toxic effects on organisms and the ecosystem. Therefore, it is vital to monitor and control the effluent organophosphorus levels of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study analyzed the composition and concentration of organophosphorus compounds from the upstream enterprises of a [...] Read more.
Organophosphorus compounds have toxic effects on organisms and the ecosystem. Therefore, it is vital to monitor and control the effluent organophosphorus levels of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This study analyzed the composition and concentration of organophosphorus compounds from the upstream enterprises of a WWTP and conducted ecological risk and toxicity assessments using ECOSAR (ecological structure activity relationship model), T.E.S.T (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool), and risk quotient (RQ) methods. A total of 14 organic phosphorus pollutants were detected in the effluent of the upstream enterprises and WWTP. The concentration of influent total organic phosphorus from the WWTP was 39.5 mg/L, and the effluent total organic phosphorus was merely 0.301 mg/L, indicating that good phosphorus removal was achieved in the WWTP. According to the acute and chronic toxicity analysis, the ECOSAR ecotoxicity assessment showed that 11 kinds of organophosphorus compounds were hazardous to fish, daphnia, and algae in different degrees. Among them, triphenyl phosphine (TPP) had a 96 hr LC50 of 1.00 mg/L for fish and is a substance with high acute toxicity. T.E.S.T evaluates the acute toxicity of each organophosphorus component and the bioconcentration factor (BCF). The evaluation results showed that the LC50 of TPP and octicizer were 0.39 and 0.098 mg/L, respectively, and the concentrations of these two organophosphorus compounds from the effluent of an environmental protection enterprise were as high as 30.4 mg/L and 0.735 mg/L, which exceeded the acute toxicity values and has led to serious hazards to aquatic organisms. The BCF values of each organophosphorus component in the upstream enterprises and the effluent of the WWTP were less than 2000, implying that there was no bioaccumulation effect on aquatic organisms. The developmental toxicity assessment demonstrated that there were nine types of organophosphorus compounds belonging to developmental toxicants, that the presence of developmental toxicants was found in the effluent of each upstream enterprise, and that triethyl phosphate (TEP) was the most common organophosphorus compound. Comparing the RQ of the effluent from various enterprises, it was found that the effluent from the environmental protection enterprise presented the highest degree of environmental hazard, mainly due to the higher toxicity of TEP and octicizer. Full article
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19 pages, 5905 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Method for Enhancing Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) Process Wastewater Treatment Plant
by Chong Liu, Kai Qian and Yuguang Li
Water 2022, 14(14), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14142253 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Ensuring the stable operation of urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and achieving energy conservation and emission reduction have become serious problems with the improvement of national requirements for WWTP effluent. Based on a wastewater quality analysis, identification of the contaminant removal, and a [...] Read more.
Ensuring the stable operation of urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and achieving energy conservation and emission reduction have become serious problems with the improvement of national requirements for WWTP effluent. Based on a wastewater quality analysis, identification of the contaminant removal, and a simulation and optimization of the wastewater treatment process, a practical engineering diagnosis method for the cyclic activated sludge technology process of WWTPs in China and an optimal control scheme are proposed in this study. Results showed that exceeding the standard of effluent nitrogen and phosphorus due to unreasonable process cycle setting and insufficient influent carbon source is dangerous. The total nitrogen removal rate increased by 9.5% and steadily increased to 67% when agitation was added to the first 40 min of the cycle. Additionally, the total phosphorus (TP) was reduced to 0.27 mg/L after replacing the phosphorus removal agent polyferric sulfate with polyaluminum iron. The corresponding increase in the TP removal rate to 97% resulted in a reduction in the treatment cost by 0.008 CNY/t. Full article
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